Aradhana Chopra1, Ravi Shukla2 and Tarun Kumar Sharma2,3*

...s that are considered as chemical rival of antibodies. They are generated through an in vitro evolution process called SELEX. These single stranded nucleic acid aptamers can acquire various secondary and tertiary structures to bind their cognate targets with high affinity and specificity. The ease in synthesis and modification makes them an attractive candidate for a variety of applications. Since the last decade, aptamers have been regarded as an emerging pla...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...ganic manure and complex chemical fertilizer (NPK) with or without effective microorganism (EM) on the agronomic performance of spinach crop, at Gomal University D.I. Khan during 2009- 11. A commercial product called Bio-Aab was used as a source of EM. Organic manure was first mixed with Bio-Aab, left for 7 to 15 days at room temperature (20oC) and then applied to appropri- ate pots. The treatments of farm yard manure (FYM) @ 10 t ha-1, press mud @ 20 t ha-1, ...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...nder wheat crop, labour, chemical fertilizer and tractor plough would raise the wheat yield by 0.052, 0.566, 0.130 and 0.438 percent, respectively and were found statistically significant. Farmers’ education was found to be major determinant of technical efficiency/inefficiency. The esti- mated coefficient of farmers’ education was negative and statistically significant, implies that techni- cal inefficiency decreases with the increase in farmers&r...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...ronomic observations and chemical analysis of the soil and plant samples were recorded. The application of organic sources of farmyard manure and poultry manure in combination with inorganic NPK fertilizers had shown positive effect on chickpea plant height, number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1 and seed index. The growth and yield of chickpea significantly increased with the collective application of chemical ...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...ter were analyzed physicochemically. Result showed that data is significantly different from each other at alpha (α) level ≤ 0.05. Physicochemical analysis showed that decrease was observed in ascorbic acid (15.18 to 7.21), pH (4.56 to 3.9) and TSS (5 to 2.5). Standard deviation showed the least variation in data. Results show that on nutritional basis RW1 was found best followed by RW2.

...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...to contain several allelochemicals. Utilization of these allelochemicals is considered low-cost and natural sources for weed suppression. Field trials were undertaken at Cotton Section, Agriculture Research Institute, Tandojam Pakistan during summer 2010 and repeated during summer 2011 for validating the previous results. The experiments were laid out in three replicated randomized complete block design. ...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...h improving soil physico-chemical properties and fertility. Two years field experiments were conducted at the Agriculture Research Institute Tarnab, Peshawar- Pakistan (semiarid conditions) to investigate the effect of two green manuring crop species (guar and millet), their incorporation age (40, 70 and 100 days after sowing, DAS) and parts (whole plants incorporation and stubbles incorporation) under varying nitrogen levels (0, 75 and 100 kg ha-1) on physiol...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...The study revealed that; chemical fertilizers, manual weeding and shifting cultivation are essential for rice cultivation in the study area; the regression model established strong influence of farm-size at R-value of 0.64 on the yield of rice in this area; while estimated yields of 101.6tons and 57.9tons from irrigated and non-irrigated field respectively established higher yield from irrigation practice. The study concludes that irrigation system is a cataly...

Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

... and evaluated for physiochemical and sensory parameters (water activity, ash content, percent acidity, pH, moisture content, reducing and non-reducing sugars, taste, texture, color and overall acceptability). Statistically minimum decrease was observed in water activity, pH, moisture content and organoleptic characters. While, stable increase was noted in percent acidity and ash content during storage. It was concluded and recommended on the basis of mentione...

Qaizar Ahmed1, Fida Mohammad2, Hidayat-ur-Rahman2, Sheraz Ahmed2* and Fakharuddin2

...various agronomic and biochemical traits in Flue Cured Virginia tobacco. Seven tobacco varieties/lines, ‘NC606’, ‘K399’, ‘Spt G 126’, ‘Spt G 28’, ‘KHG21’, ‘KHG22’ and ‘KHG24’ with contrasting traits were crossed in all possible combinations to generate 7 x 7 diallel crosses. In 2008 and 2009, all F1 hybrids along with their parent cultivars were planted in randomized...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

...blend in terms of physicochemical properties between olive and palm oils. Laboratory experiment on “Effect of stress conditions on the quality and stability of olive and palm oil blends” was conducted at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Tarnab Peshawar and The University of Agriculture Peshawar KP-Pakistan during 2015. Olive: palm oils treated in sole or admixture at various ratios were kept at different stress conditions for three...

Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Waqar Ahmad1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Noor Islam1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Zain Ul Abiden2 

...rd trays but without any chemical. There was a trend of fallen mean number of mites 157±6.28, 97±3.81, 132.75±9.76 and 26±1.68 in winter, 160±20, 149±30, 161.75±18.5 and 27.5±1.04 in spring and 188.25±5.34, 196.25±5.48, 144.25±7.74 and 34.5±4.94 (Mean±SE) in summer, respectively. The average efficacy (%) of the four groups were 86±.58, 66.5±3.93, 75±...

Mian Shamas Murtaza1, Aysha Sameen1, Nuzhat Huma1 and Fatma Hussain2

...and analyzed for physico-chemical composition, functional, textural and sensory quality. The results showed that reduction in fat significantly (p < 0.05) increased the moisture and protein content. The addition of gums further augmented the moisture level owing to owing to their water retention properties. The melt-ability, flow-ability and yield of cheese decreased significantly (p < 0.05) on reducing the fat level, as anticipated. However, the additio...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...nicillium muscarium with chemical nematicides, Vydate, Basamid (G) and fertilizer, Calcium cyanamide through soil application to control sugar beet cyst nematodes Heterodera schachtii. Lecanicillium muscarium decreased nematode population significantly (P=0.05 and caused reductions in final numbers of cysts per 250 g of soil, eggs and juveniles per cyst. Nematicides effects were not quite significant among each other but had tremendous effects in reducing nema...

Wan-Long Zhu* and Gao Wenrong 

...ogical, hormonal, and biochemical markers indicative of thermogenic capacity. The results showed that A. chevrieri adapt to winter or under cold condition by increasing thermogenesis and food intake. The present results suggest that the observed physiological regulation from the organismal, hormonal levels to the cellular levels of this alpine small mammal were important and allowed A. chevrieri to overcome the physiological challenges of an chan...

Paul I. Ankeli, Mashood A. Raji, Haruna M. Kazeem, Moses O. Odugbo, Nendir J. Umaru, Idowu O. Fagbamila, Livinus T. Ikpa, Obinna O. Nwankiti, Issa A. Muraina, Pam D. Luka and Nicholas D. Nwankpa

...ed using conventional biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. Six (6) were observed to ferment glucose, reduce tetrazolium chloride and hydrolysed casein. They had no phosphatase activity, did not produce ‘film and spots’ and neither hydrolysed arginine nor urea and were preliminarily identified as members of the Mycoplasma mycoides sub-cluster which comprises Mmm and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc). Three (3...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

Laila M. Fadda1, Nouf M. Al-Rasheed1, Iman H. Hasan1, Hanaa M. Ali2,3*, Nawal M. Al-Rasheed1,4, Musaed Al-Fayez5, Aly M. Ahmed5, Nada Almutlaq1, Nehal Qasem1 and Reem Khalaf1

...mated. Moreover these biochemical parameters were confirmed by histopathological examination using hemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Mason trichrome stains (MTC). Immunohistochemical investigations for the expression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax) and the expression of macrosialin cluster of differentiation (CD68). APAP elevated of most of the previously measured parameters and decreased GSH, SOD, and total protein leve...

Aqila Shaheen and Mehwish Matien

... SOC storage and physico-chemical properties mainly in relation to climate, soil type and vegetation.

...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...analysis based on electrochemical signal generation. Aptamers possesses the strong potential as receptors for the development of biosensors for antibiotics detection; therefore, a specially designed aptamer specific to an antibiotic may be suitable for this purpose. In this review, the importance of detection of antibiotic residue contamination, reported analytical methods, advancement in biosensing platform especially regarding electro

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...illium muscarium and the chemical nematicides Vydate and Basamid (G) with the fertilizer calcium cyanamide in the control of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, through soil application under greenhouse conditions. A significant (P=0.05) reduction in the number of galls and egg masses, eggs and juveniles (J2), and the reproduction factor (Rf=Pf/Pi) was observed in the plants treated with L. muscarium compared to the control. However, all

Taghreed A. Hafiz1, Murad A. Mubaraki1*, Mohamed A. Dkhil2,3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy2

... The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that the extract has high polyphenolic content while has relative low flavonoids contents. In the antiradical scavenging property test the extract showed at 64.1 μg/ml 50% DPPH radical scavenging activity and in the MTT assay the extract has relatively low cytotoxicity where the IC50 value of extract against Vero cells was 1078.69 µg/ml. Furthermore, the extract exhibited a considerable anti-HSV-1 and ...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...igate production status, chemical composition, and fish species being used for producing fish meal. The overall production of single processing unit ranged from 40 to 500 metric tonns per month. Kampa Industry (Unit 1) was found to be the first largest contributor producing 100 metric tons in 24 h. The second largest producers of fish meal in this region were Abdul Baqi, Ghulam Hussain and Kampa Industry (Unit 2) which produced 300 to 500 metric tons per month...

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...ion. Histological and biochemical investigations were performed.Live P. chabaudi infection was accompanied with an increase in spleen weight in comparison to either the control or the gamma irradiated P. chabaudi infected group. Differential count of WBCs has revealed an increase in lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes count in plasma samples of the live P. chabaudi infected group in comparison to either the control or the gamma irradiated P. chabaudi infec...

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

...B application. Regarding chemical analysis concentration of boron in both wheat straw and grains increased with B application but there was no effect of fertilizer B on NPK concentration of straw and grains. These results are very heartening; signifying that for any soil, B adsorption isotherm need to be worked out for location precise fertilizer B use.

...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

...present study, some histochemical features of goblet cells of the intestine of convict cichlid (A. nigrofasciata) were described. In order to reveal the main histological construction, transverse sections of different parts of intestine were firstly stained with hematoxylin eosin (H-E). Sections of anterior, mid and posterior intestinal segments were also treated with different staining methods of alcian blue (AB) at pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin (AF), periodic aci...

Sezgi Arman* and Sema Isisag Ucuncu

...present study, some histochemical features of goblet cells of the intestine of convict cichlid (A. nigrofasciata) were described. In order to reveal the main histological construction, transverse sections of different parts of intestine were firstly stained with hematoxylin eosin (H-E). Sections of anterior, mid and posterior intestinal segments were also treated with different staining methods of alcian blue (AB) at pH 2.5, aldehyde fuchsin (AF), periodic aci...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

... Their morphological, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that two strains were S. aureus, while all others were different coagulase negative Staphylococci. Their sensitivity against three phages indicated broad host range of phages SANF and SA2, and relatively narrow host range of phage SA. Phage SNAF showed an effective growth reduction of S. aureus RP isolate, compared with other bacteriophages. The bacterial challenge test in mil...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...al, physiological and biochemical characterization. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed to identify three highly resistant strains at species level. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and methanolic plant extracts of Camellia sinensis (Green tea), Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) and Mentha piperita (Peppermint) was evaluated against identified isolates. Agar well diffusion assay was used to monitor the antimicrobial activity of these strains both in mono culture and m...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

... with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on enhancing spinach yield is scarce. A pot experiment was conducted at Gomal University D.I. Khan, Pakistan, during 2009-10 to study the changes in soil fertility and spinach growth after the application of EM with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. The six treatments were; control (T0), 10 tons (t) ha-1 farm yard manure (FYM) (T1), 20 t ha-1 pressmud (T2), 0.7 t ha-1 comp...

Qamar Ali, Muhammad Ashfaq and Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan

...hene sheet, fertilizers, chemical, irrigation and labour days. Under utilization of resources was found for polythene sheet, fertilizers, chemicals, irrigation and labour days. Over utilization of resources was observed for seed quantity and use of tractor. There exist decreasing return to scale (87.7%) but its value will surely increase after efficient use of inputs. A little adjustment is required in the use of inputs for ...

Muhammad Aslam Shahid, Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Niamatullah

...t set, yield and physico-chemical characteristics of Dhakki date palm. Data were recorded for spath length, width, number of strands/spath, number of flower per strands, number of spath per tree, weight of pollen grain/spath, weight of pollen grain/tree, pollen viability, fruit set, yield and physico-chemical characteristics. The results indicated that males were significantly differed from one another in all these character...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
... plant extracts and semiochemicals on physiology and performance of endoparasitoid of aphids, Diaeretiella rapae. Seven different treatments of semiochemicals and plant extract were applied on aphid pests, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi and parasitoid was released. The data regarding emergence, parasitism, sex ratio, tibia length, adult weight and adult longevity of parasitoid D. rapae aft...
Irshad Ahmad
...udes the cautious use of chemical insecticides, mechanical means, cultural and biological control methods for the substantial control of walnut borer. The present study offers valuable information through IPM, which appears to be a promising approach for the control of walnut borer. Collectively this strategy has resulted in significant reduction of the pest population in the target area of district Dir, Pakistan.
...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...test and furthered to biochemical analysis. Pearson’ Chi-square test at nighty five percent confidence interval was used to analyze the collected data. Antibiotic sensitivity was checked with twenty four antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Over all mastitis was found 52.5% (63/120) with leading subclinical (41.67%, 50/120) form of mastitis on overall milk collected data. Pathogen type was crowned by Staph. aureus with 74.5% (47/63) prevalence, f...
Sadaf Ijaz Malik1, Kiran Afshan2* and Mazhar Qayyum1
...ematological and bile biochemical response in buffaloes to Gigantocotyle explanatum infection. Of the 558 slaughtered buffaloes from central Punjab, Pakistan, 18.99% were infected, and morphometric analyses were made of 115 mature amphistomes and gravid eggs with traditional microscopic methods on the basis of standardized measurements. Amphistomes were flattened and stained in Borax carmine, some were sectioned in the median sagittal plane and histolog...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...rose associated with the chemical ecology of the Asian Long Horn Beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis. It further provides a brief impression of ALB’s biological characteristics, ecology, chemical ecosystem, economic significance, and management. Beetles in the Cerambycidae family have implicit increasing importance as pests of green forest in addition to shade trees, shrubs, and pink wood products as well as ...
Adel Eid Mohamed Mahmoud*
...es were observed in meat chemical analysis of slaughtered animals among different groups. Animals fed BBP recorded insignificant increase in growth rate by 9 g daily with improvement in feeding cost by 10%.Bakery waste can replace corn grains and wheat bran in concentrate feed mixtures up to 60 % in growing lambs rations without any adverse effects on animal’s performance with increasing growth rate.
...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
... and autumn sunflower to chemical and bio-fertilizers for yield and quality traits during 2014 at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The treatments comprised on the combination of chemical fertilizers (No chemical fertilizer, half recommended dose of fertilizer and full recommended dose of chemical fertilizer) and Plant Growth Promoting Rhi...
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...histopathological and biochemical values. In conclusion, EA might play an important role in repairing D-GaIN-induced liver damage both as a protective and a therapeutic agent.
...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...ree germination inducing chemicals (viz.; NaOCl, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and GR24-a strigol analogue) and growth of the parasite on excised root pieces of prevalent crop cultivars including sugarcane, were evaluated in A. pedunculata infested sugarcane field for their (crops) efficacy to deplete or recharge the parasite seeds in soil. Rice (Oryza sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides Staph. & Hubbard.), ital...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...of tea. Extensive use of chemical pesticides began only a few decades ago with tremendous immediate economic gains but its abuses were not foreseen or ignored. As a consequence there arose the development of resistance to pesticides, pest resurgence and undesirable pesticide residue in the made tea as the major problems. Current trends in eco-friendly insect pest management practices emphasize the host plant resistance, preparation and application methods of n...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...maticus when compared to chemical fungicide Bavistin and also 13% reduction in disease incidence is observed when compared to untreated control. From the results it is evident that C. aromaticus were effective in not only controlling the disease but also increase the height and weight of the plants and hence are highly recommended for plant disease control.


...

S.K. Sahoo

Incidence and management of mustard aphid (Lipaphis ery-simi Kaltenbach) in West Bengal
...eek. Among the different chemical insecticides evaluated for their bio-efficacy against L. erysimi, Dimethoate 30EC and Oxydemeton-methyl 25EC were proved to be more effective. The plots treated with Dimethoate and Oxydemeton-methyl recorded minimum aphid infestation in most of the observations, there by produced more yield ranging from 1151.6 to 1310.3 kg seed/ha. Incremental cost benefit ratio indicated that most favourable return was obtained under Dimethoa...

Madhuban Gopal, Rajesh Kumar and Arunava Goswami 

Nano-pesticides - A recent approach for pest control
...iminate use of synthetic chemical pesticides has led to several environmental problems such as resistance and environment pollution. Nanotechnology visualized as a rapidly evolving field has potential to revolutionize agriculture and food systems. We utilized nano-technological interventions for developing nanopesticides with potent fungicidal and miticidal properties. Nanosulphur and nanohexaconazole were prepared using encapsulation technique. The Dynamic Li...

Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
... for study including two chemicals i.e. profenophos and diafenthiuron, three ecofriendly approaches i.e. garlic extract, spirit and alternate use of garlic with spirit, one predator insect Chrysoperla carnea and untreated control. The lowest population of thrips, mites and white fly was recorded with application of diafenthiuron at 15 days interval from seedling to early fruiting stage. Among the ecofriendly options, alternate use of garlic with spirit perform...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...n research areas were biochemical mechanism of resistance against phytonematodes and diagnostics of economically important plant parasitic nematodes. Specific isozymes have been identified for differentiating the important root knot nematodes species of India belonging to the genus Meloiodogyne. Further, molecular markers like RAPDs, AFLP, SSRs and PCR–RFLP of rDNA have been employed to study the molecular genetic diversity in major root knot and cyst ne...

Anjan Bhattacharyya, Suhrid Ranjan Barik & Pritam Ganguly

New pesticide molecules, formulation technology and uses: Present status and future challenges
...l degradation as well as chemical degradation leaving very less amount of residues in the environment. Conventional pesticide formulations like WP, EC etc are endangering human health and polluting environment. Newly developed modern formulations like water emulsifiable gel, floating granules, drift less dust, macro and micro encapsulated suspension, hollow fibers, monolithic matrix, laminated structures etc can avoid these problems. The prime motto for these ...

Shekharappa

Biological control of earhead caterpillar, Helicoverpea armigera Hubner in sorghum
...(HNPV) and compared with chemical control with Melathian 5% @ 30 kg.ha-1 for the management of ear head caterpillar (H. armigera) in sorghum ecosystem of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The mycoinsecticide N. rileyi was highly infective at both the dosages 1x108 conidia per litre & 2x108 conidia per litre against H. armigera as compared to Ha NPV 250 LE per hectare and chemical control in mitigating the pes...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...ducted to compare the biochemical and histopathological changes in response to pathogenic field infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). The Bursa of fabricius was collected from poultry flocks of Punjab Pakistan for isolation of IBD virus by inoculating in embryonated chicken eggs through chorioallantoic membrane. The two hundred birds were divided into 4 groups A, B, C and D). The birds in group A were commercial broiler chicks having maternal derived antibod...
1Sitesh Chatterjee, 1Chirasree Gangopadhyay and 2Santosh Kumar Roy
...ng with spraying of same chemical provided the best result against white heads due to stem borer followed by chlorantraniliprole granule application in seedbed or the same granular application in the main-field along with spraying of chlorantraniliprole/flubendiamide in the main-field. The highest grain yield of rice was obtained from plot receiving granule application with spraying of chlorantraniliprole in transplanted field followed by chlorantraniliprole g...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...rage. Proven biological, chemical and botanical (vegetable oil) approaches of management were tested against traditional practice and replicated among 10 different household at 10 villages. Results showed that grain dressing with both neem and mustard oil under botanical approaches performed significantly superior over other approaches and traditional practice in terms reduction in percent infestation (92%), increase in germination percentage (36.04%), 88% inc...
Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
...extraction methods. Phytochemical analysis of leaves was performed on powder and extracts of leaves using already reported methods. Mineral analysis was done using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Hair growth promoting effects were examined using alopecia mouse model. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of higherquantities of carbohydrates, proteins and secondary metabolites in methanol compared to other ext...
Baohua Chen1,2, Wenzhu Peng3, Jian Xu2, Jingyan Feng1,2, Chuanju Dong1,2 and Peng Xu2,3,*
... resources for future biochemical, toxicological and physiological studies in common carp.
...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Moez Ayadi1 and Shabana Naz2
.... Colostrum yield and biochemical analysis at parturition was also determined. A significant (P<0.05) increase of calcium (Ca), Zn, Co and Se levels in blood of ewes treated with bolus with a significant increase in phosphorous (P), Co and Se in the blood of their newborn lambs. Furthermore, a significantly higher (P<0.05) inorganic matter percentage in colostrum was found in treated group compared to the control. The body weight of lambs in treated grou...
Viram Kumar1,*, Moolchand Malhi1, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Toufique Ahmed Qureshi2, Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani3 and Khushal Das Malhi1
...matological and serum biochemical parameters were determined to establish the reference values in the wild Indian blue peafowl (Pavo cristatus) of Thar (desert) region in the Sindh province of Pakistan. A total of 60 blood samples were collected from peafowl (30 males and 30 female) in months of March and April, 2015. The gender difference showed that RBC, MCV and MCH concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.05) and the serum total protein and...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1*,Ibrahim Alhidary1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Rifat U. Khan3, Abdel Raouf S. Bello4, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2 and Ramzi A. Amran1
Mehwish Faheem1,*, Saba Khaliq2 and Khalid Parvez Lone2
...y;">Endocrine-disrupting chemicals e.g. bisphenol-A can alter fish reproduction. Vitellogenin (vtg) is the egg yolk precursor and used as a biomarker for estrogenic endocrine disruption. To elucidate the endocrine-disrupting effect of bisphenol-A, juvenile Catla catla was exposed to graded concentrations of bisphenol-A (10,100,1000μg/l) for 14 days. BPA exposure strongly elevates vtg mRNA level in fish exposed to 100μg/l but a...
Azhar Abbas Khan1,*, Arif Muhammad Khan2 and Muhammad Afzal3
...oft bodied insects. Semiochemicals released by the plants in response to herbivorous attack influences third trophic level and natural enemies use these substances to locate their prey. Twelve-arm olfactory apparatus was used to evaluate the response of C. septempunctata toward aphids and different host plants of aphids. Different horticultural plants and field crops were used singly or in combination with prey as a host. An increased numbers of C. s...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

...r, number of irrigation, chemicals spray and fertilizers have positive significant effects on tomato yield. Allocative efficiency analysis reveals that machinery, seed quantity, number of irrigation, fertilizers and chemicals are underutilized, while labor and FYM are over utilized for tomato production in the study area. The study recommends training for growers and field labors, provision of short-term formal credit and su...
Aneela Qureshi1, Ammara Ainee1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Masooma Munir1,2*, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi1, Saqib Jabbar2
...f fiber source on physicochemical, sensory attributes and microbiological properties of fruit cakes were examined during 30 days of storage. Results showed that with varying fiber content water activity, texture, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, NFE and fiber content changed significantly (p<0.05). Gross energy level in cake which is desirable by consumers was reduced but high fiber cake was dark colored, low in volume and with increased hardness. Treatm...
Yijin He1, Song Ma2, Bo Liu1,*, Ting Xue1, Qunlan Zhou1, Wu Jin1 and  Kui Chen2,*
...functions in response to chemical sensation behavior of taste receptors. The receptors when compared with T. rubripes, there was 99.2% identity in two kinds ORF sequences, with only 7 bases different, and there were 5 amino acids different between speculated fusion proteins. Under bioinformatics analysis, the T2R1 gene without introns was consistent with the structural domains characteristics of this family genes. The translation protein of T2...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
... effects of surgical and chemical castration on body weight and some hormones. In the present study, 2.5-3-month-old weaned male Norduz sheep were used. The sheep were obtained in the year 2015 from Livestock Application and Research Directorate of Yuzuncu Yil University. The sheep were randomly allocated into three groups each of which contained 10 sheep. The groups were formed as; Group 1 The Control Group (No castration), Group 2 (Surgical castration group)...
Kulsoom Akhter1, Tahseen Ghous1,2,Saiqa Andleeb3,*, Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim4, Samina Ejaz5, Zain-ul-Abdin1, Bilal Ahmed Khan1 and Muhammed Naeem Ahmed1
...sis of morphological, biochemical, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were identified as B. cereus BDBC01, B. cereus AVP12 and B. cereus NC7401. At maximum studied concentration of metal ions (250 mgl-1), in above sequence, the strains accumulated 118.2, 121.87 and 90 mg/g Cr (VI), 135, 127.5 and 146.25 mg/g Ni (II) and 120, 129.37, 135 mg/g Cd(II). Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied and found suitable to describe b...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
...including application of chemicals are adapted to resistor the influx of mites in hives of honey bee. The indiscriminate use of pesticides involve many problems; cause resistance in mites, residual in honey, wax and potentially hazardous to man and environment. Plant-derived mixtures are normally more easily degradable and could show a minor undesirable impact on environment with respect to synthetic compounds. This study was planned to check the efficacy of f...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...long with various and biochemical attributes, but augmented the leaf proline. SA application significantly increased plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, proline and decreased root length, number of roots and water use efficiency. SA treatment therefore decreased adverse effect of stress on strawberry plants. Thus the result suggests that SA at a concentration of 3mML-1 concentration could be used commercially to improve yield of strawbe...

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

... interference of physico-chemical properties of the emulsions are overlooked when compared to antigenic properties. This study was designed to assess the effect of two different commercial inactivated water-in-oil multivalent vaccines; vaccine A contains IBV (Massachusetts M41 and D274 strains), NDV (Clone 30), aMPV (BUT 8544) and IBDV (classic strain) whereas vaccine B contains IBV (Massachusetts M41 and a Brazil type strain), NDV (LaSota strain), aMPV (TRT s...

Zahid Mehmood*, Alam Zeb and Muhammad Ayub 

... the effect of different chemical preservatives (potassium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate) on the storage stability of muskmelon jam. The treatments included MJ1 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + no preservatives), MJ2 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.1% sodium benzoate), MJ3 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.1% potassium sorbate), MJ4 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.01% potassium metabislulphite), MJ5 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.05% sodium benzoate + 0.05% potassium sorbate...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali* 

...ole plant under specific chemical and environmental conditions.

...

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...hological and immunohistochemical analyses. Our results demonstrated that fusion protein VEGFR1(D1-D3)-Fc efficiently inhibited
the lung cancer growth in vivo. Although the aptamer RNV66 was not found to be as efficient in this study, the results were also not surprising as the aptamer was administered naked and at low dose. As these are only our preliminary studies, a detailed investigation is planned using multiple doses, chitosan nanoparticle conjuga...
Mehmet Guvenc1,*, Ayşe Nilay Guvenc3, Ökkeş Yılmaz2 and Mehmet Tuzcu2
...bioregulator for some biochemical parameters in fructose induced non-alcoholic fatty liver.
...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Muhammad Saeed Akhtar1, Maryam Umer1, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Muhammad Imran Din3

 Zeenat Bano1,*, Sajid Abdullah1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Anjum Zia3 and Wardah Hassan1

...d differences in physico-chemical parameters of water samples collected from all the sites. The concentrations of Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) were higher in river water as compared to farm and hatchery. Different organs of fish collected from different sites showed variations in their metal concentration. In Indus River fish, the concentrations of metals were highest in liver followed by kidney and gills. The Indus River fish also exhibited h...
Ehab Bo Trabi1,2, Xianjun Yuan1, Junfeng Li1, Zhihao Dong1, Assar Ali Shah2 and Tao Shao1,2,*
...fermentation quality and chemical composition of mulberry leaf (Morus Alba) silage was treated with glucose and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) additives. The groups were as follow: silage without additive as a control (c); glucose 1% fresh matter basis (G1); glucose 2% (G2); glucose 3% (G3); Lactobacillus Plantarum (LAB1); Pediococuss acidilactici (LAB2); Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LAB3). All the silos were incubated at 25°C. Then, 90...
Jianping Li1, Qian Jiang2, Wei Chen2, Yumei Li3, Huaizhi Jiang4, Jinlong Huo5 and Qiaoling Zhang2*
...s examined by immunohistochemical analysis showed either weak (the black cashmere goat) or strong (the white cashmere goat) expression of the KIT protein. These findings suggested a relationship between mutations in KIT exon 13 and differential fur color in cashmere goats. These results lay the foundation for further research on exon 13 of the KIT gene and color regulation in cashmere goats. 
...

Muhammad Asad1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ramzan Ansar2, Ijaz Ahmad3*, Muhammad Suhaib4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

Hailong Dong1, Hui Zhang2, Kun Li2, Khalid Mehmood2,3, Mujeeb Ur Rehman2, Fazul Nabi2, Yajing Wang2, Zhenyu Chang1,2, Qingxia Wu1,* and Jiakui Li1,2,*

 

...ar and identified via biochemical tests. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect representative virulence factors or genes, including E.coli adherence factor (K88, CS31A, afaE-8), toxins (estA, estB, Stxl, Stx2, EAST1), pathogenicity island (eaeA, irp2, ETT2) and outer membrane protein (ompA). Moreover O-antigen serotype was tested by slide agglutination test and a mouse model was built to assess the lethality of ...
Temel Gokturk1, Elif Tozlu2,* and Recep Kotan2
...ern Black Sea coast. The chemicals used to control this pest are prohibited in this region due to tea cultivation. For this reason, new strategies are needed to control this pest. With the awareness on the negative effects of the chemicals used in the control against pests and with the increasing awareness on environmental issues, alternative methods were sought in the past; and in this context, studies were conducted to fin...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
... is mainly controlled by chemicals which cause deleterious effects to human, livestock and environment. To dispense with the detrimental consequences of chemicals, use of resistant cultivars can prove one of the effective and reliable alternative approaches for the management of this pest. As the information regarding resistant cultivars is lacking, therefore, the objective of the present study was to identify resistant sour...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Munir3 and Muhammad Sohail Khan

...t set, yield and physico-chemical characteristics of date palm cv. Gulistan were assessed under agro climatic condition of D. I. Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2012 and 2013. Treatments consisted of five varied pollination timings i.e., at spathe opening day, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days after spathe opening. Fresh male strand placement technique was used in this study. Strands were cut from a freshly opened male spathe and 2 – 3 strands were placed b...
Aqsa Imtiaz and Abdul Rehman*
...subtilis based on biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA Ribotyping. B. subtilis BML5 showed maximal keratinase activity at 37°C and at pH 8. An increase in keratinase activity of B. subtilis BML5 was determined in the presence of Ca2+, Mg2+, and Zn2+ while keratinase activity was inhibited by added copper ions. A 130-kDa protein was detected from feather-treated bacterial cells, suggestin...
Bian Xunguang1,2, Li Jiancheng1, Xu Chu1 and Yang Li2,3,4,*
...was weak. The immunohistochemical results was consistent with the molecular expression of AR mRNA, the positive reaction in the infundibulum, isthmus and uterus is more intense, followed by the magnum, the vaginal reaction is weak. Positive responses in the sections were mainly focused on luminal epithelium, glands and vascular epithelial cells. This study revealed the molecular expression of AR and the distribution of intracellular proteins in the oviduct of ...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
...lates If-2.3, If-02) and chemical insecticides i.e., bifenthrin, lambda cyhalothrin, imidacloprid, triazophos, spinosad, pyriproxyfen and nitrinpyrum, as larvicides against C. pipiens. Highest larval percent mortality (73.3 ± 4.7) was observed after application of Ma-11.1(LC40) + nitenpyram (LC40) mixtures under laboratory and field conditions (71.5 ± 7.4). The results showed a significant effect of binary trea...

Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...">Variations in serum biochemical profile with increase in age were analyzed in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Genderwise variations and effect of rearing systems i.e. free range, semi-intensive and confinements were also assessed from 1st to 6th month of age. Total sixty (n = 60) experimental birds were divided in to three groups i.e., poults having age 4-8 weeks (10

Warda Fatima1 , Shahida Hasnain1 , Saqib Mahmood2

 

...ptoms and till now no biochemical test is available for its diagnosis. It is considered one of the most costlydisease in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Its heritability content is considered to be up to 80% but still it isunknown whether it’s a pure genetic disease. It is considered a polygenic multifactorial condition where both genes and environment have roles in disease development. In the present study we selected a family withmultiple schizophren...
Sidra Iqbal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabbsum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...ese two treatments, only chemical treated substrates gave better enzyme yield as compared to chemical followed by steam. The highest FPase (2.526 IU/ml/min) activity was found at pretreatment conditions of 0.6% NaOH conc., 10% biomass loading and 4h reaction time while CMCase (2.803 IU/ml/min) at 1% NaOH conc., 15% biomass loading and 6h of reaction time. The proposed model was found highly significant as revealed by their F...

Fatima Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3, Fouzia Tabbsum3, Javed Iqbal Qazi3
 

...ion as compared to thermochemical pretreatment. The maximum CMCase activity was 1.757 1U/ml/min under conditions of 0.6% acid concentration, 10% substrate concentration, and resident time of 4h. The maximum FPase activity was 2.015 1U/ml/min under conditions of 0.8% acid concentration, 10% substrate concentration, and time of 6h. This showed that peanut shells could successfully be used as substrate for cellulase production in submerged fermentation.

...

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...actis on the basis of biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence. The minimum inhibitory concentration of both isolates showed fair growth up to 1 mM of K2Te2O3. Both strains showed maximum growth at 37ºC and pH of 7. The bacterial growth in the presence of metal ions was delayed as compared to the control. High ellurite reduction potential was shown 98% (1f) and 97% (2b) after 24 h of incubation. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was increa...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...maceutical industries is chemically synthesized vanillin. The current research was carried out to explore local bacterial isolates for vanillin production using waste residues of rice bran oil. After the screening of different bacterial isolates, a novel strain Enterobacter hormaechei showed significant production of vanillin when inoculated in waste residues of rice bran based media. E. hormaechei produced 5.2 g/l of vanillin in culture media containing ferul...
Rabia Qurashi, Qurat ul Ane Gillani* and Furhan Iqbal*
 
...matological and serum biochemical profile of 6 week old male albino mice. Blood samples from male albino mice (CGP55845 treated N = 14 and saline treated N = 16) were collected directly by cardiac puncture and used for estimation of hematological and some serum biochemical parameters. The hematological parameters did not show any significant variation between the two groups. From amongst serum bioche...
Faiza Hassan1, Mubshara Saadia1,*, Muhammad Sher1, Mian Anjum Murtaza2, Muhammad Arshad3,Asam Riaz4 and Mahmood Ahmad Khan5
...e in regulating other biochemical parameters. However, significant role of garlic extracts; especially the ether extract (EGE) was noted in normalizing the biochemical attributes. On the basis of findings, it is recommended that the garlic ether extract should be applied in herb-drug combinations commonly used as antidiabetic.
...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...aximum survival rate. Biochemical analysis of fish meat showed that moisture, protein, lipid, ash and crude fiber were not significantly (P>0.05) affected by salinity level. The hematological parameters like hematocrit, cholesterol and plasma triglycerides were similar among fish fed on different salinity level (P < 0.05).
...

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

...t. Similarly, the use of chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure was also decreased due to decrease in the income of the households after the floods-2010 while an increase, though non-significant, was reported with respect to use of agricultural chemicals. The floods-2010 has also had adverse effects on crops production where significant decrease has occurred in wheat, sugarcane and maize production. The most important eff...
Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1,Farzana Abbas2,Ghulam Abbas3,*, Arshad Javid4, Ali Hussain4, Syedah Andleeb5,Khalid Javed Iqbal6 and Muhammad Akmal1

 

...levels on the growth and chemical conformation of broodfish and its eggs. There were three treatments (T1, T2 and T3) and a control with three replicates in each group. Control group was exclusively fed on natural food composed of tilapia fry while fish in T1 was fed on 30%, T2 on 35% and T3 on 40% protein diet, respectively. A total of 240 Channa marulius (945 g) were arbitrarily stocked...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...t sampling technique. Biochemical examination was performed to isolate S. aureus that further were tested Penicillin, Glycopeptide, and Cephalosporin classes of antibiotics for confirmation of MDR isolates using disk diffusion method. MDR were tested in vitro for response against various antibiotics. A questionnaire was filled for estimation of association of assumed risk factors with prevalence. Nonparametric tests at 5% probability were applied...
Samra Imran1,* and Afifa Tanweer2
...rough anthropometric, biochemical and dietary evaluation of the participants. Results indicated that participants aged less than 18 years and those diagnosed within first year of life, had significantly healthier body dimensions. Higher family income, female gender and greater meal satisfaction was found to be associated with better biochemical indices. Most participants reported partial compliance to GFD. Compliant particip...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...ls with excessive use of chemical fertilizers bring forth higher production cost and pollute the soil environment. Therefore, some alternative but sustainable, environment friendly and cost effective approaches of nutrient management can be a possible solution for these problems. So the present study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, Groundnut Research Station Attock, Pakistan during rabi 2013-14 to check the effect of different integrated nutrients ma...

Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Khalid Naseem, Muhammad Amjad, Amer Mumtaz and Saeeda Raza*

... and analyzed for physicochemical characteristics during 2006 to 2008. The quality parameters studied were test weight, 1000 kernel weight, foreign matter (non-edible and edible), broken/shrunken grains, damaged grains, moisture, ash, protein (N x 5.7), wet and dry gluten, falling number, and minerals (copper, manganese, iron, zinc). It was observed that wheat samples varied considerably within each region and also between regions. Attock region samples had hi...

Sidra Majeed, Shahid Ahmad*, Asif Ali Bhatti** and Ghazanfar Abbas***

...ata of wheat grown using chemical fertilizers for the same period were obtained for wheat productivity from the Farm Operations and Services (FOS) crop registers. Water productivity of barani organic desi wheat (C591) grown at NARC was computed using the data of last 10 years (1998-08), which revealed variation from 1.98 to 0.29 kgm-3 of seasonal rainfall. The correlation between seasonal rainfall and water productivity is very high (0.93). There is a strong c...

 Rahmat Ullah Khan, Abdur Rashid*, Mohammad Sohail Khan** and Erdogan Ozturk***

...d saved 100% cost of the chemical fertilizer. Results suggested that HA applied alone at 3 kg ha-1 or in combination with half (30:20 kg ha-1) rate of NP fertilizers appeared to be the most economical rate to obtain the maximum yield of wheat under the rainfed conditions of Dera Ismail Khan. HA has great potential as a low cost natural fertilizer to improve soil fertility on sustainable basis.

...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

...d with control [CON] and chemical fertilizers [CHM], had great influence on plant growth parameters. The average yield of Okra during trial showed a significantly greater response in VW+VC compared with the control by 64.27 %. The fruits have a greater percentage of fats and protein content in VW+VC when compared with those grown with chemical fertilizers by 23.86% and 19.86%, respectively. The combination treatment [VW+VC] ...

 S. Shahid Shaukat*, Mian Sayed**, Aly Khan, M. Azhar Khan* and Babar Qazi***

...r were investigated. The chemical nematicides and plant extracts significantly reduced the population densities of all three nematodes. Carbofuran was most effective against all the nematodes. Apart from other three treatments, Tridax procumbens emerged as an effective phytonematicide. Helicotylenchus indicus, Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita had similar population density levels and were more or less equally suppressed by all the treatments ...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah, Shahid Masood** and Muhammad Irfan Khan*

...and quantitative) and biochemical trait. Comparatively high variation was seen for seed germination, canopy and spikes/plant, florets/spike and leaf area. A UPGMA cluster, grouped the 9 Ocimum genotypes into two major clusters on the basis of total seed protein and phenotypic characters, except Siam Queen and Lime basil stand alone, respectively. Euclidian distance for morphological traits ranged from 3.60 to 7.26. Conversely on the basis of total seed protein...
Nazish Shaukat1, Muhammad Javed1,Faiza Ambreen2* and Fariha Latif1
...ith control. The physico-chemical parameters of the test media viz. pH, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, total hardness, calcium, magnesium and total ammonia were monitored on daily basis. Significantly increased peroxidase activity was observed in gills and liver of Labeo rohita after exposure to PbCl2 due to all doses as compared to the control. All results were statistically significant at p<0.05. Fish liver exhibited significan...
Umair Riaz*1, Zafar Abbas1, Qamar uz Zaman2, Muhammad Mubashir1, Mahwish Jabeen2, Syed Ali Zulqadar1, Zeenat Javeed1, Saeed-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Ashraf1 and Muhammad Javid Qamar1
...lysed for various physic-chemical properties like pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), calcium (Ca++), magnesium (Mg++), sulfates (SO4-), carbonates (CO3-), bicarbonates (HCO3-), sodium (Na+), and chloride(Cl-). Results showed that 52.78% samples were unfit and 34.37% samples were considered ...
Muhammad Kashif Maan1, Muhammad Arif Khan1, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Muhammad Ijaz2, Hamid Akbar1, Sajid Umar 3 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*
....
...

 Shahida N.Khokhar*

CROP INOCULANTS- AN UNDEREXPLORED POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURE
...paradigm from use of agrochemicals to green way of life. Bioinoculants are in perfect harmony with the concept of Evergreen Revolution. They have the potential to improve value cost ratio (VCR) of agricultural production. Pakistan faces increase in degraded lands, water shortage, energy crisis, all contributing to poverty. During last two decades, many efforts were made to address the issue through developing and applying the inoculants. Several research insti...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad and Ijaz Ashraf** 

ROLE OF FARMER FIELD SCHOOLS IN ENHANCING SKILLS OF FARMING COMMUNITY IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN
... respectively. Likewise, chemical and manual weed st nd control measures were ranked 1 and 2 with mean values 2.99 and 2.97, respectively. Correspondingly, farmers' skills in furrow irrigation was ranked at the top with mean value 3.32 followed by flood, border and basin irrigation techniques with mean values 2.98, 2.85 and 2.76, respectively. Hence, it can be concluded that farmers' skills in all the selected aspects were improved as a result of their partici...

 Sara Khalid*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz*, Khalid Saifullah Khan* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH, FRUIT AND YIELD QUALITY OF STRAWBERRY
...pesticides and hazardous chemicals. In this regard, studies were conducted using six different organic amendments on strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.) cv. Chandler which included T = planting 1 media -1 (soil + silt + farm yard manure); T = planting media + 400 mgl humic 2 -1 acid; T = planting media + 200 g kg leaf manure; T = planting media + 200 3 4 -1 -1 g kg vermicompost; T = planting media + 200 g kg plant fertilizer and T = 5 6 -1 planting media + 20...

 Rabeea Tariq*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Imran Hassan*, Muhammad Rasheed* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY
...ly depended on the physiochemical properties of the growing media used. Winter strawberry production in a greenhouse using high plant densities and various media may be a viable alternative to openfield production system. Planting density can be increased thrice by using different production systems. Studies were conducted to see the impact of different planting densities and media on growth and yield of strawberry. The treatments were T = Control, with normal...

 Nasia Batool*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar**, Imdad Hussain Mirza** and Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan**

MIXING LESS PALATABLE GRASSES WITH UREA, MOLASSES AND EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS AND ITS EFFECT ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBILITY IN GOATS
...e Microorganisms (EM) on chemical composition and digestibility in goats. (HC), (CA), (SH) and (DB) were used and the combinations were grass + 4% molasses, grass + 4% urea, grass + 4% urea + 4% molasses, grass + 4% urea + 1:100 EM, grass + 1:100 EM + 4% molasses, grass +1:100 EM + 4% molasses + 4% urea. Proximate analysis of samples was carried out. Crude protein content of mixtures improved as compared with sole grasses. Digestibility of HC supplemented with...

 Khalid Naseem*, Naseem Bibi**, Saeeda Raza*, Amer Mumtaz*, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui*, Amina Bibi*** and Muhammad Ahsan Khan****

DEVELOPMENT, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF HIGH ENERGY BISCUITS FOR COMBATING MALNOURISHMENT AMONG CHILDREN IN PAKISTAN

 Ali Ahsan Bajwa*, Ehsanullah*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Wahaj Nafees*, Mohsin Tanveer* and Hafiz Salman Saeed*

IMPACT OF FERTILIZER USE ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW
...fertilizers, pesticides, chemical growth regulators, machinery and poor management practices are accelerating environmental pollution, soil degradation, global warming, climatic change and food deterioration. Conservation agriculture offers a sustainable solution for all these problems most often. This review focuses the use of fertilizers in conservation agriculture and their impact on weed management. Weeds are major constraint in the productivity of agro-ec...

 Asghar Ali*, Muhammad Tahir**, Shahid Riaz Malik* and Muhammad Hanif Munawwar*

EVALUATION OF PRE AND POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
...onsuming and costly. The chemical weed control is the effective method of weed management. A field study was conducted to evaluate pre and post-emergence herbicides for weed control in lentil. The experiment comprised eight treatments including three herbicides, manual weeding and check (no weeding). The yield was higher in manual weeding but in herbicide treatments Isoproturon as pre-emergence @ 2 kg -1 ha produced statistically at par grain yield to that of ...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai*, Amer Mumtaz*, Nouman Rashid*, Shahzada Arshad Saleem**, Saeeda Raza* and Muhammad Naeem Safdar*

COMPARISON OF INDIGENOUSLY DEVELOPED TANGERINE-ORANGE MARMALADE WITH BRANDED MARMALADES AVAILABLE AT LOCAL MARKETS
...east and mould), physico-chemical characteristics (pH, Brix, vitamin C and sugars) and organoleptic attributes. TPC count in both samples were nil. Yeast and -1 mould count was nil in branded while it was 600 and 400 cfug in orange and tangerine marmalades, respectively. Sugar contents, pH and Brix ranged from 14.97% to 59.70%, 3.00 to 3.46, 15.0 B to 60.2 B in branded and non-branded marmalades, respectively. Organoleptically marmalade developed at FSPDI was ...

 Nosheen Zahra*, Ghulam Sarwar* and Sher Muhammad**

COMPARISON OF GYPSUM AND POTASSIUM SILICATE FOR RECLAMATION OF SALINE SODIC SOIL
... each other improved the chemical parameters of soil. All levels of gypsum (100%, 75% and 50% G.R) proved effective in lowering pH, EC, SAR and ESP of saline sodic soil. Similar trend was observed with the use of all levels of potassium -1 silicate (225, 150 and 75mg kg soil) of soil. Combinations of gypsum and potassium silicate also remained better in this regard. The most effective treatment was application of the full required rate of gypsum.

...

 Maimoona Bashir*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar*, Muhammad Fateh Ullah Khan* and Abdul Razzaq*

EFFECT OF MIXING LOW PALATABLE GRASSES AND IPIL IPIL LEAVES ON FORAGE QUALITY
...th sole species on their chemical composition. Samples were analyzed for proximate parameters (crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), total ash and ether extract (EE)). The results revealed that there were significant differences in dry matter (DM) among different grasses. DM content of low palatable grasses was generally high (70-75%) as compared to Ipil ipil leaves (45-55%). DM content among mixtures was also variable. For the treatment grass 75% + Ipil ipil ...

 Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Arshad Ali**, Tariq Sultan** and Muhammad Munir Ahmed***

CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ROOT SYSTEM OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L) GROWN UNDER SALT AFFECTED AREA OF PAKISTAN
...ologically as well as biochemically at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad during 2011-13. It was observed that all isolates produced IAA, whereas14 strains were declared as phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB), eight isolates exhibited antifungal characteristics, 30 were nitrogen fixer and all of them were gram -ve. During biochemical characterization of bacterial isolates KS 15 and KS 8 produced the highest i...

 Tosif Tabassam*, Tariq Sultan**, M.Ehsan Akhtar**, M.Mahmood-ulHassan** and Arshad Ali**

SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT FORMULATED CARRIERS FOR SUSTAINING MICROBIAL SHELF LIFE
...e formulated and physico-chemical characteristics were determined. Four combinations in the range of 40% clay, 30-40% fly-ash, 10-15% press mud and 10-15% lignitic coal were selected which had good adhesion capacity, moisture holding capacity, nutrient contents and investigated for microbial shelf life. Significant difference regarding microbial survival was observed between different formulations as well as between different incubation intervals. Among differ...

 Riaz Hussain*, Muhammad Riaz**, Mushtaq A. Saleem*** and Muhammad Ishaque Mastoi**

BIOCHEMICAL ABNORMALITIES INDUCED BY ABAMECTIN IN SIXTH INSTAR LARVAE OF THE RED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST)
... centrifuged prior to biochemical analyses. Results showed differences in the activities of enzymes and quantities of total protein, soluble protein and FAA between strains and among concentrations. Abamectin, at LC and LC , changed the activities 10 20 /levels of TE, CE, AcP, total protein and FAA in the larvae of both the strains. The activities of alpha-amylase, glucoamylase and AkP remained non-significant at both doses in the two strains. In PAK strain la...

 Ambreen Akhtar Saddozai*, Amer Mumtaz*, Saeeda Raza* and Shahzada Arshad Saleem** 

MICROBIAL COUNT AND SHELF LIFE OF PHALSA (GREWIA ASIATICA) JUICE
...room temperature. Physicochemical and microbial and oragnoleptic quality of the juice was examined till two weeks. Microbial activity in phalsa juice increased while organoleptic attributes such as texture (mouth feel), flavour, taste, colour and overall acceptability of phalsa juice were decreased during the study period. The pH and TSS value were decreased from 3.99 to 3.54 and from 11.22 to 9.55, respectively after 2 weeks -1 -1 storage. Total plate count a...

 Saima Kanwal*, Saeeda Raza*, Khalid Naseem*, Muhammad Amjad*, Naseem Bibi* and Musarrat Gillani*

DEVELOPMENT, PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF BISCUITS SUPPLEMENTED WITH PUMPKIN SEEDS TO COMBAT CHILDHOOD MALNUTRITION IN PAKISTAN

 Sadaf Javaria*, Muhammad Qasim Khan*, Kashif Waseem*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani*, Habib ur Rahman*, Muhammad Sohail Khan* and Muhammad Sohail**

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON IMPACT OF BIO AND ORGANOMINERAL FERTILIZES ON COMPOSITION AND SHELF LIFE OF TOMATO ( ) FRUIT.
...meters including; physicochemical (vitamin C, lycopene, total soluble solids and pericarp thickness); sensory (fruit color, fruit flavor and fruit firmness) and shelf life. It was concluded that bio-fertilizer integrated with Farmyard Manure emerged as better nutrient source over other treatments. Benefits of bio fertilizer application were more in the presence of Farmyard Manure on quality of tomato in comparison with NPK. No work has been previously publishe...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos*, Abdullah N. Al-Owaimer, Elsayed O.S. Hussein and Mutahar H. Ali
Saba Parveen Samo1, Moolchand Malhi1,*, Javed Gadahi2, Yan Lei3, Allah Bux Kaciwal1 and Saeed Ahmed Soomro1
...mpared to A. The physico-chemical properties of meat were not significantly different between the groups except fat content (2.75 ± 0.25 vs 2.00 ± 0.05%, P < 0.096) which tended to increase in B compared to A. These data demonstrated that dietary SY supplementation increased gastrointestinal tract weight and nutrient digestibilities, and improved some carcass characteristics in goats.
...
Hao Zhang,1,2,3,* Hai Tao Nie,3 Tie Wei Ma,3 Zi Yu Wang3 and Feng Wang3
...ixed, and subsampled for chemical analyses. The Ca, P, Na, and Mg were mainly distributed in bone, except for K, which was mainly distributed in the muscle tissues. The net macromineral requirements for maintenance were 20.20 mg Ca, 13.50 mg P, 3.80 mg Na, 7.91 mg K, and 1.10 mg Mg/kg empty body weight (EBW) for ewes. The net requirements for growth ranged from 11.79 to 12.06 g Ca, 6.04 to 6.16 g P, 1.66 to 1.74 g K, 0.40 to 0.42 g Mg, and 0.98 to 0.95 g Na /k...
Wei Dang1, Ning Xu1, Wen Zhang1, Jing Gao2, Handong Fan1 and Hongliang Lu 1,*
...fic physiological and biochemical adaptations. Heat shock proteins and other molecular chaperones play specific physiological roles in such thermal adaptation. Here, we analyzed heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression in six lizard species to investigate the variation in Hsp70 response contributing to thermal adaptation. At first, we collected three lizard species of the genus Takydromus from different geographical locations. We found that either the c...
Muhammad Umair Sattar1, Aysha Sameen1,*, Nuzhat Huma1 and Muhammad Shahid2
...d to analysis for physicochemical parameters, functional attributes, texture (hardness), appearance (L* value) and proteolysis by RP-HPLC. Use of guar gum as fat mimetic and cheese milk homogenization significantly (p<0.01) affected the composition, functionality, texture and appearance of LFMCs. LFMCs functionality and texture also improved during ripening but appearance was negatively affected. Reverse phase HPLC results indicated that level of int...

Ikramullah Khan1,2*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Sohail Akhtar2, Ijaz Ali3 and Ghufran Ullah4 

...lse rate (PR) whereas biochemical parameters determined from blood serum were glucose, cortisol and Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70). Thermal stress increased all physiological parameterssignificantly (P < 0.001). Holstein Frisian manifested maximumincrease in RT, RR and PR (3.33, 209.50 and 59.41%) than crossbred (0.59, 40.22 and 22.0%), Sahiwal (0.78, 42.54 and 34.31%) and Achai (0.78, 39.22 and 33.85%) respectively (P < 0.001).Thermal stress increased b...

Nadia Mubarik1, Aqib Iqbal1*, Iqbal Munir1 and Muhammad Arif2 

...e water relations and biochemical adaptation, resulting in improvement in the performance of plants under water deficit conditions. These results also demonstrated that senescence, which is a type of cell death program that could be inappropriately activated during drought, was also delayed in the supplemented seedlings as highlighted by a high RWC and expression of the Lhcb2 gene. 

...
Naimat Ullah1,3,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Avais1, Nisar Ahmad2, Sana Ullah3, Muhammad Shuaib Khan3, Khalid Mehmood5, Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Ikramul Haq1
...d as non-significant. Biochemical examination revealed a significant increase in Aspartate aminotransferase, Alanine aminotransferase, serum creatinine, urea whereas decrease in glucose level in diseased animals. The current study concluded that paying close attention to animal feeding, housing and keeping may reduce the occurrence of theileriosis in sheep.
...
Syeda Madiha, Zehra Batool, Saiqa Tabassum, Laraib Liaquat, Sadia Sadir, Tahira Perveen and Saida Haider*

 

...duced motor deficits, biochemical and neurochemical alterations. Rotenone was injected subcutaneously at the dose of 1.5 mg/kg for 8 days. Supplementation of curcumin (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was started before 15 days of rotenone injection. The effects of curcumin pre-treatment were evaluated by different motor behavioral parameters (pole test, Kondziela’s inverted screen test, inclined plane test, open field test, beam ...
Muhammad Umar1, Mubashar Hussain1,*, Ghulam Murtaza1, Farid Asif Shaheen2 , Fatima Zafar1
... Dalmatian pelican), Agrochemical Contamination (Black-tailed godwit and Fish bird) Heavy Metal Pollution Contamination (Cattle egrets), Unsustainable Fisheries Practices (Ducks), invasive species (Little egret and Night herone) and illegal hunting (Geese, Ducks, Siberian cranes and Bustards) have resulted in the decline of species abundance.. Regular conduct of surveys for important migratory birds to assess the population trend, abundance and patterns of the...
Noor Fatima1, Muhammad Irfan2,*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...ly affected by the thermochemical pretreatment as compared to the chemical pretreatment. At the pretreatment condition of 1% H2SO4 conc, 6h residence time, 15% substrate concentration maximum CMCase production (0.858 IU/ml/min) was obtained while at pretreatment conditions of 1% H2SO4 concentration, 8h residence time, 10% substrate concentration at room temperature followed by rout...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Abdul Wahab1, Navaid Kazi2, Younas Muhammad1,Summaya Kazi3, Salman Kazi4, Azmatullah Khan1, Ikramullah Khan5 and Shakoor Ahmad1
...s study was to assess biochemical markers of rabbit amniotic fluid during fetal growth stage of successful pregnancy. Experiments were executed on 15 pregnant rabbits at three different time point of successful pregnancy i.e. day 18, day 25 and day 28 with commercially accessible kits for biochemical markers that includes glucose, total protein, albumin, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine tr...

Habibullah* and Sahib Alam  

...ertilizer on soil physicochemical properties at various growth stages of maize and subsequent wheat crop. Biochar was applied before sowing, while N application was carried out in splits to the crops. The study was conducted in district Buner, Pakistan using randomized complete block design with split-plot arrangement. Biochar was applied at the rates of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ton/ha as the main plot factor. The immediate effect of biochar was assessed on maize c...

Nadia Faqir1, Aish Muhammad2*, Ghulam Muhammad Ali2, Armghan Shehzad2, Hafeez Ur Rahman3, Farhatullah4 and Muhammad Zeeshan Hyder

...died physical traits and chemical composition of fruit. Sequences of the maturase k gene has complete identity to the reference genome of ‘Khalas’ cultivar. While geranyl geranyl biphosphate reductase has one synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in Qantar, Hamin wali, Kupra and Shakri, suggesting a lack of divergence in these genes in the studied cultivars. Tree plots generated showed inconsistencies in grouping of the cultivars thus showing n...
Leila A. Kaimbayeva1,*, Elena S. Malysheva2, Rashit Kazikhanov3 and Saule R. Kazikhanova4
... changes. The results of chemical analysis revealed the nature of protein substances, altered рН value of the meat and the intensity of glycolysis. All these parameters were indicative of autolysis process in the meat. The levels of water-binding capacity and structural-mechanical properties of red deer meat that occurred during the course of autolysis were further confirmed by the histological changes in the meat. Specifically, it was observed tha...

Sher Nawab Khan* and Ghulam Hassan 

...further molecular and biochemical study to explore resistance pathway. These lines could be used as a source of aphids resistance in future wheat breeding program 

...

Muhammad Suhaib1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Masooma Munir3, Badar-Uz-Zaman1, Bushra Atta4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...on the physiology and biochemical parameters of crop plants however lower level of salicylic acid 0.25 mM was found more efficient then the higher level of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid induced improvement is significant regardless of stress environment or normal growth conditions.
 

...

Safdar Ali1*, Obaidullah Shafique1, Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Amir Hanif1, Ijaz Ahmed3 and Bashir Ahmad Khan

...turing of innovative agrochemicals and novel delivery mechanisms to enhance crop production and decrease in pesticide use. Nanotechnology also contributes in increasing the crop yield in agriculture. One of the major contribution of nanotechnology in the field of agriculture is the formulation of nano based pesticides and fertilizers for increased crop production. Precise farming techniques can promote crop production without damaging soil and water, reducing ...
Pasqua Rotondi1, Maria Antonietta Colonna1, Giuseppe Marsico1, Francesco Giannico1, Marco Ragni1 and Anna Maria Facciolongo2,*
... and sensory properties, chemical and fatty acid composition of intramuscular lipids. Twenty-one three-week-old kids were divided into three homogeneous groups (n = 7), according to age and body weight, and assigned to one of the following feeding treatments: C) control: commercial pelleted feed; L) pelleted feed containing 3% extruded linseed; LO) pelleted feed containing 3% extruded linseed and 0.6% dried oregano inflorescences. Kids were slaughtered at 60 d...
Ayesha Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Imran Sajid*
...ulture farmlands. The biochemical and physiological characterization along with the molecular identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed that caries isolates are pathogenic S. mutans and soil isolates belong to the genus Streptomyces. The antibiotic resistance profile of S. mutans illustrated resistance to optochin. The antimicrobial screening of Streptomyces against S. mutans showed that these strain are the prolif...
Huma Naz1,*, Sajid Abdullah2, Sidra Naz3, Sidra Abbas2, Wardah Hassan2, Shakeela Perveen2, Moazama Batool1, Laiba Shafique2
...at the behavioral and biochemical parameters can be used as a valuable bio-marker to identify the toxic effects of pollutants in aquatic systems. 
...
Farah Rauf Shakoori1,*, Anum Feroz1, Ayesha Gondal1,Sahar Akram2 and Tanzeela Riaz3
...aimed to evaluate the biochemical effects of λ-cyhalothrin on carbohydrate metabolism and macromolecular concentrations of 4th and 6th instar larvae of a stored product pest, Trogoderma granarium. The LC50 values of λ-cyhalothrin for 4th and 6th instar larvae of Lahore population was 15.93 and 13.76ppm respectively, while 19.07 and 16.21ppm were for the 4th and 6th

Saima Rani*, Hassnian Shah, Nusrat Habib and Muhammad Azeem Khan 

...r of children, taste, no chemical residual, high nutritional value, freshness and colour of the vegetables have positive effects on consumer to pay a high price. While in case of product size and shape has a adverse effect on consumer. Results indicate that when making choices of food, consumers in Islamabad prioritise their health. Furthermore, the households who earn more income perceive a negative impact on health from chemical
Muhammad Nazar Aftab1, Ahmed Ali1, Muhammad Asad1, Sadia Fatima2 and Furhan Iqbal2,*
...toxicity on the hematobiochemical profile of male albino mice. Eight week old male albino mice were used as experimental animals and were divided into two groups. First group was treated with 80mg/Kg body weight of AlCl3 for 16 days while control group was treated with saline solution for the same period of time. Complete blood count were determined in both experimental treatments at the end of dose supplementation. Our results revealed that oral su...
Souheila Slimani1,*, Sonia Hamouda1, Chahrazed Souadi1, Sara Silini2, Cherif Abdennour2 and Leila Delimi3
...l;">Fungicides are toxic chemicals, very much used in agriculture, but they are associated with the appearance of certain metabolic, carcinogenic, neurotoxic and fertility disorders. The objective of this work is to study the toxic effect of the dithiocarbamate “thiram 80% purity” on seasonal reproduction of male domestic pigeons Columba livia domestica, subjected to a long photoperiod (19L: 05D). The fungicide was orally administered at 5 a...
Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq1, Amer Jamal Hashmat1, Ejazul Islam1, Muhammad Afzal1, Abid Mahmood2, Muhammad Ibrahim2,*, Muhammad Nawaz3,*, Shahid Nadeem4 and Qaiser Mahmood Khan1
...le effluent using electrochemical techniques on pilot scale (70 L). One of the major problems encountered in the textile industry is the production of large volumes of highly colored wastewater. The scope of this new electrochemical treatment is a significant advance to the existing technologies. There were four different treatments employed as; T1: wastewater, T2: wastewater with 0.1% electrolyte, T3: diluted wastewater (50...
Muhammad Zameer Kayani1,*and Tariq Mukhtar2
...are mainly controlled by chemicals and their use is often coupled with health hazards. The deleterious effects of pesticides can be averted by using non-chemical approaches, and resistant cultivars can prove a promising substitute. For their fitness as nematode-suppressive crops, the reproductive and developmental rates of the nematode must be assessed on these cultivars. As there is meager information on the reproductive po...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...rs, Gram staining and biochemical tests. The identified isolates were quantified on blood agar and confirmed through PCR. Toxins were extracted, quantified, formalized and adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide gel. Safety, sterility and stability of the toxoid were ascertained. Bacterin toxoid of C. perfringens type D was procured from Veterinary Research Institute Peshawar. The immunogenicity of toxoid vaccines and bacterin toxoid vaccine were studied an...
Amna Waseem, Sikander Ali* and Syeda Wajiha Khalid
...tant strain developed by chemical mutagenesis. The wild-type was simultaneously treated with different concentration of EMS and MMS. Among 13 mutant variants, EM-7 showing maximum lipase activity of 71±3.55 U/g, was selected. Resistance in the hyper producing strain was developed by exposing it with low levels of L-cysteine HCl to protect it from instability. It was observed that under optimum conditions at 30°C temperature, pH 7, and incubation per...
Zartasha Anjum1*, Rakhshindah Bajwa2 and Munazza Hassan3
...o examine the immunohistochemical expression of HMG-CoAR in 75 cases of breast carcinoma. Study was carried out in postgraduate medical institute, Lahore. The frequency and percentage were calculated for histological grade of the tumor and expression of HMG-CoAR, ER and PR. Fischer exact test was applied to determine the association between HMG-CoAR and ER/PR expression. 
Results: HMG CoAR, ER and PR were found positive in 69 (92%), 50 ...
Nuzhat Huma1, Fozia Ghaffar1, Saima Rafiq2,*, Imran Pasha1, Aysha Sameen1, Imran Hayat2 and Imtiaz Hussain2
...investigation covers the chemical composition, nitrogenous compounds and protein fractionations of casein and whey proteins of milk from different dairy animals like buffalo, cow, sheep, goat and camel. The buffalo and sheep milks have comparatively higher fat, solid-not-fat and total solid contents than other milks. Maximum whey proteins were found in the sheep milk (0.78%) whereas cow milk had lowest contents (0.54%). Non-casein-nitrogen (NCN) contents in sh...

Kashif Akbar* and Muhammad Ayub 

...00% maize flour). Physicochemical analysis of the cookies showed the different trend from F0 to F6. Mean score for moisture content increased and the ranged between F0-F6 (3.24-3.29%), other physicochemical parameters showed decreasing trend like ash (0.80-0.73%), fat 24.23-23.94%), protein (8.20-7.68%), fiber (6.47-6.38%) while NFE increased slowly (57.86-58.60%). The color of the cookies ranged from F0-F6 (6.88-6.93), tast...
Kamran Khan1, Sarzamin Khan2, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,* and Naseer Ahmad2
...ield and quality, physicochemical characteristics, and FA profile of indigenous rabbits and shows that supplementation of flaxseed favorably modulates the FAs composition of rabbit meat, with no negative effect on their growth performance and meat physicochemical quality.
...
Md. Abu Affan1,*, Abdulmohsin Al-Sofyani1, Adnan Jaman Turki2 and Mohammed S.B. Hariri3
...ling. Therefore, physico-chemical and biological parameters, and postmortem, especially the gills and gut content of dead fishes were studied. The dead Tilapia tilapia (Tilapia), Chanos chano (Milkfish) and Parapriacanthus ransonneti (Glassfish) were found with wide mouth opened, skin with huge mucous and a bent back head, flared gills lesion and reddish sanguinary. The water temperature (°C), DO, salinity and pH varied from 24.8 to 26...

Irfan Ali Sabir1, Saeed Ahmad1*, Muhammad Nafees2, Ahmad Sattar Khan1, Maryam3 and Ishtiaq Ahmad

...potential, fruit physico-chemical characters and sensorial aspects. Diverse seventeen commercial and noncommercial indigenous and exotic mango varieties were selected to collect and analyze fruit morphological data under randomized complete block design (RCBD). There was significantly high fruit weight and pulp contents in ‘Kensington Pride’. Total soluble solids (TSS) were higher (21.9 B°) in ‘Chaunsa’, while, titratable acidity (T...

Muhammad Zahid1, Naeem Iqbal1, Sohaib Muhammad2*, Summiya Faisal3, Wajid Mahboob3, Makhdoom Hussain4 and Zaheer ud din Khan2 

...ld under drought. Physio-chemical attributes were also modulated by exogenously applied carbohydrates. Nitrate reductase activity and total soluble proteins were increased with increase in sugar treatments under drought. Osmotic and water potentials were reduced under drought but foliar glucose sprays of 10 mM and 50 mM applied at reproductive phase significantly reversed the adverse effects of drought. Gas exchange characteristics including CO2 concentration,...
Dan Yü, Chuchu Li, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...roduct or alternative to chemical fungicides in controlling popcorn disease of mulberry.
...

Safina Naz1, Khushbo Hussain1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2* and Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3
 

... extract on physical and chemical parameters gave significant response. NAA promotes vine length upto 12.66 feet while chlorophyll content was 72.50 SPAD Value, while fresh weight of leaves is 5.1g, dry weight is 0.41g, while fresh weight of fruit is 121.66 g and fruit length is 14.11 cm. Salicylic acid promoted vine length upto 11.33 feet while chlorophyll contents were calculated as 71.09 (SPAD Value), while fresh weight of leaves was 4.9g, dry weight was 0....
Imran Taj1,*, Ferhat Abbas1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Kamran Taj1, Deedar Ahmad2, Zahoor Ahmed2, Ghulam Mohammad2, Ajaz-ul-Haq1, Farooq Shahzad1 and Sabiha Azam3
...ied through different biochemical tests and PCR. Antibiograms and lab animal trials were also carried out on local isolates of C. perfringens type D. Out of 204 analyzed samples, 89.18 % were found positive while 10.82 % were negative for C. perfringens type D. The division wise distribution showed that Quetta, Zhob, Sibi and Kalat were more effected zones of the Balochistan province. Sheep were more effected (54.78 %) than goats (34.4 %). C. ...
Wajid Ali1,*, Asma Karim1, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3*, Ghulam Mustafa4, Zeeshan Shafique1, Ijaz Anwar1
...ys. Blood samples for biochemical analysis (blood glucose, cholesterol and total protein) and gills for histology were taken after 96 hrs. After acute exposure to pesticide, significant changes were observed in serum biochemistry and histology. Serum glucose and cholesterol were increased while total protein was decreased. Histopathological result reveled that gills of experimental fish was damage severely resulting Necrosis, Damaged nuclei , rupturing of epit...

Abdur Rehman1* and Shad Khan Khalil2 

...nd foliar application of chemicals at different growth stages on canola growth and phenology during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The experiment comprised of four moisture levels (optimum water, 10%, 20% and 30% reduced irrigation water), three chemicals (salicylic acid 0.5mM, potassium nitrate KNO3 1% and methanol 20% v/v basis) applied at three different stages (bud formation, 20% flowering and 20% pod formation). The experiment wa...

Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Javeria Choudhary1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Sohail Ahmed2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khalil

...o against permethrin. Biochemical studies indicated that Swl-strains had significantly higher activities of cellulases. Enzyme kinetics results demonstrated that Swl-strain had a maximum value of Vmax (68.4 Nm s-1) and lowest value of Km (12.8 g L-1). Fsd- and Swl-strains exhibited increased activities of amylases with Vmax value of 2.68 and 1.89 µM s-1 respectively and Km value of 23.8 g L-1 and 40.1 g L-1, respectively. These findings suggest that the ...
Nimra Naseer, Adeela Fatima and Imran Sajid*
...ened biologically and biochemically for their potential bioactive secondary metabolites against MDR bacterial pathogens. The identification of strains was done by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization and by 16SrRNA gene sequencing. For biological screening different methods including cross streak, agar plug and well diffusion method were performed. Seven Streptomyces strains including NWMD-6, ...
Song Jiang1,2, Fa-lin Zhou1, Qi-bin Yang1, Jian-hua Huang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1*
...yzed by NOS. Based on biochemical analysis of the above, results showed that O2- production could be induced significantly after cold stress at 15°C and heat stress above 30°C. SOD activity showed a similar changing profile as the concentration of O2- after thermal stress between 15°C and 30°C, and GSH concentration increased significantly under both high and low temperature. The NOS activity and conc...

Inzimamul Haq1*, Shahid Sattar1, Bashir Ahmed1, Qamar Zeb2 and Amjad Usman

...tudy the effect of these chemicals on the whole life cycle of T. chilonis. 

...

Ali Muhammad*, Yasser Durrani, Majid Suhail Hashmi, Ihsan Mabood Qazi, Muhammad Ayub and Saifullah 

...es were analyzed physico chemically (pH, %acidity, %moisture, crude protein) and organoleptically (color, taste, texture and overall acceptability) with an interval of one week for storage period of one month. The treatments were T0 (not treated), T1 (neutralized with NaOH) and T2 (neutralized with NaHCO3). Statistical analysis showed that storage intervals and treatments had a significant (p<0.05) effect on physicochemical

Mohsin Iqbal1, Farid Asif Shaheen1*, Farah Naz2, Muhammad Usman Raja2, Muhammad Fiaz3 and Muhammad Nadeem1 

...ved good alternatives to chemicals. Less number of eggs (2 per grain), more number of holes (8.3 per grain), less number of F1 adults (20.3 per jar) and more number of days (7) to 100% mortality of C. chinensis adults were recorded when chickpea grains were treated with the highest concentration of B. bassiana as compared to that of M. anisopliae. These non-chemical control strategies will have significant contribution towar...
İnan Kaya1,*, Muhitdin Yılmaz2, Müge Mavioğlu Kaya3,Abdulsamed Kükürt4 and Mahmut Karapehlivan5
...ken from the fish for biochemical studies at the end of the study period. Oxidative stress index (OSI) in plasma were evaluated as well as AST and ALT levels in the liver. Plasma OSI and liver AST levels in the groups with carbaryl and 2,4-D were compared with the control group, and they were found to be significantly higher. As a result, it was concluded that carbaryl and 2,4-D administered under of LC50 value caused liver damage by increasing the ...
Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi2*, Zillay Mariam1, Nadeem Sheikh1,2*
...c heavy metals and other chemicals of organic and inorganic nature which can house a variety of pathogens. As it drains it pollutes the groundwater table and if used for irrigation purpose represents a major health risk not only to humans but also to local flora and fauna. The purpose of current research work was to analyze the toxicity of leachate in Wistar rats. Wistar rats of about 250g were selected and divided into three groups namely Control, Group 1 and...
Farah Mansha, Abdul Rehman*
...i>sp. on the basis of biochemical tests, and showed optimum growth at 37°C and pH of 7. All the bacterial isolates showed highest enzyme activity at pH 7. Isolates H4 and M4 showed maximum enzyme activity at 55°C while H1 showed highest activity at 70°C. Chitinase activities exhibited by H1 and M4 are stimulated by the presence of Zn2+ ions, while the presence of Ni2+,Cd2+ and Cu2+ did not show any positi...

Asma Sohail1*, Kashif Sarfraz Abbasi1, Maryum Arif2 and Fatima Najam1 

...inerals and various phytochemicals. Due to the presence of two unsaturated fatty acids, these oils can reduce their biological activity on heating, volatilization, and other parameters like oxidation and UV rays. This limits the commercial application of these oils. To overcome such problems encapsulation could be a gentle approach. Prior to encapsulation, oil extraction was done by using five different solvents including ethyl acetate, n-hexane, methanol, die...

Nadia Khan1*, Abdul Waheed1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Naveed Ahmed1, Zafar Iqbal2, Seemab Ali1, Madiha Bashir1 and Hina Gul3  

...ential non-volatile phytochemicals and in vitro antibacterial activity against two phytopathogenic bacterial species (Clavibacter sp. and Xanthomonas sp.) and a human pathogenic bacterium (Escherichia coli) in 2016. Experiment was carried out by using complete randomized design with three replications in vitro. Phytochemical analysis reveals that the methanolic fraction of oil possesses metabolites like carbohydrates, amino ...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ummad-ud-Din Umar1, Ammarah Hasnain2, Ateeq ur Rehman1 and Rashida Perveen1 

...lternatives to hazardous chemicals for the control of BLB of rice. Aqueous extracts of fifteen different plant parts either individually or in combination were tested at various concentrations under in vitro conditions by poison food and disk diffusion techniques while best effective seven were trialed in glass house and field experiments to determine their efficacy against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. In vitro and in vivo studies under different conditions ...

Zubina Hameed1, Muhammad Azim Malik1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Farina Shaheen1, Ijaz Ahmad2 and Khisrao Kalim3 

...uctant to do expenses on chemical control of weeds in wheat. Similarly, due to lack of awareness, they use wheat weeds as animal fodder and the hand weeding affects crop stand and its tillering which ultimately reduces the wheat yield of the pothwar region. So, chemical control of weeds was hypothesized to be the best solution for winter weeds of rainfed wheat’s weeds and for this purpose, a field study was carried out...

 *Muhammad Waseem1, Dost Mohammad Baloch1, Ghulam Khaliq1,
M. Rashid1, Qurban Ali2 and Mustajab A. Khan3

INTENSIFICATION IN BAMBOO (Bambusa bambos L.) TRAITS IN RESPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CHEMICAL NITROGEN ALONG THE COAST OF ARABIAN SEA
... of nitrogen was used as chemical source and applied at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1. Significant differences were reported for studied traits in response to treatments. The results indicated that significant correlation was found among the traits such as plant height, number of culms per plant, stem diameter of culms and growth rate of newly emergence culms per day also showed higher vigour under the application of treatment combination {50% N from urea (the rec...

 Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa Andleeb2, Bushra Mazhar1, Anum Imtiaz1, Shaukat Ali2*

Assessment of antibiogram and resistogram of pathogenic bacteria isolated from irrigated wheat field water
...ent morphological and biochemical tests were performed to identify and characterize bacterial pathogens. Among isolated strains, two belong to genus Staphylococcus spp., other two were Pseudomonas spp. and one strain belonged to genus Salmonella spp. Effect of various parameters such as temperature and pH on growth of pathogens were also studied. Antibiogram and resistogram analysis were carried out through agar disc and agar well diffusion methods. Optimum te...

 Sumera Siddique1,†, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Muhammad Irfan1

Screening of some agri-wastes for economical cultivation of Candida tropicalis SS1
...ts indicate important biochemical attributes of the abundantly produced fruit wastes and their efficiency for economic production of C. tropicalis SS1 which could be used as SCP supplementing animal feed’s formulations.

...

 Tahir Abbas*1, Khawaja Raees Ahmad2, Asmatullah3, Khalid Pervaiz Lone4, Muhammad Ali Kanwal2, Sadia Suleman2

Reno-hepatic protective effects of Jambul against chromium induced anomalies in mice
...ey were collected for biochemical and histopathological analysis.Cr+6 treated group showed severe histological changes like necrosis, cirrhosis and dehydration in liver evident by significant elevation of Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT), Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), total protein, bilirubin, globulin, creatine and uric acid along with reduction of SGOT/SGPT, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), urea and albumin a...

Riffat Mehboob1*, Sami Ullah Mumtaz2, Zoya Manzoor3, Sajid Abaidullah2, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad1

Deranged biochemical and hematological profile of septicemia patients in Mayo hospital, Lahore

 Asma Karim1, Wajid Ali1*, Noreen Ahmad1, Muhammad Irfan2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3

Histological and biochemical study of liver of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) after acute exposure to pyrethoride (deltamethrin)
...selected to study the biochemical and histological
alterations in liver of silver carp. The LC50 1.6 μg/L was determined. Fish (n=6) were dividing into 4 groups A (control)
B, C and D (experimental). Experimental groups B, C and D were exposed to 25%, 50% and 75% of LC50
respectively for acute exposure. The blood and liver tissue sampling was done after 96hrs for histology and
biochemical analy...

Dilara Abbas Bukhari1, Abdul Rehman2*

Isolation of bioactive compounds from exudate of edible fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus
...n, Bacillus subtilus. Biochemical techniques, thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, were employed to study fungal exudate. A total of fifteen different metabolites were detected in the sample by GC/MS. The detected metabolites could be classified into chemical groups of 2 esters, 4 alcohols, 3 benzoic acids, ketone, aldehyde, phenyl and amide groups contai...

 Anam Javed, Javed Iqbal Qazi*

Skin health implications of Chemical detergents and importance of biodetergents
... of formulated synthetic chemicals are needed to investigate further to develop alternatives with ideally no or at least less side effects. This review highlights a wide range of dermal disorders which are produced due to synthetic detergents. It has studied that ultimate solution of the grave issues, is common utilization of biosurfactants from domestic to industrial level. Biodetergents do not cause health complications, and as they are readily biodegradable...

 Zubair Ahmed#, Muhammad Farhanullah Khan, Habiballah Rana*

Toxicological effects of Haloxylon recurvum Bunge ex Boiss (Khar Boti) whole plant extract and novel insecticide chlorantraniliprole against maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky
...ect resistance to
chemical insecticides. In these regards, a study were carried out to evaluate
toxicity of crude methanol extract of whole plant of Haloxylon recurvum (Khar boti)
and a novel insecticide chlorantraniliprole. A serial concentration of extract i.e.,
1.2%, 2.4%, 3.6%, 4.8%, 6.0% and insecticide 0.00224%, 0.00448%, 0.00896%,
0.01792%, 0.02688%, respectively, were topically applied to adult S. zeamais.
Cont...

Nabila Roohi, Mehjabeen, Samina Ashraf*

Effects of cigarette smoking on serum proteins profile in male active and passive smokers
... in bound state with the chemicals, whereas, total globulins,
gamma globulins and non-gamma globulin serum proteins have shown significant
increase in smokers. Our findings provide primary information about fractions and
total serum proteins of cigarette smokers. The decrease in albumin justifies the
reduction in total serum proteins and elevation in globulins. Smoking cessation
plays a significant role in recovery of these p...

 Siddra Tayyab Akhtar, Anjum Nasim Sabri

Twitching, swimming, swarming in biofilm forming strains in response to chemical and physical factors
...ponse to different physiochemical factors. Twenty-two
morphologically different bacterial strains were collected from a drain of sewage
water located in the vicinity of Jinnah hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Six biofilm forming
bacterial strains were selected on the basis of their motility and biofilm forming
ability firstly by growing them on congo red agar medium and then by performing
ring test. By 16S rRNA sequencing, bacteria...

 Raazia Kiran1, Alya Riaz1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir2

An overview of pre-treatment methods used for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into valuable products
...onication, and bursting, chemical methods i.e.,
solvents, acids, salts, bases, the physicochemical processes include liquid hot
water and AFEX (ammonium fibre explosion), biological methods involving whiterot/
brown-rot fungi and bacteria, and quite a few combinations thereof to
breakdown the lignocellulose into its components. Pre-treatment process changes
cellulose morphological,
Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Tehseen Zamir3, Zahid Hussain1, Syed Shahid Ali4*
...lowing morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization. Best medium for lipase production was olive oil and mustard oil cake and the best carbon sources were fructose and maltose whereas yeast extract was found to be the best nitrogen source, showing 55U/mL enzyme activity. The best inoculum size for the growth of this strain was 4-5%. Optimum pH was 8 and best temperature was 40oC for the reported strain. Addition of divalent Mg2+
Muhammad S. Waqas, Ali A.Z. Shoaib, Xinlai Cheng, Qianqian Zhang, Asem S.S. Elabasy and Zu-hua Shi*
...ing male, or spraying of chemicals during the time of male activity, may be an effective practice for the management of this pest.
...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Arif1, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi3, Muhammad Munir4 and Imran Khan

... for their fruit physico-chemical characteristics and yield behavior at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I. Khan (Pakistan) during 2013 and 2014. The genotypes of bottle gourd were Hazarvi, Anmol, Amber, King, Advanta-205, Surbhi, Royal, Nobel, Sharmic and Louki (local check variety). The experiment was laid-out in randomized complete block design having ten treatments (including 9 exotics plus 1 local genotype) and three replications. The results s...
A.M. Abdul Azeem, A.N. El Shahat* and Ashraf M. Mounir
...extract (GPE) against biochemical alterations of lead induced testicular and hepato-toxicity in rats. From the results, it was obtained that gamma irradiation induced significant increase in the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of pomegranate peels powder. Concurrent treatments of lead-injected rats with GPE induced significant reduction in serum activities of liver enzymes, level of hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation and plasma levels of...

Ali Zohaib1*, Saima Yousaf1,2, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Tahira Tabassum1, Tasawer Abbas3, Wardah Muzaffar1 and Wasiq Ikram2 

...t considerable losses of chemical fertilizers occur that add to environmental pollution and reduced nutrient use efficiency. However, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are cheap and excellent alternate and can be applied as seed inoculation to enhance nutrient use efficiency along with reduced nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed inoculation viz. control (no treatment), Rhizobium japonicum (nitrogen fixing ...
Muhammad Ijaz1, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Rahmatullah2, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Sadaqat Ali3,*, Awais Ghaffar1, Ahmad Ali1 and Sehrish Saleem1
...rit and various serum biochemical parameters (serum electrolytes, trace and ultra-trace elements) in foals. A total of 105 diarrheic foals (n = 35 horse foals, n = 35 donkey foals, and n = 35 mule foals) were selected regardless of their etiologies. Additionally, 12 healthy foals (n = 4 horse foals, n = 4 donkey foals, and n = 4 mule foals) as control animals were selected for this study. Packed cell volume (PCV) and serum electrolytes, trace and ultra-trace e...

Fouzia Tabssum1, Qamar uz Zaman2*, Yinglong Chen3,4, Umair Riaz5*, Waqas Ashraf6, Ambreen Aslam2, Nusrat Ehsan2, Rab Nawaz2, Humera Aziz7 and Shamim ul Sibtain Shah8 

...water potential), and biochemical attributes (SOD, CAT, MDA, EL and T CHL). Under field conditions, exogenous application of optimized dose of proline both at seedling establishment and vegetative stage significantly improved the performance of rice cultivars by improving tillering dynamics, plant water-relations, chlorophyll pigments, photosynthetic pigments, morphological and yield related traits of rice cultivars. Proline application improved the efficiency...
Fatih Korkmaz1, Veysel Parlak2, Özgür Kaynar3, Arzu Ucar2, Gonca Alak1,* and Muhammed Atamanalp2
... growth activity, physicochemical values (TVB-N, TBARS and pH) and prolonged shelf life in a natural preservative dependence were observed in the fillets. Generally all the test parameters, such as microbiological, physicochemical as well as the lowest mean values were identified in the coatings of the fillets with turmeric and cardamom (p<0.05). Control and quinoa groups resulted in increased number of bacteria and
Shaher Bano1, Sarah Ghafoor1,* and Nadia Naseem2
... animals. The immunohistochemical expression of TGF-α in ductal epithelium of both salivary glands was decreased in experimental group sacrificed at 5 weeks. However no significant change was observed in TGF-α expression in ductal epithelium of salivary glands in rats sacrificed at 9 weeks.T3 has a temporal effect on TGF-α expression during early postnatal rat salivary gland development. 
...
Ghulam Ali1,3, Wopke van der Werf2 and Just M. Vlak1,
...peed of kill relative to chemicals and continued feeding following application limit their effectiveness in preventing crop losses. Here we studied the food consumption and weight gain of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera litura following application of two viral doses of Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (Pakistan isolate SpltNPV-Pak-BNG). Infected larvae with final polyhedrosis (disease resulting in dissolution of larval tissues and accumulation of ...

Sahar Shibli1,2*, Farzana Siddique1, Saeeda Raza2, Zaheer Ahsan3 and Irum Raza4 

Saima Yousaf1,2, Ali Zohaib2*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum2, Tahira Tabassum2, Tasawer Abbas3, Sohail Irshad4, Usman Javed5 and Naila Farooq6 

...p productivity. However, chemical fertilizers are prone to losses and fixation thereby decreasing the nutrient use efficiency. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be applied to improve the growth and yield by improving nutrient availability to crop plants. A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of seed inoculation with PGPRs on yield and quality of different genotypes of soybean. Seed inoculation treatments [control (no treatmen...

Babar Tasim1, Tariq Masood1*, Zafar Ali Shah1, Muhammad Arif2, Ata Ullah1, Ghazal Miraj3 and Muhammad Samiullah4 

...is important to know its chemical and physical properties which depend on the type of the initial material used. Agricultural residues of different types (e.g., Sesbania stems (Sesbania punicea, SS), Chickpea plant (Cicer arietinum, CP), Maize cobs (Zea Mays, MC), Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum, WS), Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) bagasse (BG) and Animal dung (AD) were pyrolyzed at temperature range of 300-500 oC in order to compare the biochar samples obta...

Sabi-ur-rehman1, Farooq Azam1, Shaheed Ur Rehman2, Tasbeeh Ur Rahman3, Ayeza Mehmood4, Afshan Gohar5 and Abdul Samad5* 

...rmacological active phytochemicals i.e. conocarpan, conocarpol, gallic acid, ellagic acid, ellagitannin, castalagin, quercetin, myricetin and syringetin etc. The review expresses the ethanomedicinal potential of this plant specie as well as its importance in modern medicines.  

...
Tamoor Azeem1,*, M. Yasin Tipu1, Asim Aslam1, Sajjad Ahmed2, Salman Ahmed Abid1, Abdullah Iqbal3, Naeem Akhtar4, Muhammad Saleem4, Aamerzish Mushtaq4 and Sajid Umar4
...to investigate haematobiochemical alterations in camels during haemoparasitism. Blood samples were collected from 200 camels of either sex and different ages from district Attock. Samples were processed for haematobiochemical analysis and thin smear stained with Field stain according to standard procedure. Out of 200 camels 46% of them have blood parasites. Trypanosoma was the most prevalent (32.5%) followed by diptel...
Muhammad Huzaifa Mehmood1, Muhammad Ahmad Iqbal2, Muhammad Daood1, Muhammad Rizwan Tariq3*, Khubaib Ali3
...s fatty acid and physico-chemical analysis were performed. The pH texture, fat, protein, blood lipid profile and PUFA concentration was significantly affected by the incorporation of oat in rabbit feed. It was concluded that the supplementation of 2% oat in rabbit feed increase n-3 PUFA in meat while improvement in serum lipid profile was observed by 4% supplementation of oat seeds. It was also observed that fat percentage in meat was also reduced by oat seed ...
Huseyin Cetin1,*, Oner Kocak2, Emre Oz1, Samed Koc1, Yesim Polat1 and Kalender Arıkan2
...the toxicities of tested chemicals, based on their KDT50 (Knock-down 50 times) values, increased when mixed with PBO.
...
Tafail Akbar Mughal1, Muhammad Zubair Saleem2, Shaukat Ali3,*, Khawaja Khurshid Anwar1, Muhammad Majid Bashir1, Muhammad Babar4 and Muhammad Adeeb Khan1
...te dehydrogenase) and biochemical components like glucose, urea, lipids, cholesterol and protein contents both in the liver and blood while DNA and RNA contents only in liver. The administration of CCl4 resulted in increase in plasma ALAT and decrease in LDH. Vitamin E pre-treatment abolished CCl4-induced changes in the activities of these enzymes. Blood glucose content was increased while cholesterol content was decreased. Vitamin E pre-...

Hina Ali*, Iram Shaheen and Feroza Hamid Wattoo 

...y was to perform physico-chemical and microbial analysis of drinking water samples of different areas of Rawalpindi. The water samples were collected into sterile containers from the different localities of Rawalpindi such as Dhokekala khan, Morgah, Scheme-III, Gulshandadan khan, Satellite town, Dhoke kashmirian, Pandora, Bahria town, University campus (Mehr water) and Air Port. The pH of PMAS-AAUR campus water ( Mehr Water) was found within WHO recommended va...
Fariha Latif* and Muhammad Javed
...>The potential use of biochemical techniques along with antioxidant parameters has gained considerable attention due to their use as biomarkers to assess contaminants impact on fish at earlier level of exposure. Fish from different species has diverse ecological needs and respond differently to the environmental stress conditions. Thus, the sensitivity, bioaccumulation and antioxidant capacities of three major carps Catla catla, Labeo rohita and ...
Muhammad Usman Ahmadand Ikram-ul-Haq*
...sis of microscopy and biochemical testing. E. coli strain EC4 was screened as best oxyrase producer with activity of 0.41±0.008U/mL/min with 41% reduction in dissolved oxygen at pH 7.5, temperature 37°C, 25mM lactate as H+ donor after 20 min. This strain was later on confirmed by 16S ribotyping procedure. Oxyrase was used for improved cultivation of anaerobic bacteria by employing Hungate Technique where its antioxidant potential w...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...gical, physiological, biochemical, molecular and genetic characteristics of the plants. As the information about the relationship between physico-morphic characteristics of commercially grown okra cultivars and resistance or susceptibility to Helicoverpa armigera is lacking, therefore, in the present study relationship between physico-morphic characteristics and resistance or susceptibility of okra cultivars to H. armigera was evaluated. The heig...
Hua-Lun Luo, Yi-Yu Zhang*, Yuan-Yu Qin and Lei Wu
... these measured serum biochemical indexes except for LDL-C. Significant additive effects were detected for all detected serum biochemical indexes except for LDL-C between allele A and G, and significant dominance effects for TP. These findings suggested that ChREBP might be a crucial candidate genes for the selection of duck lipid content.
...
Hafiz Abdullah Akbar, Zafar Iqbal, Waqas Raza*, MuhammadUsman Ghazanfar and Salman Ahmad
...nt plant extracts /allelochemicals and salicylic acid on the growth of Penicillium digitatum causes citrus green mould by using 7 plant extracts alone and in combination with wax and 3 concentrations of salicylic acid alone and in combination with wax. The study revealed that in case of plant extracts maximum growth inhibition (35.90 %) was shown by Anar followed by Chabir (33.60%) and Garlic (29.16%), while minimum growth inhibition was recorded from P...

Sabi-Ur-Rehman1, Anwar Khalid2, Qazi Najam Us Saqib3, Farooq Ahmad1, Shaheed-Ur-Rehman4, Neelam Zaman3, Ayeza Mehmood5 and Abdul Samad6*  

...n respectively. The phytochemical analysis of leaves and roots extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, tannins, phenols and flavonoids etc. It is concluded that S. saligna crude extracts as well as crude saponins exhibit broad antimicrobial spectrum against various disease-causing microbes. 

...
Tahira Moeen Khan* and Amat ul Mateen
...of harmful and expensive chemical/physical methods. A cheaper, simple to perform method giving high yield without by products is employed here. The leaf extract act both as reducing and capping agent. The atomic absorption shows a linear curve between concentration and absorbance. The uv-vis spectrum revealed the shift of absorption towards longer wavelength with the increasing concentration of plant extract. XRD indicates CuO Nps particle size is in between 1...
Shehzad Ghayyur1,3, Sadia Tabassum1, Munawar Saleem Ahmad2Naveed Akhtar1 and Muhammad Fiaz Khan1,*
...matological and seral biochemical components of Oreochromis mossambicus. RBCs, Hb and Hct decrease significantly (p < 0.05) indicating an anemic condition, while the WBCs and platelet counts increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all the treated groups compared to the control group. Among the seral biochemical parameters, the level of blood glucose, cortisol and cholesterol were significantly increased (p < 0.05), wh...
Muhammad Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Afzal1, Yasir Iftikhar2, Samina Khalid3, Zahoor Hussain4, Jaime Molina-Ochoa5,6 and John E. Foster6
...k the efficacy of tested chemicals and essential oils. As seen from results, abamectin showed significant mortality (63.5%) of CLM larvae when topical bioassay was performed. Similarly, the percent mortality of CLM larvae was 53.8% after application of abamectin, when leaf dip bioassay technique was used. However, among tested botanicals, Azadirachta indica oil showed better results with percent CLM mortality of 35.6%, through topical bioassay an...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,2, Azhar Qayum3, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Naif Awdh Al-Maliki4, Abdulaziz Alamri4 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,5,*
...formative capacity by biochemical and signalling readouts in these patients. Dynamical implications and functional impact of variants were determined by in silico analysis and molecular docking of variants with GTP. MutationTaster was used for functional analysis of genetic variants and three-dimensional structure of mutant proteins were built by Swiss-Model and were further subjected to structural alignment and stability studies by I-Mutant Suite and DUET ser...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...e the environment either chemically through haphazard usage of medications and or biologically through massive use of homologous/heterologous vaccines especially the live ones. The aim of the current work is to estimate the persistence time for velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) of genotype VII in poultry manure in compare to LaSota vaccine strain as a model of genotype II. Velogenic NDV of genotype VII are a major threat to the Egyptian poultry industry ...

Javed Asghar Tariq1*, Bashir Ahmed2, Manzoor Ali Abro2, Muhammad Ismail1, Muhammad Usman Asif1 and Raza Muhammad1 

... microscopy and other biochemical tests. The bacteria were tentatively identified as Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, Bacillus and Micrococus. These bacteria were checked for their antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. alium cepa. They all were found to inhibit fungus showing inhibition zone 4.09 -74.97%. Hence, on the basis of these studies, it can be concluded that these bacteria can be used as a biocontrol agent to manage other fungal diseases of...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

...was confirmed through biochemical testing. The quarter wise prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 25%. Within this, contribution of Gram-negative bacteria was 68% and that of Gram-positive bacteria was 32%. Among 30 positive samples, percentage prevalence of different bacterial species was: E.coli (37%), S. aureus (23%), Pseudomonas (20%), Streptococcus (10%), Proteus (7%) and Salmonella (3%). The study reported high percentage of E. coli in cases of subclini...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...nce, cultural, physical, chemical and biological control. Studies on pathogen variation have revealed that breeding with single major gene for resistance may be unsuccessful due to breakdown in resistance. Up to this extent, multi cropping using resistant varieties appears to be better option for the disease’s management. Evidence from my laboratory suggest that biological control is the best option having ecofriendly activities for the management either...

Gulnaz Saleem1, Aijaz Hussain Soomro1*, Nouman Rashid2 and Mehar un Nisa Narejo3 

...05) variation in physico-chemical characteristics of four lentil varieties. The NIA-Masoor variety showed higher values for ash, fat and fiber (3.02%, 3.02% and 10.99%) respectively. Whereas; PM-09 possessed higher moisture (13.89%); though Masoor-93 was higher in protein content (25.16%) than all other varieties. The supplementation resulted in a significant increase in protein, fat, crude fiber and ash contents of the biscuits. The thickness and spread facto...
Bushra Siddique1,*, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Naeem1 and Muhammad Ali2
...al ecosystems. Different chemical cues help to correspond in diversity of associations between prey and host plant species. Recent studies exhibited that the use of natural enemy is an ecofriendly measure to control pests. The Seven spotted ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata play a prominent role in aphid management. It exploits several different cues released by plants to increase the efficiency of foraging. Aphid endoparasitoid, Diaeretiell...
Rıfat Ertekin1*, Mete Ozkurt1, Gokhan Kus2 and Selda Kabadere1
...ew, effective methods or chemicals should be developed. Tolfenamic acid (TA) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicine stimulating apoptosis in cancer cells like pancreas, oesophagus and lungs. This study aims to determine the role of TA in cell viability and apoptosis in glioma cells (T-98G) and androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer cell line (LNCaP). In our study, 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 μM doses of TA were applied to T-98G and LNCaP cell lines fo...

Muhammad Usman Ghani1*, Muti Ur Rehaman Khan1, Asim Aslam1, Zubair Shabbir2, Li Bo3 and Naveed Anwar4 

...A in presence of certain chemical reagents. In order to detect and differentiate parapox infections from those induced by pox virus. A new parapox specific and sensitive PCR assay based on amplification of B2L gene was applied against conserved gene of Orf virus. Crusted scraps and biopsies from different portion of skin and blood were taken as sample for PCR. Gross, histopathological, hematological examination was carried out to rule out possible cause of inf...
Yuyu Wang, Gangchun Xu*, Zhijuan Nie, Quanjie Li, Nailin Shao and Pao Xu*
...th performance, serum biochemical parameters, digestive enzymes activity and antioxidant status of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) reared in an in-pond raceway system (IPRS). Fish (initial average body weight: 35.68±2.12g) were randomly allotted to in-pond raceways (26.2m×5m×2.5m) stocked at two stocking densities (68 and 114 fish/m3, respectively). Fish were fed twice daily (08:00 and 17:00), and the daily ration f...

Ayat Ullah* and Ayesha Khan 

...edge of improved ways of chemical, biological and cultural control methods in the rain-fed districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Using multistage random sampling technique data were collected from 395 respondents according to Yamane’s formula. The study uses the Kruskal–Wallis H test for checking differences among farmers knowledge with differences in their contact with extension service providers. The results revealed significant differences ...

Zahin Anjum1*, Farhat Shehzad1, Amina Rahat1, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Saleem Khan3 

...efer to a large group of chemicals that may be present in the environment as pollutants and can enter the food chain and might be carcinogenic to humans. The lead content was found high in fish with the mean value of 3.18mg/kg and the lowest values were observed in chicken with mean value of 1.38mg/kg. The chrysene, naphthalene, flourenthene and Dibenz(a,h) anthracene concentrations were also found high in fish and mutton. The observed values were greater than...

Mehran Ahmad, Syed Attaullah Shah and Shahid Ali* 

...nstraint. Nitrophous and chemicals were over utilized as their allocative efficiencies were less than 1. The study recommends that government may provide subsidized inputs and interest free production credit to poor farmers for purchase of chemical fertilizers for optimal utilization of these inputs.

...
Syeda Shazia Bokhari*, Ghashia Qayyum, Uzma Rafi and Aisha Waheed Qurashi
...ied through different biochemical tests and morphological characterization. Bacterial strains were screened and those showing positive results for their adherence ability, autoaggregation and coaggregation response were used for the vermicomposting process. Both of these strains were inoculated for vermicomposting and whole of the setup was maintained for 60 days.The results showed that microbes were characterised and identified as Bacillus cereus and <...
Iram Liaqat1,*, Nazish Mazhar Ali2, Najma Arshad3, Riffat Iqbal1 and Zain-ul-Abideen1
... by morphological and biochemical study. Only one strain DUV1 was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as D. vulgaris (accession number: KY698020). It showed significantly reduced biofilm formation (52%; p<0.05) by test tube method compared to liquid interface coverslip assay (35%) and congo red assay. D. vulgaris was treated with various concentrations (5, 40, 80 and 100µM) of salicylidene acylhydrazide and 5-15 µM of proteases (...

Kamran Aziz1*, Aamir Saleem1 and Arshad Mahmood Malik2 

...tion was carried through chemical analysis in the laboratory and litter fall production was estimated by trapper technique. Under Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana canopy, the leaf litter was collected and brought back to laboratory for the further chemical analysis. The Total annual litter fall production of Cedrus deodara was 4.2209t/ha/annum while the Pinus wallichiana was estimated 4.6097t/ha/annum. It showed that the...

Amjad Ali1*, Wiqar Ahmad1, Muhammad Zeeshan1, Farmanullah Khan2 and Muhammad Motasim Billah1 

...icro-nutrient status and chemical properties after maize harvest in Summer 2016. Particle sizes in the above order showed 3, 2 and 2% increase in soil pH over the control (7.63) and 15, 10 and 6% increase in soil EC over the control (125 mS cm-1), respectively. Their OM contents (1.73, 1.68 and 1.67%) registered 98, 93 and 91% increase over the OM in the control (0.87%), respectively. Amonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) extracta...

Zafar Abbas1*, Muhammad Mubashir1, Umair Riaz1, Zeenat Javid1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Saeed ur Rehman1, Muhammad Javid Qamar1, Syed Ali Zulqadar1 and Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2 

...) on the yield and physiochemical attributes of okra Abelmoschus esculentus a field trial was conducted. For this purpose, organic form of fertilizers like kitchen waste, poultry manure and compost were used while the inorganic sources were NPK fertilizer. This experiment was laid out in the field area of soil and water testing laboratory for research, Bahawalpur in growing seasons from July to October of 2017. Treatments were arranged in Two factorial Complet...

Sadaf Rahim and Mudassar Iqbal* 

...evelopment of local agro-chemical product as environmental friendly biodegradable organic insecticides. 

...
Zil-e-Huma1, 2, Abdul Malik Tareen3, Kaleem Ullah3, Tauseef M Asmat4,Abdul Samad4Asim Iqbal2, Mohammad Zahid Mustafa3*,Irshad Ahmad5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman6
...nial characteristics, biochemical profile and specie specific PCR. Multiplex PCR was applied to differentiate among the five main diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). Results show that the virulent EAEC strain of E. coli was found to be the most prev...
Constance Obiageli Ejilibe1, Helen O. Nwamba2, Ifeanyi Chinedu Atama3,*, Chiamaka Lynda Ani2, Ifeanyi Oscar Aguzie3, Josephine C. Madu3 and Christopher Didigwu Nwani3
...tudy investigated the biochemical responses of Bufo regularis tadpoles exposed to two widely used agricultural pesticides, Butaforce® and Termex®. The Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total protein (TP) concentrations in homogenized muscle samples was determined by standard procedures. ALT, AST and ALP increased significantly in response to concentrations of Bu...

Chukwuemeka Calistus Okolo1*, Ikenna Onyema Ezeh2, Chinelo Nnenna Uju3 and Nwakaego Ernestina Nweze1 

... Parasitaemia, haematobiochemical, and oxidative stress markers were determined. At day 13 PS, there were no significant (p< 0.05) variations in mean parasitaemia of groups A, B and D. At day 16 PS, the parasites had cleared from the peripheral blood of rats in groups A and B, but remained detectable in group D. Although group D had significantly higher total erythrocyte count and haemoglobin concentration compared to groups A--C, and E, no significant vari...
Adel E.M. Mahmoud1, AdamCieślak2, Paulina Szulc2, Anna Łukomska3 and Małgorzata Szumacher-Strabel2,*
...nd 100% (D4). Results of chemical composition analyses indicated that DM, OM, ash and CP contents did not differ among treatments. Crude fiber content increased linearly with increased dried sugar beet pulp percentage in rations, with significant differences in D2, D3 and D4. Content of NDF was significantly higher in all experimental groups when compared with control group, whereas non-fibrous carbohydrates content decreased in all groups as the effect of cor...

Muhammad Sharif1*, Sadullah1, Ghulam Rasool2, Muhammad Nasir Khan1, Zubair Rehman1, Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Khalid Hussain4 

... effects on soil physico-chemical properties such as total organic carbon (TOC), infiltration rates, soil water contents (SWC), soil reaction (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), soil bulk density, total soil porosity, soil temperature, crop biomass and crop yield. The results revealed that TOC under ZT (0.57%) was increased significantly. EC of ZT (0.314 ds m-1) was decreased numerically, but pH was not affected by tillage treatments. No significant difference...

Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1*, Ghulam Sarwar1, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Noor-Us-Sabah1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad2 

...r different physical and chemical characteristics. Sorghum biomass, plant height, plant diameter and no of plants/m2 were noted and it was observed from results that leaching fraction technique proved useful to mitigate the ill effects of brackish water. All the collected data were subjected to statistical analysis.  

...
Sabbah M. Allam, T.M. El-Bedawy, M.H. Bakr and A.E.M. Mahmoud*
...were almost identical in chemical composition. Results of nutrient digestibility and nutritive value, as total digestible nutrients (TDN) and digestible crude protein, showed that there were insignificant (P>0.05) differences between cows fed R2, R3 and R4 compared with those fed R1 (control), except digestibility of nitrogen free extract which was significantly (P≤0.05) decreased by feeding experimental rations by increasing replacement level of DOP to ...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Naimat Ullah Khan3, Muhammad Asfandyar Khan2, Kashif Prince1,*, Mahboob Ali1, Ghazunfar Rashid1 and Azmat Ulah Khan2
...stics, Gram staining, biochemical tests and CFU/g. Clostridium perfringens was isolated from 43.45% of lambs and 50.59% of the kids. Obtained isolates were further analyzed for toxinotyping with conventional PCR. Sequence analysis of 73 strains from diseased lambs showed 13.10% type A, 9.52% type B and highest 20.83% proportion of Clostridium perfringens type D. Out of 108 strains from kids, 54.62% were type A, 9.25% were type B and 36.11% were t...
Mohammed Al Bratty1,*, Hassan A. Alhazmi1,2, Desam Nagarjuna Reddy3, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab3, Sadique A. Javed1 and Zia ur Rehman1,4
...ty, Saudi Arabia and the chemical constituents of the ethanolic extract was evaluated by GC-MS. The ethanolic extract was tested against selected strains of microorganisms for its antibacterial and antifungal activities. The major classes of compounds indentified in the extract were fatty acid esters and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Methyl-(7Z)-7-hexadecenoate, methyl-(9E)-octadecenoate and methyl tetracosanoate were found to be the principal fatty acid esters, whi...
Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Asma Ashraf 2*, Iram Liaqat2, Bushra Mazhar2, Shaukat Ali2 and Saiqa Andleeb3
...hological and various biochemical tests. Morphologcal tests included different staining procedures includng Gram’s staining and Endospore staining. Identification  of pathogenic bacterial isolates was confirmed by growing on selective medium. Antibacterial activity of different compounds was observed against the pathogenic bacterial isolates. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) test of different kinds of honey was performed against the isolated b...
Manzoor Hussain*, Marie Maňasová, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek
...eatus,along with two chemicals,Vydate and Basamid (G),were evaluated against northern root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne hapla, on carrots in a greenhouse. All fungi and chemicals proved to be efficient in reducing the infestation level of Meloidogyne hapla and providing better growth of carrots compared to their controls. Maximum reductions in nematode population were observed in the plants treated wi...
Shad Mahfuz1,2, Shuyuan Wang1, Mo Chen1, Fei Zao1, Dong Zhen1
Zhongjun Liu4 and Hui Song1,3*

Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Rashid Mahmood2, Ziyad Abdul Qadir2, Muhammad Arshad1 and Mubasshir Sohail3 

...including application of chemicals, are adopted to control the infestation of mites in honey bee colonies. Chemical are still the most effective option; however, they pose different threats; due to which they should be alternated with non chemical options. Natural acaricides are considered important alternative control measure for Varroa mites. This study was planned to check the efficacy ...
Zhijun Zhong1, Rui Tu1, Xichun Wang2, Yi Geng1, Qicheng Xiao1, Yinan Tian1, Bin Wei1, Jiaming Dan1, Ya Wang1 and Guangneng Peng1,*
...ological, and immunohistochemical analysis to detect this pathogen in pet dogs. Molecular methods, combining three types of PCR assays, identified two strains isolated from two pet dogs as Brucella canis. Histopathological changes revealed extensive inflammation and necrosis in the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, testicle, and lymph nodes, among which changes in the spleen were the most serious. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated the detection of

Illahi Bux Bhatti1, 2*, Imran Khatri2, Maqsood Anwar Rustamani2 and Riffat Sultana

... yellow sticky traps and chemical against sugarcane whitefly during February 2016 at PARC-NSTHRI, Thatta, experimental field. The result revealed that lowest number of whitefly (0.38 nymphs + puparia per cm2 per leaf) with highest % mortality (79.89) was recorded in T11 (cultural control + biological control + chemical control), followed by T10 (Cultural control + Biological control + Yellow sticky traps) in which recorded 0...

Aamir Saleem1, Arshad Mahmood Malik2*, Najam Ul Hassan1 and Imtiaz A. Qamar

...a regarding the physical-chemical analysis of the soil (ph, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, organic matter and available phosphorus), crop parameter (Number of tillers, number of leaves, plant height, fresh land dry weight and crude protein) and meteorological data regarding rain fall, temperature, pan evaporation, sunshine and wind speed for interpreting results along with their statistical analysis as fixing legume with grass has improved the forage...

Wajid Shah Yousafzai1, Irfan Ullah1*, Amjad Ali1, Mahmood Iqbal2 and Salman Khan1 

...abor (M-days), FYM (kg), chemical fertilizer (kg), pesticide/weedicide (ml), and irrigation numbers have positive effects on onion production in the research area. Allocative efficiency estimates showed that tractor hours, FYM, chemical fertilizer, and pesticide/weedicide are under-utilized having ratios of 22.15, 8.65, 5.49 and 34.69 respectively. Similarly, seed rate and irrigation numbers are over utilized having values o...

Muhammad Naeem Khan* and Asad Jan 

...tudy was to explore phytochemical constituents of methanolic crude extract (MCE) and various solvent fractions and in-vitro antimicrobial activities of whole plant of D. botrys. Qualitative phytochemical screening of MCE and solvent fractions of D. botrys showed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and sterols, however in n-hexane fraction (HxF) only flavonoids and saponins were detected. In quan...

Saifullah* and Ihsan Mabood Qazi 

...esign to investigate the chemical composition, functional properties and microstructure of fine wheat flour (FWF) and whole wheat flour (WWF) of the selected varieties. These varieties were collected from different research stations located in the province. The grains were milled using laboratory scale flour mill. Part of the flour of each variety was passed from mesh to remove the bran and get fine flour. Both whole and fine flour of the selected wheat variet...

Sibgha Noreen*, Sumrina Faiz, Muhammad Salim Akhter, Kausar Hussain Shah 

...e, neutral and non-toxic chemical compounds which have low molecular weight. These molecules help the plants to regulate osmotic adjustment and to enhance abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study was aimed to examine mitigation effects of different osmoprotectants (salicylic acid, ascorbic acid, proline and their admixture) @ 200 mgL-1 on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown under saline environment (150 mM NaCl). The results showed that salinity stres...

Shahid Ali1*, Farhan1, Murtaza1, Neelum Andaleeb2 and Amjad Ali1 

...hat seed quantity, urea, chemicals (Pesticides and weedicides), labor and tractor hours were statistically significant with the coefficients of -0.027, 0.090, 0.060, 0.223 and 0.056, respectively. The estimated results of SFP model-2 revealed that household’s education level was having negative and significant effect on technical inefficiency. Among the sampled respondents owners were technically more inefficient as compared to the tenants. Farm size was...

Betül Ayça Dönmez, Sarbesh Das Dangol and Allah Bakhsh* 

...m strains using the histochemical GUS analysis. The highest gusA gene transfer efficiency rate both for leaf (60%) and internode (100%) explants was observed in cv. Desiree using Agrobacterium strain GV2260, while the highest gene transfer efficiency rate for leaf and internode explants in S. chacoense M6 were obtained with AGL1. The highest callus formation for both cv. Desiree and S. chacoense M6 was obtained on cv. Desiree leaf explants, transformed via the...
Muhammad Furqan Shahid1*, Tahir Yaqub1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu2, Asim Aslam2, Saima Yaqub1, Aziz-ul-Rahman3, Muzaffar Ali1
...characteristics. Sero-biochemical analysis of blood collected at 7th DPI revealed an increase in aspartate amino transaminase (246-308 U/L), alanine amino transferase (31-58 U/L) and blood urea nitrogen (11.21-22.58 mg/dl). 
...
Hafiz Muhammad Arsalan1, Maria Altaf1, Zeemal Seemab Amin1, Muhammad Khalil Ahmad Khan2, Anum Shahzadi1, Hina Mudasser1, Iqra Maqsood1, Nazia Gulshan1, Saira Naseem3
...een Anti-Oxidants and Biochemical status in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients. 60 clinically diagnosed Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients and 50 healthy persons were included in this study. 5 ml Blood was drawn and serum was separated. Anti-Oxidant Biomarkers, Serum micronutrients, serum Electrolyte balance was measured through spectrophotometric procedure. Serum MDA level jump high in patients (14.19) as compared to normal subjects (3.26). Serum Glutathione decli...
Chaman Ara1*, Asmatullah1, Zainab Riaz1, Memoona1, Asma Chaudhary2, Shagufta Andleeb2
...to control. Regarding biochemical parameters results had shown an increased enzymatic level of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and a significant increase in bilirubin levels in BP group. Significant raised patterns were recorded for urea and creatinine in BP intoxicated mice against control. Histological defects observed were necrosis, pyknosis, increased sinosuidal spaces, portal hypertension, glomeruloscle...

Syeda Naila, Muhammad Ibrar, Fazal Hadi* and Muhammad Nauman Khan 

...tudied. Preliminary phytochemical screenings of different extracts of Oxalis pes-caprae L. showed the presence of carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponin, fats and oils 

...
Saman Muhsin Abdulkareem* and Nadir Mustafa Nanakali
...iver were removed for biochemical analysis including the level of oxidative stress biomarkers, liver enzymes, and the expression of CYP1A1 gene. The results of this study indicated that exposure to TCDD (10µg/kg/day) could significantly increase liver oxidative stress biomarkers and serum liver enzymes (p<0.05). While, pre and post treatment of QCT (20 mg/kg/day) had protective effects on hepatotoxicity induced by TCDD and could significantly d...
Nazir Ahmad Khan1,*, Mudassir Alam1, Rafiullah khan1, Kamran Khan2 and Sadeeq ur Rahman3
...his study quantified the chemical composition and amino acid profile of grains from newly developed QPM hybrids and evaluated the effect of replacing conventional maize (CM) with QPM in broiler feed on bird’s performance, diet digestibility, nitrogen retention, meat amino acids profile and farm profitability. Grains of QPM200 and QPM300 hybrids, approved by Pakistan maize variety evaluation committee in January 2017, were provided by International Maize ...
Ammara Blouch1, Ata ul Mohsin2, Muhammad Naeem2 and Rashid Mahmood1*
...important alternates for chemical control of economically damaging insect pests like leaf worm, Spodoptera litura Fabricius. In this study, two commercial products including Dipel with Bt sub speciess kurstaki and Turex with Bt sub speciess kurstaki and aizawai were tested against three early larval instars of S. litura under laboratory conditions using leaf dip method. Mortality was recorded after three ...

Awais Ahmed Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal1 and Muhammad Atiq2 

...stem, by inducing the biochemical alterations. These treatments effectively enhanced the activities of peroxidase (POD), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total phenolic contents. Salicylic acid showed highest POD activity (8.4 U/min g protein), SOD (6.96 U/ min g protein) and TPC (3.21 mg GAE/ 100g of sample) as compared to control where POD (1.13 U/min g protein), SOD (1.46 U/ min g protein), and TPC (1.14 mg GAE/ 100g of sample). Amount of hydrogen peroxide (...
Mubasher Ahmad Malik1, Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad2, Muhammad Jalal Arif1 and Jam Nazeer Ahmad1,*
...loped resistance against chemical insecticides. To overcome this problem there is dire need to explore alternative control measures which are safer to the environment and compatible with human health. The present study was conducted to investigate the insecticidal properties of native isolated Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PxGV) and Azadirachta indica (AZA) on mortality and development of P. xylostella under laboratory conditions. Both...

Jawad Ali*, Ibad Ullah Jan and Hidayat Ullah 

...ily by disrupting its biochemical and physiological functions. The current study was conducted to appraise the Selenium (Se) role in improving the drought tolerance in okra. Drought stress (three days (control), six days (mild stress) and nine days (severe stress)) and four doses of Se (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg L−1) were imposed after 30 days of sowing. Our outcomes showed that drought stress decreases the number of leaves, plant height, number of branches, ste...
Kadry A. El-Bakry1, Lamiaa E.M. Deef1*, Lotfy Z. Habbak1 and Samia S. El-Naeli2
...ks. Blood samples for biochemical analysis and liver tissues were collected and fixed in 10% formalin for histopathological studies. The present study showed that, PAT causes elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and significantly increases serum level of malondialdehyde (MDA) but decrease the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. On the other hand, in patuilin injected rats and treated with ginger, th...
Muhammad Muneeb1, Muhammad Ayub1, Sher Bahadar Khan2,*, Amjad Sohail1, Farkhanda Jabeen1, Mumtaz Ali Khan3, Amjad Khan4, Kashif Prince3, Asghar Khan5 and Irshad Ahmad6
...ess the microbial, physiochemical and sensory characteristics of the selected cheeses. We found that cheese selected from Board bazar (40%) were maximally contaminated with Salmonella on MacConkey Agar and minimum were recorded in Tehkal Region (0%). On same Agar high percentage for Escherichia coli was observed in samples from Hashtnagri (40%) and on tryptose agar results were quite high for Salmonella as compared to E. coli. In ph...
Hafrijal Syandri1*, Ainul Mardiah2, Azrita3 and Netti Aryani4

 

... for 90 days. The physicochemical parameters of water were always at satisfactory levels for fish culture throughout the experiments except for NH3-N (0.05 mg/L) and NO2-N (0.02 mg/L): water temperatures ranged from 27.5 to 30.5 °C, DO 4.3 to 5.6 mg/L, pH 6.56 to 6.96, alkalinity 50.65 to 52.25 mg/L, and hardness 6.65 to 66.85 mg/L. Survival was high at 100.0% in synthetic sheet pond at 10, 15 and 20 fish/m3, respectively....

Muhammad Sohail Memon1*, Khadim Ullah1, Altaf Ali Siyal1,2, Naimatullah Leghari1, Ahmed Ali Tagar1, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto1, Syed Tahir Ata-ul-karim3, Muhammad Tahir4 and Noreena Memon1 

...to analysis the Physical chemical properties before and after the trial. Irrigation water was measured through cutthroat flume at each irrigation interval and the total water consumed by ridge ground was 500 mm. The solute transport and soil water content in the root zone was also simulated by HYDRUS-2D. The results reveal that the salts moved upward to the top (upper layers) and concentrated at the center of the ridge for treatments T2 and T3 but leached down...
Nurlybay Kazhgaliyev1*, Talgat Kulmagambetov2, Dulat Ibrayev1, Saule Bostanova1 and Zhanat Titanov1
R. Yasmeen1*, S. Shaheen1, B.N. Khan2, S.S. Bokhari1, U. Rafi1 and A.W. Qurashi1
... of metals. Samples were chemically digested and finally analysed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometery (FAAS) for four heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu. The results showed all the metals were in safe range in feed samples, a very negligible amount was present in water samples and small concentrations were noticed in soil samples. The amounts of Zn and Cu in feed were reflected in fecal samples; however, higher amount of Pb and Cd were noticed ...
Dilara Abbas Bukhari*, Mehwish Faheem, Shamoona Arshad and Khalid P. Lone
...dneys were taken out. Biochemical parameters e.g., lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined to evaluate oxidative stress while urea and creatinine, was used to evaluate kidney function. It was found that there was an increase in weight (p<0.05) of both males and female mice fed with diet containing ghee. Kidney LPO and CAT were significantly increased in both male and female mice. G...
Gasem Mohammad Abu-Taweel
...elopment, behavioral, biochemical and histological disorders were observed due to exposure to mercury via placenta during pregnancy and / or during lactation through weaning period. Overall, mercury chloride administration had direct influence on the social behavioural and blood parameters in the mice offsprings.
...
Nafeesa Batool1*, Javed Iqbal Qazi1, Nida Aziz1, Ali Hussain2 and Syed Zawwar Hussain Shah3
...ducted to investigate biochemical methane production potential (BMP) of the most abundant feed-stocks i.e., dairy manure (DM) and food wastes (FW) in agrarian countries by anaerobic digestion (AD) and co-digestion (Co-AD) under mesophilic (35 ± 2 ﹎) settings at substrate to microorganism (S / M) ratio of 1.0 based on volatile solids (VS) for 30 days. Solids [Total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), fixed solids (FS) and their ratios as (VS / TS)] dete...
Elmas Ulutaş1,*, Abdullah Eryavuz2, Aziz Bülbül2, Abdur Rahman3,*, İsmail Küçükkurt4 and Cangir Uyarlar5
Peng Peng1,3, Xiaopeng Tang2*, Dun Deng3, and Rejun Fang1*
...duck diets. Firstly, the chemical composition, dry matter (DM) digestibility, metabolic energy (ME) were determined. Secondly, a total of four hundred eighty 15-day-old Shuanggui-tou meat ducks were divided into 4 treatments, 1) Control group (0% GM in the diet), 2) 3% GM group (3% GM in the diet), 3) 6% GM group (6% GM in the diet), and 4) 9% GM group (9% GM in the diet). All groups had 8 replicates and 15 birds were included in each replicate. The exper...
Hong-mei Gao, Wen-long Su, Gui-bin Tao, Han-yang Li, Wen-zheng Cao and Zhi-dong Qiu*
...les interact with cells, chemical, irradiation, it’s in the bone marrow (BM).Most chemotherapy drugs are toxic to cancer cells and normal healthy hematopoietic cells. Hemoglobin and red blood cell levels drop in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy. Geniposide can reduce the adverse radiation damage of bloosd tissue after high dose irradiation.We found that geniposide can recovery the red blood count after chemotherapy medications (5-Fluorouracil, 5...
Mingsan Miao*, Hui Zhao, Jiaojiao Jia, Xiaoyan Fang and Yanyan Miao
...nal enolase and brain biochemical factors in the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice model and to assess the protection mechanism of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The repeated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice model was used where bilateral common carotid artery was targeted to block blood flow, reperfusion and then re-blocking the arteries. Brain tissues were examined 24 hours post-drug administration to determine the level of bio
Derya Kocamaz* and Elif Oruc
...div>Endocrine disrupting chemicals are a serious concern all over the world. In this study, the endocrine disrupting effects of commonly used insecticides thiamethoxam and λ cyhalothrin were investigated by using Oreochromis niloticus as a model organism. The fish exposed to 1/20, 1/10 of 96-h LC50 value of thiamethoxam and λ cyhalothrin (477.29 mg/L, 2.901 µg/L), individually and in mixtures, for 7 and 15 days. Fish were ...
Chandragouda M. Patil, Shashikant S. Udikeri* and Shreeshail. S. Karabhantanal
... have been classified as chemicals with low level resistance having resistance.
...
Ahsan Numan1,4, Khadija Irfan Khawaja2, Abdul Basit Qureshi3Muhammad Shahbaz Yousaf4, Imtiaz Rabbani4, Hafsa Zaneb5 and Habib Rehman4*
...tion of various serum biochemical determinants. Prevalence of DSP was found to be 31.48% when 2,290 diabetes mellitus Type-2 subjects were screened. The patients with DSP were older (p < 0.05), had longer duration of DMT2 (p<0.01), elevated systolic blood pressure (p<0.05), blood sugar (p < 0.05), HbA1c (p<0.001), cholesterol (p<0.01), LDL (p<0.001), triglycerides (p<0.05) and more obese (p<0.01) when compared with the dia...
Sumaira Akram1, Sajid Aleem Khan1*, Nazir Javed1 and Saeed Ahmad2
...fferent concentration of chemicals, bio control agents and plant extracts. Among chemicals, cartap was most effective with lowest egg hatching and among biocontrol agents Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) Samson (PL) produced highest egg hatching while, Trichoderma harzianum Rifai (TH) caused lowest egg hatching. In plant extracts the highest egg hatching was recorded in clove at S concentration and lowest by neem ...

Asmaa A. Darwish 

...hen haematologically, biochemically and statistically analyzed. A significant (P< 0.05) microcytic hypochromic anemia was observed in the PG and AG while, EG suffered from a macrocytic hyperchromic anemia. On contrast, a neutrophilic leukocytosis and lymphocytopenia was described in the three diseased groups. Biochemically, a significant (P< 0.05) increase in total protein, globulin, liver enzymatic activities, kidney ...

Amit Sharma1* and Pankaj Sood2 

...uses ultrastructural, biochemical and functional damage to the spermatozoa leading to reduced motility, viability, impaired transport and fertility. Caprine sperms are extremely sensitive to cryopreservation compared to other species which is mainly attributed to the compositional variation of the sperm plasma membrane. Different factors affect affects the semen cryopreservation viz. species, breed, semen collection technique, collection season, extender comp...
Muhammad Yahya1, Muhammad Afzal1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Imtiaz Sarwar1, Khurram Shehzad2, Muhammad Luqman3 and 
Sher Muhammad Shahzad2
.... Moreover, soil physico-chemical and microbiological properties were also determined in order to find out the main edaphic drivers which can explain the population dynamics of these microarthropods. Results revealed that all major factors i.e. land-use types and categories, collection seasons and soil properties had a significant impact on the population abundance of springtails and mites. Agricultural soils harbored maximum abundance of both microarth...
Larysa Kladnytska1, Anatoliy Mazurkevych1, Natalia Bezdieniezhnykh2Oleg Melnyc1, Sergiy Velychko3, Mykola Malyuk1, Vasyl Danilov1Yuriy Kharkevych1 and Magdalena Gryzinska4*
...s examined by immunohistochemical method using monoclonal antibodies. Determination the index of proliferationdogs adipose-derived stem cells (DADSCs) on IVth and Xth passages. Established that DADSCs contains multipotent stem cells, that are characterized by an almost homogenous fibroblast-like cells оn the IVth and Хth passages. It was difined, that fibroblast-like cells оn the IVth and Хth

Rehman Ullah Khan* and Muhammad Ayub 

...to examine the effect of chemical preservatives on physico-chemical parameters (pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, reducing sugar, non-reducing sugar and ascorbic acid), total phenolic compounds, total antioxidant capacity and sensory evaluation of guava aloe vera blended pulp. The treatments were as GABP0 (control), GABP1 (0.1% P.S), GABP2 (0.1% K.M.S), GABP3 (0.1% S.B), GABP4 (0.05% each P.S and K.M.S), GABP5 (0...

Muhammad1*, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Syed Akhtar Ali Shah1 

...ertilizer alternative to chemical fertilizer for urban agriculture. We also found that socio-economic variables namely education, monthly expenses, and agriculture farm size positively affect farmers’ WTP for organic fertilizer. Conversely, households’ size and land tenure of the farmer has a negative influence on farmers’ WTP. An Integrated Resource Recovery Centre (IRRC) is needed for green waste management to change the current paradigm by...

Noor-us-Sabah1*, Mukkram Ali Tahir1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Sher Muhammad

...for present study. After chemical analysis, different organic amendments were used in the study. Following treatments were applied in three replicates i.e. T1- control (recommended NPK), T2- ½ of recommended NPK, T3- full dose of FYM, T4- full dose of press mud, T5- full dose of compost, T6- full dose of poultry manure, T7- full dose of sesbania green manure, T8- T2 + ½ FYM, T9- T2 + ½ press mud, T10- T2 + ½ compost, T11- T2 + &frac...
Qaisra Siddique1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3

 

...ticides can alter the biochemical parameters such as glutathione S-transferase in fish. The evaluation of GST is a useful bio-marker for assessing the environmental stress due to these pesticides.
...
Sikander Ali* and S. Wajiha Khalid
...tures was carried out in chemically defined medium i.e., 0.5 g/l (NH4)2SO4, 3 g/l KH2PO4, 1.5 g/l NaNO3, 0.01 g/l MgSO4.7H2O and 3 g/l inulin at pH 7. Kinetic parameters for comparing product yield coefficients of different fungal strains were applied to further optimize exo-inulinase production. The best enzyme producing culture was selected for optimization study. For thi...
Asim Faraz1*, Abdul Waheed1, Annamaria Passantino2, Ayman Balla Mustafa3, Nasir Ali Tauqir4, Naeem Ullah Khan5, Muhammad Shahid Nabeel6
...to evaluate the blood biochemical and wool mineral profile of Marecha dromedary camel calves reared in intensive management system (IMS) by feeding two different dietary regimes. The study was conducted at camel breeding and research station (CBRS) Rakh-Mahni tahsil Mankera of district Bhakkar-Punjab, Pakistan. Ten male calves of 310±35 days of age were raised in stall-fed conditions. They were fed two isocaloric diets with different protein levels as 1...

Ahmad-Ur-Rahman Saljoqi1, Muhammad Zubair Khan1, Ayesha Bibi2, Muhammad Shehzad Khan1*, Bashir Ahmad

...udy was conducted for biochemical characterization of pathogen of tomato stem rot and to evaluate the effect of different doses of boron, plant extracts and a bactericide in different combinations on tomato plants. This research study was performed at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar-Pakistan. Different biochemical tests were conducted to confirm stem rot pathogen. Boron was applied at the rates of 1.97, 2.9...

Bilal Atta1*, Muhammad Rizwan1, Arshed Makhdoom Sabir1, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Sabar1, Bakhtawar3, Faizan Ali3 and Mehran Sarwar

... and the only acceptable chemical used in stored grains, but due to their overuse, stored grain pests become resistant to this fumigant. There is, therefore, a great need to find alternatives. In this study insecticidal efficacy of different plant extracts viz. Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) was compared against T. castaneum infesting stored wheat. The results have suggested ...
Şükrü Önalan1*, Muhammed Arabacı1and Haşmet Çağırgan2
...of the examination of biochemical properties with API Rapid ID 32 Strep test, it was observed that 2 L. garvieae isolates were different from other isolates in respect of sucrose utilization. 1 and 19 number isolates were negative for sucrose whereas other isolates gave positive results. 1 number isolate was different from other isolates based on maltose profile. While isolate 22 was maltose negative, the other isolates gave positive results. According ...
Aamir Mushtaq1,2, Rukhsana Anwar1 and Mobasher Ahmad1,2,* 
...und by behavioral and biochemical studies for which male albino mice were grouped into seven groups. Mice were subjected to elevated plus maze, hole board and light dark paradigm on (day 7th and 8th), for behavioral studies after which their brain were removed by decapitation for biochemical assessment. Results indicated the existence of total phenols (170.14 ± 1.16 mg of GAE/g of extract), flavo...
Ambrin1*, Ghulam Dastagir1, Jehan Bakht2 and Muhammad Adil1
...illium notatum. Phytochemical screening of Z. mauritiana var. spontanea and O. biennis revealed the presence of amino acids, reducing sugar, proteins, triterpenoids, gums and mucilages, fats, steroids, phenols and phytosterol.
...
Murtala Muhammad, Ting Zhang, Siyu Gong, Jing Bai, Jiansong Ju, Baohua Zhao* and Dong Liu*
...tional physiological, biochemical, and molecular techniques. Virulence and pathogenesis of the disease were determined by intraperitoneal injection of the etiological agent to the healthy A. sinensis. Physiological and 16s rRNA molecular analysis identified Streptococcus iniae as the causative agent of the disease outbreak. The bacteria has a unique biochemical profile compared with most of the previously ...
Arifa Savanur1,*, Tallat Naz1,2, Tayyaba Hamid1,3, Syed Abid Ali4, Mian Jahangir1,3 and Muhammad Abdul Azeem4
...e histological and histo-chemical studies on the non-contractile proteins of Uromastix smooth muscle.
...
Sohail Ahmed1,*, Muhammad Waseem Saleem1, Abid Ali1, Muhammad Shahid Nisar2, Rashad Rasool Khan1 and Abdul Rashid3
...ontrol agents with plant chemical and insecticide against Thrips tabaci L. (Thripidae: Thysanoptera), release of Coccinella septempunctata and Chrysoperla carnea, spray of Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) 5% and spinosad 240 SL (Tracer) were integrated in all possible combinations, thus, making a total of 15 treatments including separate application of each above and a control where none was applied except water only. Results showed signifi...

Ghulam Mohi Uddin Paracha* and Yasser Durrani 

...preservatives on physico-chemical parameters (total soluble solids, pH, titratable acidity, total phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity) and sensory evaluation of blends was carried out. The treatments in this study included BPo [peach persimmon blend (6:4)], BP1 [peach persimmon blend (6:4) + potassium sorbate (0.1%)], BP2 [peach persimmon blend (6:4) + potassium metabisulphite (0.1%)], BP3 [peach persimmon blend (6:4) + sodium be...

Anila Latif, Zaheer Abbas, Farhatullah and Ghulam Muhammad Ali* 

...istant against different chemicals and biopesticides. DBM has shown resistance against 12 different strains of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and 91 active ingredients of agricultural chemicals globally. Alternative ways should be explored to control DBM. Berberine is an insect toxic alkaloid and produced by plants of family Berberidaceae. Berberine Bridge Enzyme (BBE) gene involved in the synthesis of berberine was isolated fr...

Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar1, Waqas Raza1*, Waqas Wakil2,3, Imtiaz Hussain4 and Misbah Iqbal Qamar

...treatment of plants with chemical elicitors can induce systemic resistance against plant pathogens and insect herbivores. The plan of the study was to study induction of defense responses and protective effects against Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary and sucking insect pests of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with application of salicylic acid (SA) and β-aminobutyric acid (BABA). Concentration of SA and BABA (2, 4 and 5 mM) were applied to foliage. A...

H. Liu1, X.P. Tang1, R.J. Fang1,*, F.Yi2, C. Zhang2, R.Q. Yang1, F. Sun1 and S.Y. Zhou1 

...th performance, serum biochemical parameters (Cu-Zn SOD activity) and diarrhea incidence were measured in the 2-phase feeding program (1-14 d, 15-42 d). Results showed that: compared with the control diets, 1) Diets supplemented with Av-Cu or CuSO4 did not affect the average daily feed intake (ADFI) of weaned piglets; supplementing the diet with Av-Cu, the average daily gain (ADG) was linearly increased (P < 0.05), and the feed conversion ratio (...
Shaheen Rahman1, Kafeel Ahmad1*, Niaz Ali2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Waqar Ali4
...efaciens. Various biochemical and morphological tests were conducted to confirm the identity of A. tumefaciens. The pathogenicity of the isolates was confirmed by in vitro carrot and potato discs inoculation assays. A total of seven strains of A. tumefaciens were isolated on yeast extract mannitol agar (YEMA) medium. The isolated strains were confirmed as A. tumefaciens on the basis of morphological, biochemica...

Abid Khan*, Mukhtar Alam and Yousaf Jamal 

...ganisms on growth and biochemical traits of wheat” for two years at Agricultural Research Station Buner, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The experiments were laid out using three factors factorial Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Bio-aab was used as a source of (BM) culture. Microbes present in this culture were species of photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Rhodobacter spaeroides), lactic acid bacteria (Lac...

Gulnaz Parveen1*, Salma Gul2, Muhammad Ather Rafi3, Ashfaq Ali Khattak4 and Hikmatullah Jan

Jaffar Hussain1*, Syed Farman Ali Shah1, M. Zeenat Ali1 and Javad Ahmad Shah

...trients and some physico-chemical properties of soil, samples were collected from different area of Jamshoro (Soman, Murad, Abadnear Kotrai Jamshoro). These nutrients are so important for crops yield and human being. The results explain that soil have low organic matter, pH is near to 7, copper content ranged was 5.82 - 8.2μ g/g, Maganese 6.7 - 8.3 μg/g and Zinc had values of 0.12 to 1.2μ g/g respectively. The conclusions are that the values of Zn, Fe...

Aurang Zeb, Abdur Rab and Shujaat Ali* 

...t of location on physico-chemical composition and storage duration of Sweet orange” at The University of Agriculture, Peshawar in 2016. Complete Randomized Design and three replications were used. Sweet orange was collected from four different locations i.e. location-1 (Torwarsak, Buner), location-2 (Rabat, Lower Dir), location-3 (Wartair, Malakand) and location-4 (Palai, Malakand) stored up to 48 days at room temperature, Data was recorded after 12 d...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Sami Ul-Allah2*, Muhammad Naeem1, Muhammad Ijaz2 and Muhammad Qadir Ahmad3 

...and seed density) and biochemical (seed oil contents) seed traits. The study determined the effects of water stress on genetic variability of root and shoot traits and association of the seed traits with seedling vigor. 15 cotton cultivars were studied at two levels of irrigation during 2014-15. Results showed highly significant (p≤0.05) genotypic differences for seed and root‒shoot traits. Reduction in fresh weight of different cultivars due to water str...
Hina Nazli, Abida Butt*
...ration of biological and chemical control methods are required to successfully manage insect pests. Along with insect pests, many predators of these pests are also present in crops and affected by these management activities. Spiders are the most abundant predators of insect pests in the agroecosystem. The present study was designed to assess and compare acute and residual toxicity of two insecticides i.e Spiromesifen and Thiamethoxam on the lynx spider...

Zubair Aslam and Ali Ahmad* 

...micompost, vermi-tea and chemical fertilizers. With the objective to combat the nutrients deficiency, an experiment was conducted in Riverm Kompost Vermikompost Tarım Hay. Mak. San. ve Ltd. Şti. Suleymanpasa, Tekirdag, Turkey under field conditions. In field four different states of fertilizers [F0: Control (No fertilizer application); Fvc: Solid vermicompost @ 5 ton/ha; Fvt: vermi-tea @ 6 %; Fc: Chemical fertilizers (N an...

Korkmaz Bellitürk1, Zubair Aslam2, Ali Ahmad2* and Sami ur Rehman2

... this experiment was the chemical and physical analysis of raw material of goat manure, cow dung, sheep manure and their vermicompost products. The earthworms for vermicomposting, Eisenia fetida (an epigeic species), were used as the test species. The samples were collected from prepared vermicompost and raw material for chemical and physical examination. For these samples, the pH, EC, organic matter, C:N ratio, phosphorus, ...

Muhammad Raheel Faiz1, Ijaz Ashraf1, Haq Nawaz2, Muhammad Zubair3*, Muhammad Sajid Mahmood4, Sajid Hussain5 and Abdul Qadeer2 

...rices of fertilizers and chemicals. The protection problems identified were lack of storage facilities for surplus vegetables, fluctuation in market price of vegetables and transportation problems. This indicated that the government should launch small credit schemes and should provide better marketing facilities to the farmers to ensure the sustainable production of vegetables in this area. 

...

 Salman Khan, Irfan Ullah*, Shahid Ali and Murtaza

...labor, tractor, urea and chemicals were positive and statistically significant having elasticities of 0.211, 0.110, 0.103, 0.073 and 0.064, respectively. The study recommends that government should subsidize the inputs and arrange trainings for potato growers regarding use of recommended chemical fertilizer and efficient utilization of seed, labor and other inputs to accelerate potato production and thereby profit of farmers...

Kajol, A. H. Bhat, Aasha and A. K. Chaubey

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Photorhabdus akhurstii associated with Heterorhabditis indica from Meerut, India
... based on phenotypic, biochemical and 16S rDNA data. Most of the biochemical tests were negative and only three tests were found positive viz., Urease, Nitrogen reduction and Oxidase. Further, we evaluated its pathogenicity against Galleria mellonella and Helicoverpa armigera. The LD50 value of strain DH3 against G. mellonella larvae at 48 hours was 8 IJs/larva for 50% larval mortality whereas in Helicoverpa armigera it need...

K. Osei1† , A. I. Adama1 , E. C. Tagoe2 and J. Sackey-Asante1

 

Biochar effect on nematodes and insects population density, soil improvement and yield of okra
...ility problems. However, chemical fertilizers are expensive and when applied continuously, degrade agricultural lands (Savci, 2012; Bhattacharyya et al., 2015). Biotic factors such as plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) and foliar insects have been implicated as major constraints to okra production (Asare-Bediako et al., 2014b). The attack of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) has been reported as the most serious, widespread and alarming which causes tremendo...

Mahmood Alam Khan1, Muhammad Yaseen1, Mujahid Khan*2, Amjad Khan1 

TEMPORAL VARIATION IN GROUND WATER QUALITY DUE TO URBANIZATION. CASE STUDY: DISTRICT PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN
...eloping GIS based physio-chemical
parameters contour maps, comparative graphs and analyse results in light of Pakistan Standard Quality Control
Authority (PSQCA). In 2005, same study for district Peshawar was carried out jointly by PCSIR Peshawar and
Kyungpook National University. In order to assess the effects of urbanization on ground water quality in district
Peshawar, another study was undertaken in 2014-15 by collecting samples...

Riaz Muhammad1*, Naseer Ahmeda, Abdul Basit2, Rizwan Alim Mufti2 

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FRACTURE TOUGHNESS, HARDNESS AND LOAD-INDENTATION DEPTH RESPONSE OF TI-64 USING VICKERS INDENTATION TECHNIQUE
...te
for aerospace, chemical, and biomedical industries services. Preeminent strength-to-density ratio, reduced
density, incomparable corrosion resistance and tremendous properties at elevated temperature are the main attribute
of titanium alloys. These alloys also exhibit low modulus of elasticity, making it ideal for spring, body implant,
dental fixtures and different sports equipment. Ti-64 accounting for more than 50 percent of ti...

Zeeshan Al Hameed1, Junaid Saleem2*, Syed Sajid Hussain1, Ahsan Abdul Ghani2, Hira Lal2 

STUDY OF INDIGENOUS FLUORSPAR AS METALLURGICAL FLUX
...as carried out including chemical, mineralogical, and spectroscopic analysis. Further, indigenous
Fluorspar was applied as flux in the ladle refining operation of a local steel mill of Pakistan and results were stated
on the basis of degree of desulphurization and different basicity indexes. 

...

Daulat Khan1*, Khizar Azam2, Noor Muhammad Khan1, Muhammad Israr1, Naeem Ejaz3 

ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER FOR DISPOSAL IN ACCORDANCE WITH NEQS CRITERIA AND ITS REUSE FOR IRRIGATION WITH DILUTION

Shafiullah1*, Mohammad Nafees2 

MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY COAGULATION/ FLOCCULATION PROCESSES VIA OPTIMIZATION OF INOCULATION DOSE AND SETTLING TIME
...ere analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics. On comparison
with Pak NEQS it was observed that the municipal wastewater physicochemical quality was above the permissible
limits. A series of coagulation/flocculation treatments were given by applying different doses of ferric chloride in
combination of calcium hydroxide. Effective removals of pollutants were obtained by using ferric chloride and calci...

Muhammad Aamir1*, Riaz Muhammad1, Naseer Ahmed1, Muhammad Sadiq2, Muhammad Waqas3, Izhar1 

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LEAD FREE SOLDER ALLOY FOR GREEN ELECTRONICS UNDER HIGH STRAIN RATE AND THERMAL AGING
...y confirmation
of chemical composition with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The microstructure is further analyzed using ImageJ
to investigate the Intermetallic compounds (IMCs) particle average size at different aging temperature. Mechanical
properties including Yield strength (YS) and Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) are examined before and after thermal
aging and at different high strain rates from stress-strain curves using univer...

Nabeel Maqsood1,2*, Afzal Khan1, Muhammad Khalid Alamgir2, Shaukat Ali Shah1, Muhammad Fahad3 

PTFE THIN FILM COATING ON 316L STAINLESS STEEL FOR CORROSION PROTECTION IN ACIDIC ENVIRONMENT
...ied in 40% HCL by electrochemical corrosion test and potentiodynamic polarization curves at room
temperature and compared. The morphology of uncoated and coated substrates were examined by scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) while the compositional analysis performed through energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX).
The morphology of the coated and uncoated substrates were also studied before and after electrochem...

Nazish Huma Khan1, Mohammad Nafees1, Adila Bashir1, Farooq Ahmad1 

STUDY OF POLLUTION LAOD IN PAPER MILL EFFLUENTS AND ITS RECYCLING BY SUNDRY PLANTS AT HAYATABAD INDUSTRIAL ESTATE, PESHAWAR
...lyzed for various physicochemical characteristics (colour, pH, EC, Alkalinity, Turbidity, TDS, TSS, COD and BOD5) by adopting standard methods for the
examination of water and waste water. These samples were also investigated for micronutrients/heavy metals (Cr, Pd,
Cd, Ni, Fe, Zn and Cu), using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The obtained results were compared with Pak-
NEQS for industrial effluents. Results showed high limits of pH(...

Shabana Rafique1, Shahnaz Parveen Khattak1, Tanveer Hussain2, Faiza Tauqeer1, Bashir Ahmad3 

EVALUATION OF FLEXURAL RIGIDITY AND ABRASION RESISTANCE OF POST AND META-FINISHED PIGMENT DYED P/C FABRICS
...dant and water repellent chemicals induced resistance against heavy brunt of abrasive action and a desirable
flexural rigidity in fabrics. As regards the meta-treatment of soft polyurethane (hand building) finish, the dyed fabric
showed an inversely proportional relation i.e. decrease in abrasion resistance with increase in finish concentration. 

...

Hamza Tariq1, Imran Hayat1, Saima Rafiq1*, Aqsa Qayyum2 and Sohrab Qayyum1 

...and to study its physico-chemical profile (pH, acidity, total soluble solids (TSS), reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, total sugars, vitamin C), antioxidant activity, total phenolics, and sensory evaluation (color, flavor, taste, overall acceptability) during storage (90 days) at ambient temperature for consumer acceptability. An increase in titratable acidity, vitamin C, total phenolics and antioxidant activity was observed with increasing the concentratio...

Imran Shehzad1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1, Sher Muhammad2 and Ghulam Murtaza

...r different physical and chemical characteristics. Soil samples were collected from all the plots and analyzed for different chemical properties like EC, pH, SAR, Cl, CO3, HCO3, Ca, Na, Mg, N, P and K. Results of the experiment revealed that use of saline water irrigation impaired different chemical properties of the soil and also had negative impact on fertility status of the soil. All th...

Numan Habib, Naseer Ahmed, Riaz Muhammad, Himayat Ullah, Muftooh Ur Rehman, Kareem Akhtar 

ANALYSIS OF CHIP PRODUCED IN FREE MACHINING OF TI-6AL-7ZR-3NB-4MO-0.9ND AND TI-5AL-7ZR-7NB-0.7ND ALLOYS
...not only because of its chemical properties but also because of its excellent properties including, high strength to density ratio, withstand with high stresses, better fatigue and corrosion properties and ability to resist high temperatures. However, all these properties of this alloy results in poor machinability, hence, make the automatic machining of these alloys nearly difficult. The main limitation of titanium and its alloys is that it produces long ch...
Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel2, Ejaz Ashraf3*, Asad Ali4 and Arooba Rubab5
Effect of Insecticides on the Longevity of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
...ctors including spraying chemical insecticides for pest management. The present experiment was therefore, designed to look for the effect of some new insecticides (cyhalothrin, nitenpyram, emamectin benzoate) applied at flowering stage of sunflower (variety Hysun-33). After three days of pesticides application, Apis mellifera was exposed to insecticides, placing three honey bee colonies in the center of each plot in the field. Four frames from each colony and ...

Sajjad Haydar*, Zunaira Asif*, A. A. Bhatti**, Obaidullah Nadeem***, Ghulam Hussain*, Nadeem Abbas*

EFFICIENCY OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT IN THE PUNJAB TANNERY SECTOR: A CASE STUDY OF DADA TANNERY
...olids (TSS), five day biochemical oxygen
demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively. Whereas, the mean effluent concentrations of
TSS, BOD and COD were 216 mg/L, 199 mg/L and 1023 mg/L, respectively. The effluent from WWTP exceeded the
National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) for TSS, BOD and COD. It was due to the low concentration of
Mixed Liquor Suspe...

Wisal Shah*, Muhammad Nafees**, Muhammad Iqbal***

EVALUATION OF MARBLE SLURRY WASTE FOR PREPARATION OF COMMERCIAL GRADE CEMENT
...zing it for physical and chemical
characteristics. Cement was made in the laboratory according to standard formulation. Commercial brand available
in the market was used as control for product comparison. Physical and chemical properties of both cements and
mechanical properties of their concrete specimens were t...

 Muhammad Nafees*, Asim Nawab*, Wisal Shah**

STUDY ON THE PERFORMANCE OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT DESIGNED FOR INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS
...ove various physical and chemical parameters including Suspended solids (SS), Biological
Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Sulfide (S) in order to comply with Pakistan National
Environmental Quality Standards (Pak-NEQS).The collected samples were then treated in the laboratory in order to
identify and suggest suitable coagulant. For this purpose three different treatmen...

 Numan Habib1, Naseer Ahmed1, Riaz Muhammad1*, Himayat Ullah2, Muftooh Ur Rehman1, Kareem Akhtar3

ANALYSIS OF CHIP PRODUCED IN FREE MACHINING OF TI-6AL-7ZR-3NB- 4MO-0.9ND AND TI-5AL-7ZR-7NB-0.7ND ALLOYS
... not only because of its chemical
properties but also because of its excellent properties including, high strength to density ratio, withstand with high
stresses, better fatigue and corrosion properties and ability to resist high temperatures. However, all these properties
of this alloy results in poor machinability, hence, make the automatic machining of these alloys nearly difficult. The
main limitation of tita...

Nisar Mohammad*, Mohammad Mansoor Khan* Noor Mohammad*

CHARACTERIZATION OF TALC-CARBONATE ROCK OF MINGORA EMERALD MINES, DISTRICT SWAT, KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA, PAKISTAN

Nisar Mohammad٭, Mohammad Mansoor Khan٭, Noor Mohammad٭

EXTRACTION OF HIGH QUALITY TALC FROM TALC-CARBONATE ROCK OF MINGORA EMERALD MINES BY FLOTATION AND LEACHING
... magnesium silicate with chemical formula Mg3Si4O10(OH)2. In natural form pure talc is an extreme rarity and it is mostly associated with undesired minerals like magnesite, calcite, dolomite, quartz, muscovite, chlorite, tremolite and iron bearing minerals. These associated minerals determine the quality of talc for industrial purpose and if in access, limits its applications. In present research work, beneficiation studies of carbonatic talcose rock of Mingor...

Mumtaz Shah*, Hashim Nisar Hashmi* Naeem Ejaz* Abdul Razzaq Ghumman*

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AQUATIC MACROPHYTES FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT
...t is further followed by chemical conversions, sedimentation and volatilization. The highest pollutant removalswere observed for attemperature range of 15-38oC and at pH variation between 6 and 9. In developing countries like Pakistan, where no importance is being given to municipal sewage treatment, the method found to be environmentally and financially sustainable.
...

 Nisar Mohammad1, Mohammad Mansoor Khan1

RECOVERY OF TALC FROM TALC- CARBONATE SCHIST OF SWAT EMERALD MINES, NWFP, PAKISTAN
...rain size evaluation and chemical analysis were undertaken on talc bearing rock of Swat emerald mines, aiming at finding some suitable processing technique to recover talc. A few processing tests using flotation, gravity separation and leaching methods were conducted to see the amenability of talc to enrichment by these techniques. Analysis of seven talcum powder products available in the local market including pharmaceutical grade talc was...

Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Shahzad Maqsood Ahmed Basra3, Abu Baker Ijaz4, Zahid Hassan Tarar5, Muhammad Ansar6, Umer Iqbal7, Tayyaba Naz4, Bilquees Fatima8, Muhammad Akram9, Allah Wasaya10, Asif Iqbal11, Shakeel Ahmed Anwar12, Khalid Saif Ullah Khan13, Azeem Khalid14, Asif Aziz15 and Rashid Mehmood16 

...r, foliar application of chemicals during normal and late planting improved the grain yield by increasing both the grain number and size. Foliar spray of SA, AsA and H2O2 may induce heat tolerance by improving antioxidant activities which stabilized membrane and maintaining relative water, chlorophyll and nutrient content in ear leaves of maize during heat stress. 

...

Ghulam Murtaza1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Ashraf Malik2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1 and Sher Muhammad3 

Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shakoor Ahmad2, Irshad Ahmad3, Kashif Prince1*, Ghazunfar Rashid1, Mahboob Ali1, Imdad Ullah Khan4Asad Ullah5, Naimat Ullah4, Muhammad Shoaib2 and Said Sajjad Ali Shah2
...the hematological and biochemical parameters. Hematobiochemical analysis indicated that mean erythrocyte count (RBC) and hemoglobin levels decreased while the mean leukocytes (WBC), platelets, packet cell volume (PCV) and total bilirubin levels increased significantly (P<0.05) in sheep infected with Clostridium perfringens type A. Sheep infected with Clostridium perfringens type B and type D showed significa...
Anum Feroz1, Abdul Rauf Shakoori2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*
...ons of exposure to toxic chemicals. The activity of the arylesterase, on the contrary is inhibited to variable extent after exposure to the insecticides.
...

Murtaza1, Syed Attaullah Shah1*, Shahid Ali1, Amjad Ali1 and Asia Baig2

Economic Analysis of Maize Production in Central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
...idy for hybrid seeds and chemical fertilizers and price support for their produce during harvest season.

...
Gregory Ejikeme Odo1,*, Juliana Ekenma Agwu1, Nkechi Nweze2, Clara Ikegbunam2,Felicia Ekeh N1, Vincent Ejere1, Ngozi Ezenwaji1, Reginald Njokuocha2, Godwin Ngwu1 and Fabian Okafor1
...tter-spacing: 0.1px;">biochemical and haematological indicesof toxicity. The data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Duncan’s multiple comparison post hoc tests to compare the level of significance between...
Fei Wang1, Xianlai Zhang1, Youbao Zhong2, Xiaoen Tang3, Xiaofen Hu1
ShanShan Yang1, Shengwei Zhong1, Zuohong Zhou1, Jin Liu1, Xu Yuan1 
and Yong Li1*
... with that of immunohistochemical detection. It is indicated VIP probably participate in the functional regulation of pigeon intestine as a key role and mediate the neuroendocrine and mucosal immune system as an information molecule due to the high expression of VIP. It will provide the basis for clarifying the biological function of VIP in pigeons.
...

Muhammad Jan1*, Tanveer ul Haq2, Hina Sattar3, Madiha Butt4, Abdul Khaliq5, Muhammad Arif6 and Abdul Rauf

...the physiological and biochemical attributes under drought conditions. Drought stress adversely reduced the vegetative growth in term of primary branches, secondary branches and pod yield. Based on biochemical, morphological and physiological parameters a significant difference was observed among the genotypes. Out of twenty-five genotypes, three chick pea genotypes i-e chick pea genotypes GGP1260, GGP1426 and PB01 shown the...

Amar Iqbal Saqib1, Khalil Ahmed1*, Abdul Rasul Naseem1, Ghulam Qadir1, Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz1, Muhammad Khalid2, Imtiaz Ahmad Warraich3 and Muhammad Arif

...psum @ 100% GR while the chemicals properties of soil (pHs, ECe, SAR) were under the safe limits in both treatments. Gypsum @ 75 % GR+ humic acid @ 30 kg ha-1 reduced the pHs (6.70%), ECe (27.60%) and SAR (54.96%), hydraulic conductivity (9.75%), and bulk density (3.94%) over their initial values. Therefore, it was concluded that integrated use of gypsum @ 75% GR + humic acid @ 30 Kg ha-1 is equally effective as gypsum @ 100 % GR in improving the yield of whea...
Aribah Naz1*, Uzma Badar1,Afsheen Arif2*, Zaid Qureshi1, Sondas Saeed1,Erum Shoeb1, Maqsood Ali Ansari1 and Obaid Yusuf Khan1
...mined. Morphological, Biochemical and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing have been done for the identification of the strain. 16S region was amplified by PCR and subjected to DNA sequencing. The sequence data analysis of the isolated strain showed 98% homology with Vibrio harveyi species. The sequence obtained has been submitted to NCBI under GenBank Accession# KY653092. Characterization of luminescent bacteria facilitates understanding of the env...
Huma Abbas1*, Nazir Javed1,Muhammad Kamran2, Sajid Aleem Khan1Hira Abbas3, Ehetisham-ul-Haq2, Abdul Jabbar1, Mehwish Naz1 and Ihsan Ullah4
...thetic (Cartap, Virtako) chemicals was evaluated on the induction of systemic activity by using modified split root technique. Efficacy of different application methods; soil drench and root dip was also tested. Results revealed that all the chemicals have more or less systemic effect against M. incognita. Cartap was found to be more effective in reduction of egg masses followed by Virtako in both treated and untreate...

Muhammad Ahsan Naseer1, Mehdi Maqbool1, Saima Rafiq2*, Noosheen Zahid1, Abdul Hamid1 and Syed Zulfiqar Ali Shah1

Comparative Analysis of Physical and Biochemical Attributes of Edible Fig (Ficus carica L.) Collected from Three Districts of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Located at Different Elevations
...tions on physical and biochemical attributes of wild fig collected from different localities of three selected Districts [Bagh (Arja, Bagh city, Dholi), Poonch (Hajira, Dwarandi, Akhorbun) and Kotli (Sehnsa, Kotli city, Khoiratta)] of AJK. Samples of wild fig fruits were collected and analysed for physical (fruits weight, fruits diameter, neck length) and biochemical attributes (pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, ...

Iram Bilqees1, Yasir Iftikhar1, Mustansar Mubeen1,2*, Qaiser Shakeel3, Ashara Sajid1, Zahoor Hussain4, Aqleem Abbas2, Muhammad Aamir Sohail2, Judith Jeruto Kiptoo5 and Shehzad Iqbal2

Use of Nutrients and Plant Extract to Manage Okra Yellow Vein Mosaic Disease (OYVMD) in Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan
... the hazardous effect of chemicals on human health and being the eco-friendly. Four varieties of okra viz., Indian Rachna, Sabz Pari, Desi Bhindi, and Rama Krishna were grown under RCBD. Five treatments viz., 2% garlic extract, 2% multi-nutrients, silicon (1 and 1.5%) s and water as control were applied. Sabz pari showed the maximum disease incidence of 50% whereas, Indian Rachna with disease incidence of 25% exhibited the minimum DI. None of varieties showed ...
Safina Naz1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi2*, Bushra Siddique3, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar4 and Abdur Rehman5 
 
Exogenous Application of Selected Antioxidants and Phyto Development Directors Influenced the Development, Output and Biochemical Attributes of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.)
...ng, output along with biochemical attributes of Lycopersicum esculentum fruits during 2014 and 2015. Foliar spray of GA3(100 ppm) and 2-hydroxybenzoic acid (200 parts/million and 100 parts/million) give rise to significantly taller plants and greater leaf area while, shorter plants and lower leaf area was recorded in control. Greater leaf number per plant was obtained with application of GA3(100 ppm). This was followed by salicylic acid (200 ppm). Leaf number ...
Tabassum Yaseen1*, Shehzad Ahmad1, Khushnood Ur Rehman2, Fayaz Asad1, Abdul Waheed1, Rani Gul3, Hussain Gulab4 and Naveed Akhtar2
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Spore Density and Root Colonization in Weeds of Carrot field at Charsadda, Pakistan
...lated to the soil physicochemical characteristics.
...

Rabab Rafaqat1, Habib Ahmed Rathore1, Tariq Masud2, Imran Hayat1* and Imtiaz Hussain1

Determination of Different Chemical Constituents of Fruit, Leaves and Oil of Olea cuspidata (Wild Olive) Grown at Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir
...t was to investigate the chemical characteristics of fruit, leaves and oil of Olea cuspidata (wild olive). For this purpose, the moisture content, crude fibre, crude protein, total oil, ash content and nitrogen free extract of fruit and leaves were studied. Extracts of wild olive fruit and leaves were made in four different solvents (ethanol, methanol, acetone and water). Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of fruit and leaves extrac...

Zahir Shah1*, Saima Munawar1, Ihsan Ullah2, Taif Shah3, Haq Aman Ullah1, Saqib Nawaz1, Farhan Anwar Khan1 and Manoj Kumar Shah4

Combined Physico-chemical and Analgesic Effects of Electroacupuncture Plus Clonidine in Goats
...ate the combined physico-chemical and analgesic effects of electroacupuncture (EA) plus clonidine in goats. Thirty-six female goats were randomly allocated equally in six equal groups. The control group received 0.9% normal saline, 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were treated with 10, 15, and 20µg/kg of clonidine respectively, while 5th and 6th groups were treated with EA and EA plus 10µg/kg of clonidine, respectively. Pain threshold, cardio-respiratory ef...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

September

Vol. 36, Iss. 3, Pages 734-1009

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