Shumaila Manzoor1, Afshan Ahmed1 and Muhammad Abubakar2*

...ion. The pattern of antibody titers in animals of different age groups was observed as less than 1 year, 1-2 years and more than 2 years for both ELISA and SNT. The peak immune response measured by SNT was 2.8log10 whereas ELISA detected serum antibody titer up to 2.4 log10. Findings showed that highest titers were seen in animals of age > 2 years i.e. 1.70 log10 (for s...

Anna-Maria Andersson*, Ann-Kristin Nyman, Per Wallgren

...ial to know if estimated antibody levels vary over a period of weeks or months. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the short term stability and the long term consistency of the antibody levels to Aleutian disease virus (ADV). When evaluated in the short term, i.e. between consecutive days and weeks, the estimated antibody levels were comparable and did not exceed the predefin...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...genetics, anti idiotypic antibody based vaccines and helper cell dependent diagnostics represent the present vaccine/diagnostic development strategies for the effective control and eradication of PPR. This review comprehend the current scenario of recombinant technology based vaccines and diagnostics, virus like particles (VLPs), reverse genetics approach etc., in the development of diagnostics and vaccines against PPR.

...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

...y aimed at measuring the antibody titres against H9N2 influenza viruses and its molecular detections in asymptomatic commercial layers from Faisalabad district of Punjab, Pakistan. Overall 120 blood samples, 24 tissue samples from each organ (trachea, lung and intestine) were collected from the 12 commercial layer flocks selected randomly at the age of 35-50 weeks without any direct clinical manifestation of avian influenza. Serum collected from 120 birds was ...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...PRV antigen to determine antibody titres level. The overall prevalence of antibodies to PPRV in goats and sheep were 66.22% (521 samples) and 65.76% (444 samples), respectively. Sero-prevalence of anti-PPRV antibodies was found higher in adults (69.14% with GMT 17.91) than in young (62.47% with GMT 12.85). Furthermore, seasonal seropositivity seasons was recorded and sero-prevalence during summer was found to be higher (72.84% with GMT 20.18) than other season...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...xhibited similar pattern antibody profiles, however, an increase in the mean titer of antibodies was recorded from 17 and onwards. Furthermore, on day 39 of age, the birds of all groups including control were challenged with field strain of IBD virus collected from bursa of clinically infected chicks, No morbidity and mortality were observed. During present study, some milder infection with field strain of IBDV almost a week ago recorded were also found in the...
Uzma Farid Durrani1,*,Sagar Mal Goyal2, Asim Khalid Mahmood1,Cathleen Hanlon3, Susan Moore3, Muhammad Waqas1 and Raheela Akhtar4
...abies virus neutralizing antibody titer (mRVNA). All puppies were whelped by dams regularly vaccinated with high quality inactivated rabies vaccines. Rapid Fluorescence Focus Inhibition Technique (RFFIT) revealed mRVNA titer (>0.5 IU/mL) in 29 puppies while 48 puppies showed mRVNA titer less than minimum protective level (0.2-0.4 IU/mL). RFFIT did not reveal mRVNA in 23 puppies that were declared lacking maternal rabies immunity. One basis of findings of th...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

...kly post vaccination for antibody detection by HI test. All immunized chickens shown high HI antibody titers (9Log2) two weeks post-booster dose. The chickens were then challenged using homogenous AI H9N2 strain. During the course of infections, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from all chickens at 3, 5 and 7 days post-challenge (p.c.) for virus titration in eggs. Data indicated that all chickens vaccinated wit...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...ng, electron microscopy, antibody-based detection, including ELISA, nucleic acid hybridizations like dot blot, squash blot and Southern blot techniques, polymerase chain reaction and other DNA polymerase-mediated assays, and microarray detection. Of these, microarray detection provides the greatest capability for parallel yet specific testing and can be used to detect individual or combinations of viruses with sensitivity comparable to ELISA. Methods based on ...

Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
...tivity assays and double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both the viruses were prevalent in Hazara and Malakand divisions. The average symptoms based incidence in Hazara divi-sion for PMTV was 8.83% and TRV was 6.80% while in Malakand division the average symptoms based inci-dence for PMTV was 8.46% and TRV was 9.95%. DAS-ELISA based average incidence in Hazara of PMTV and TRV was 17.34% and 11.99% respectively. The average DAS...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
... drops. Group B specific antibody negative (SAN) chicks were challenged with same dose at 2nd week of age. While the group C and D was unchallenged control containing commercial and SAN chicks. The Blood samples were collected from group A, B, C and D on 3rd, 5th and 7th day of post infection for biochemical analysis. The Albumin and total protein values were significantly low (P<0.05) in infected groups A and B a...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

... developed detectable HI antibody titers up to 6log2 within two weeks post-booster vaccination. The challenge experiment was performed using isolate A/chicken/Egypt/A6/2011 (H5N1) with concentration of 105 EID50 to evaluate the protective efficacy of the Egy-H5 plasmid DNA vaccine. The Egy-H5 plasmid DNA vaccine induced complete protection (100%) and there was no virus shedding in all chickens immunized with the Egy-H5 plasmid DNA vaccine. Taken together, the ...
Naila Chand1,*, Shabana Naz2, Hamza Maris1, Rifat Ullhah Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1
...il/lymphocytes ratio and antibody titer was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the treated groups. Based on these results, it is concluded that supplementation of diets with betaine improved broiler feed intake, weight gain, FCR and increased immunity were under heat stress condition.
...

Lucas Pedroso Colvero1, Paulo Eduardo Brandão2*, Cesar Alejandro Rodriguez Rosales2, Hanny Swam3 and Laura Yaneth Buitrago Villarreal1 

 

...cine A showed mean ELISA antibody S/P ratios from 0.099 to 0.995 between weeks 2 and 6 post-vaccination against IBV antigen, while for vaccine B group mean S/P ratio dropped to 0.550 at week 6. Virus neutralization test showed that birds vaccinated with vaccine A showed neutralizing antibodies against IBV Massachusetts, 4/91, D274 and Qx types, while titers for vaccine B were not detected, suggesting a role of the poor emulsion quality on the performance of va...
Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Atif Prince3, Naimat Ullah Khan1 and Mumtaz Ali Khan1
...ults showed that highest antibody titer was developed in cattle, colostrum and their calves in group G in which treatment was started 75 days prepartum and VESS was given. It was concluded that vitamin E and selenium supplementation improves both active and passive immune system if given before 75 days of parturition.
...
Zia-ur-Rehaman1, Naila Chand1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Rifat Ullah Khan2,*
...day 21 to 42. Mean serum antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND) and serum paraoxonase (PON1) were significantly higher (P< 0.05) in TN zone, while serum malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly (P< 0.05) higher in HAT zone. No significant differences were recorded in serum antibody titer against ND, PON1 and MDA among different broiler strains in TN zone, while in HAT zone, Ross and Arber Acer showed significantl...

 Javid Iqbal, Asghar Ali Mian, Tanveer Ahmad*, Shamsul Hassan** and Sohail Hassan Khan* 

COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT ECONOMIC TRAITS OF FOUR IMPORTED BROILER STRAINS UNDER LOCAL CONDITIONS OF PAKISTAN
... ratio (FCR), mortality, antibody titres, dressing percentage and economic evaluation as cost of broiler per kilogram live weight produced. The average body weights gained by the birds were 2264g, 2277g, 2256g and 1942g for A, B, C and D strains, respectively at 49 days of age. The birds in treatments A, B and C gained significantly (P <0.05) more weight than the birds in treatment D. On the contrary, the birds in treatment D (4371g) consumed significantly ...
Lotta Wahldén1, 3, Ulf Emanuelson1, Torsten Møller2 and Jonas Johansson Wensman1*
...ost animals had high IgG antibody titers to CPV prior to vaccination and vaccination did not result in increased titers. A decline in CPV antibody titer with increasing age was observed regardless of immunization status. Our results suggest that vaccination of African wild dogs with a live attenuated domestic dog vaccine may provide adequate protection against CDV, and could therefore be an important tool for the conservatio...
Amna Kausar1,2, Sana Anwar1, Naila Siddique2, Safia Ahmed1 and Javid Iqbal Dasti1,*
...tination inhibition (HI) antibody titer (MT log2) against AIV H9 remained 7±3. Real-time PCR results showed 8.3% (42/507) of the samples were positive for viral matrix gene. Sub-typing was performed by specific anti-sera. PCR amplification was done by using N2 specific primers that confirmed 100% of the matrix (M) gene positive isolates as subtype H9N2. This is the first report from Pakistan that confirms prevalence of AIV H9N2 among differen...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

...on of its vector. Triple antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) was successful in detecting TYLCV in naturally and whiteflies inoculated tomato plants. Transmission properties of the virus were determined by inoculation of tomato plants of susceptible cultivar, Roma-VF, by whiteflies, determining the minimum time required for acquisition and inoculation of the virus, latency period and the persistence capacity. The highest incidence of...
Hazrat Nabi1, Irshad Hussain2, Muhammad Adil3, Amar Nasir3,*, Arbab Sikandar3, Saeed Khan1 and Nasrullah Khan3

 

... of mycotoxin binders on antibody titer against New Castle disease virus, feed consumption, weight gain, relative weights of lymphoid organs and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of broilers were investigated. Chicks fed aflatoxins (group B) alone manifested significantly reduced feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. However, no variation in weight gain and FCR was found between the controls (A, B and C) and mycotoxin binders fed groups (expe...
Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Sher Bahadar Khan2, Shehla Gul Bokhari1, Ikramul Haq1,*, Imdad Ullah Khan3, Naimat Ullah4, Naimat Ullah Khan4, Kashif Hussain1 and Azmat Ullah Khan2
...equal groups (n=18). The antibody titers were evaluated with indirect haemagglutination test. The results indicated significantly higher (P< 0.05) immune titer in animal group vaccinated with toxoid vaccine prepared from pathogenic isolates and provide best protection against challenge infection.
...
Fangxiao Dong1,2, Xuan Luo1,2, Delu Yuan1,2, Aixin Liang1,2* and Liguo Yang1,2*
...icantly stronger anti-SS antibody level than that in control (p < 0.05), and mice in T1 group induced significantly higher serum GH and PRL concentration in comparison with T2 and control groups (p < 0.05). Expectantly, mice in T1 group also showed significantly higher average weight gain and offspring weaning weight than that in T2 and control groups, respectively (p < 0.05). Overall, these results suggested that novel somatostat...

Ocheme Julius Okojokwu1*, Maryam Bisola Adebayo2, Bashiru Shafa Abubakar3, Ibrahim Abubakar Yusuf2 and Joseph Aje Anejo-Okopi1  

...(52.5%) of women had IgG antibody to Parvovirus B19 while 31 (9.5%) were positive for IgM antibody. Demographics including age group, educational status, occupation, type of marriage, number of children, history of blood transfusion and trimester of pregnancy were statistically associated with prevalence of IgG antibody (p ≤ 0.05). There was a significant association (χ2 = 12.571; p...
Tünay Kontaş Aşkar1,*, Şinasi Aşkar1, Olga Büyükleblebici2 and Murat Güzel3
... the immune fluorescence antibody test with antibody titter ≥1:128 and lymph node smear examination. In blood samples of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis, levels of malondialdehyde, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, nitric oxide, myeloperoxidase, adenosine deaminase and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1β) were determined and compared with the healthy controls. Significantly high levels of plasma malondialdehyde, nitr...

 Ihsan Ali1#, Asim Aslam1*, Habib-ur-Rehman2, Beenish Zahid3, Ishtiaq Ahmed1

Effect of fish oil on growth performance and immune response in experimentally infected broiler chicken with avian influenza virus H9N2
..., growth performance and antibody response in H9N2 challenged
broilers. A total of 80 chicks were divided in to 4 groups A, B, C & D. Group A and
B were challenged with AI virus (H9N2) on 21 day of age, group B and C were
treated with 3% FO while group A and D were treated with cooking oil. For isolation
of virus, 21 samples were collected, out of which 8 (40%) were positive for H9. The
virus titer was ranged from 1:64 to...
Yan-Guo Han1, Xiao-Li Peng1, Kai Li1, Yu-He-Tian Zhao1, Xun-Ping Jiang2, Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Jun-Hua Ye3, Li Xu3, Qin-Tao Zhao3 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...ificantly higher anti-SS antibody, serum growth hormone and IGF-1 concentrations and average body weight than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Immunisation with ptCS/2SS-asd promoted the growth of rams similar to the effect of the simple co-injection of CpG and SS DNA vaccine. Thus, the fusion type of CpG adjuvant is an effective, simple, and low-cost method in enhancing the effect of SS DNA vaccine and the growth of ram lambs.
...
Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Nasir Rajput2, Wen-xia Tian1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro2, Asmatullah Kaka2, Sheng Niu1 and Fa-jie Jia1
..., and new castle disease antibody titer were significantly higher in basil supplementary group. The weight gain and feed conversion ratio significantly improved in basil treated group, while ascorbic acid and basil significantly decreased the water intake. Body temperature and mortality percentage were significantly decreased in ascorbic acid and basil supplementary group as compared to control. Dressing percentage significantly increased in both supplementary...

 Ping Zhang1,2, Yabin Pu1, Yu Zhang2, Jia Chen2, Kunfu Wang3, Qian Li3, Yujiao Sun3, Yuehui Ma1, Shuqing Jiao2,* and Weijun Guan1,*

...d the immunofluorescence antibody invoved Sca-1, CD34, CD144, Desmin and CD45 which are the makers of MDSCs. Finally, MDSCs were induced into Adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and neuron-like cells by the optimized inducing medium. After the two-step digestion and differential attachment technique, high purity MDSCs were successfully cultured. MDSCs were identified by round or short spindle cell, and gathered into clusters; The average doubling time and cl...
Yan-Guo Han1,2, Jun-Hua Ye1, Qin-Tao Zhao1, Yong-Jie Huang2, Kai Li2, Yong-Fu Huang2 and Li Xu1,*
...mmune response, however, antibody response in T1 group were significantly stronger than that in T2 and C groups. Serum GH levels in T1 group was significantly higher than those in T2 and C groups, and serum PRL levels in T1 group was significantly higher than that in control group. Body weight of offsping rats in T1 group were significantly higher than that in control group at weeks 2 and 4 after birth, and body weight of offsping in T2 group were significantl...
Rana Waqas Arshad1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Kamran Ashraf2 and Raheela Akhtar1,*
...ups. ELISA revealed high antibody titre in live vector vaccine group and a partial protection was observed in birds vaccinated with immune complex or intermediate plus vaccines. Consistently, histopathological lesions of IBD were less evident in live vector vaccine group in comparison to other groups. In addition live vector vaccine improved the feed conversion ratio (FCR) by keeping the bird healthy and by decreasing the immunosuppression. These results indic...

Farheen Shafique1, Shaukat Ali2,*, Saiqa Andleeb1, Abdul Rauf1,3, Syed Ayaz Kazmi1,3, Sadia Idrees4, Faisal Farooq1,3, Faiq Nawaz Khan3,4, Muhammad Saad-ul-Hassan1,3, Raja Awais Mumtaz1,3, Saba Khalid1, Zaheem Ashraf1, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2 and Fazal-ur-Rehman5

...Ag) and Anti hepatitis C antibody (Anti-HCV antibody) after initial screening with no coinfection of both diseases. Out of 25 total infected individuals, 05(1.6%) were found HBsAg positive and 20(6.6%) were found anti-HCV positive. All the ICT positive individuals were further confirmed by quantitative Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and 23(7.6%) individuals were confirmed for both hepatitis B and C including 05(1....
Irfan Shahzad Sheikh, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa, Nadeem Rashid, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa, Mohammad Masood Tariq*, Majed Rafeeq, Abdul Samad, Tauseef M Asmat and Asad Ullah
...ted group had highest HI antibody titers (7.22±0.25, 7.36±0.18 and 6.55±0.38). In experiments 1 and 2, supplementation with immune modulators had significant (P<0.05) effects on total SRBC, IgG and IgM titers. In conclusion, vitamin E showed better immuno-modulatory effect followed by vitamin C, nucleotides and DNA, respectively. Supplementation of immuno-modulators at early age (1 to 21 days) showed more promising effect on immune perf...
Gong Ga1,2 and SuoLang Sizhu2,*
...ive to anti-HEV IgM antibody and Seventeen serum sample (9.8%, 17/173) were positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody. The HEV RNA positive rate was of 4.6% (8/173) in feces and serum. Moreover, the prevalence of HEV RNA was 9.5% (2/21) in swine liver, 4.8% (1/21) in swine spleen, 9.5% (2/21) in swine kidney, 4.8% (1/21) in swine intestine and 14.3% (3/21) in swine pork. HEV antigens were abundantly observed in the p...
Yan-Guo Han, Jia-Yuan Wu, Ri-Su Na, Wei-Jiang Si, Yu-Qin Han, Yan Zeng, Yong-Ju Zhao and Yong-Fu Huang*
... vaccines induced strong antibody response, significantly suppressed testosterone secretion and reduced scrotal circumference and testis weight. It also significantly reduced the concentrations of 4-methyloctanoic acid and 4-methylnonanoic acid in adipose tissue. These findings indicated that immunisation of oral and plasmid-injected KISS1 DNA vaccines can effectively suppress testosterone secretion, testis growth and mutton odour, and the novel oral
Samia Afzal*,Sadia Zahid, Iram Amin, Muhammad Shahid and Muhammad Idrees
...itive, respectively. All antibody positive samples and a subset of negative samples (195) were further subjected to PCR for confirmatory purposes. Two different sets of primers were used for the identification of the viral genome. Thirty samples were found PCR positive and a subset of ten samples was direct sequenced. Sequence analysis showed 94% similarity to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia which is considered to be the second most prevalent bacterial spe...

Cornelius Arome Omatola*, Samson Daniel Iyeh, Shedrach James Abuh, Charles Kehinde Mofolorunsho, Martin-Luther Oseni Okolo and Phoebe Queen Akoh 

...reponemal and treponemal antibody test. Socio-demographic and obstetric parameters were obtained using structured questionnaires. Sixty-four (25.6%) out of 250 women had at least one STI. The overall prevalence of syphilis, HIV, HBV, HCV and HSV-2 were 28(11.2%), 21(8.4%), 10(4.0%), 5(2.0%) and 0% respectively. Women who were married, unemployed, aged 15-35 years and of low-income earners had a higher prevalence of STIs. Factors such as a history of STIs in wo...

Hosts and Viruses

April

Vol. 7, Iss. 2, Pages 20-38

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