Muhammad Arif Zafar1*, Arfan Yousaf1, Murtaz-ul-Hasan1, Faisal Ayub Kiayani1, Matee ul Islam2 and Muhammad Farooq Iqbal1 

...administration of fluid, antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, good outcome in the calf was obtained. There was no postoperative complication suggesting that modified two-layer hand-sewn anastomosis technique was a successful technique. It was concluded that traumatic hernia may lead to septic shock and modified two-layer hand-sewn anastomosis technique may be recommended in calves with no postoperative complications and there is a good chance ...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...rdquo; with tolerance to antibiotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to the consequences of multi drug resistance and potential threat to human health and the environment. With the increasing incidences of antimicrobial contamination, especially in food, dairy products, agriculture and environment, their regular monitoring is on prime interest. Aptamers are synthetic short sequences of single stranded (ss) oligonucleotides (ss-RNA or DNA), ...

Iram Liaqat1*, Najma Arshad2, Muhammad Arshad3, Safdar Ali Mirza4, Nazish Mazhar Ali1 and Ammara Shoukat1

...ith the increased use of antibiotics in food industry, the problem of bacterial resistance is emerging, hence leading to serious health issues. Among 24 strains isolated from Shaukat Banaspati Ghee industry (Grw) and Shezan foods (pvt) Ltd, Lahore, Pakistan food industry, 10 highly antibiotic resistant strains were subjected to morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed to identify three highly resistant str...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...for development of novel antibiotics to combat resistant pathogens.

...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...checked with twenty four antibiotics by disc diffusion method. Over all mastitis was found 52.5% (63/120) with leading subclinical (41.67%, 50/120) form of mastitis on overall milk collected data. Pathogen type was crowned by Staph. aureus with 74.5% (47/63) prevalence, following which were Streptococcus species (17.45%, 11/63), E. coli (3.17%, 2/63), and Bacillus cereus (4.76%, 3/63). Coagulase positive Staph. aureus (41 out...

Zahir Shah, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Shakoor Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Javid Ali, Sher Bhader Khan

...The cow was treated with antibiotics, analgesics and liver tonics during the first week post-surgery. Local antiseptic dressing was performed using povidone-iodine daily for one week and skin sutures were removed at 14 day post-operation.

...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...f broiler alternative to antibiotics. One-day-old (N=320) broiler chicks were divided into eight treatment groups with four replicates of ten chicks. Six treatments were three herbs i.e. Allium sativum, Cassia angustifolia and Artemisia scoparia @ 0.5 and 1.0% respectively, control (basal diet), and a positive control (Oxyfeed® @ 2g/kg). In the study, the treatment groups, which were given diet supplemented with herb ...
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...d was also measured. Two antibiotics were used as references compounds for antibacterial activities. The aqueous ethanolic extract having 968.125 µg/ml of chlorogenic acid inhibited significantly the growth of tested bacterial strains. Among the bacterial strain tested Salmonella entritidis and Helicobacter pylori were even more sensitive to 20.313 (µg/ml) of chlorogenic acid and showed zone of inhibition with the value of 6.0 and 7.0...

D. C. Khatua, B. Mondal and G. Saha

Bioassay of some agricultural chemicals, human drugs and disinfectants on Phytophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd
...xt-align: justify;">Some antibiotics, insecticides, disinfectants and antiprotozoal drugs were tested on Phtophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd in aqueous environment. Antifungal antibiotics viz. validamycin, kasugamycin, griseofulvin, fluconazole and ketoconazole did not have any pronounced effect on mycelial growth, sporangia formation and its germination. None of the eight
Muhammad Usman Qamar1, 2, Sidrah Saleem1, Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Farhan Rasheed3, Hasan Ejaz4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Shah Jahan6,*
... range of broad spectrum antibiotics leaving the treatment options limited. Manuka honey is traditionally used for medical purposes including remedy of bacterial infection. However, scientific evidences for its antimicrobial effects particularly against NDM-1 producing bacteria are lacking. In addition to antibiotic profiling, the present study aimed at determining the in vitro anti- bacterial activity of Manuka honey against NDM-1 producing clinical is...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...Cephalosporin classes of antibiotics for confirmation of MDR isolates using disk diffusion method. MDR were tested in vitro for response against various antibiotics. A questionnaire was filled for estimation of association of assumed risk factors with prevalence. Nonparametric tests at 5% probability were applied to check significance of results. The study noted overall 33.98% (123/362) of MDR S. aureus from su...
Aqeela Ashraf1,2,*, Muhammad Imran1 and Yung-Fu Chang2
... increased resistance to antibiotics. The present study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates from bovine mastitis and identification of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes associated with them. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method. Resistance and virulence genes were detected by PCR. The results showed that 100% of isolates were resistant to penicillin, 54% to ampicillin,...
Faisal Masood*1, Ranjit Kumar Sah2 and Ahmad Humayun Sarfaraz3
...d with dressing and oral antibiotics according to culture and sensitivity. There were no loss of reduction 
Conclusion: Our pilot study demonstrates good result with CRPCP (Faisal’s Technique) in volar Barton’s fracture and warrants further randomized control trial study to establish its efficacy in such cases.
...
Muhammad Sarfraz*, Shahida Hasnain
...inst several beta-lactam antibiotics. This study was conducted on 11,725 specimens collected from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients from July 2013 to June 2016. API 20E system has been used to identify K. pneumoniae and E. coli; preliminary screening for AmpC beta-lactamase production was done by cefoxitin disc followed by inhibitor based confirmatory method. Antibiogram was performed following CLSI guidelines 2013. Of 11,725 clinical sp...

 

Syed Aun Muhammad1, Muhammad Soaib Said2, Shams Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Dawood2, Muneer Ahmed Qazi3 and Nighat Fatima2,*
...st all the β-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, NDM-1 inhibitors can play an important role against these emerging highly resistant microorganisms. The existing beta lactamase inhibitors are considered ineffective against these superbugs and there is an urgent need for discovery of novel drugs with selective potential. In this study, we illuminate the binding mode of pimarane diterpenes (diaporthein A and diaporthein B) to the NMD-1 by molecular docking. A co...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
... tested against selected antibiotics (meropenem, imipenem, piperacillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, gentamicin, tobramycin, kanamycin, clarithromycin, clarithromycin, cefepime, cefixime, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin), Lactobacillus strains and metal nanoparticles (copper, ferric and zinc). P. aeruginosa isolates showed in vitro resistance against 11 of 14 antibodies tested. The isolates were highly susceptible to meropenem, piperacillin, an...
Junaid Akhtar1,2, Sidrah Saleem1, Naveed Shahzad3, Abdul Waheed1, Iqra Jameel1, Farhan Rasheed4 and Shah Jahan5,*
...;-lactam ring containing antibiotics predominantly carbapenems, are considered as last treatment option against multi-drug resistance GNR infections. However, the emergence of carbapenemases particularly metallo β-lactamases (MBLs) in bacteria have severely mitigated the efficiency of carbapenems. MBLs producing gram-negative bacteria have been reported from various hospital settings, worldwide. However, data is lacking in Pakistan regarding their frequen...
Nimra Naseer, Adeela Fatima and Imran Sajid*
...o replace currently used antibiotics in order to evade resistance. Currently, the pathogenic organisms of concern are methicillin and vancomycin resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter spp., extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Proteus spp. In this study, a collection of nineteen actinomycetes strains isolated f...
Amjad Islam Aqib1,*, Shagufta Nighat2, Rais Ahmed3, Saba Sana3, Muhammad Ameen Jamal4, Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar2 , Naimat Ullah Khan5, Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Muhammad Asif Hussain5, Asadullah5, Attaur Rahman5 and Sadeeq ur Rahman5,*
...stem, use of beta-lactam antibiotics, parity, and poor hygiene were potential risk factors. Altogether, the study concluded high incidence of SCM and isolation rate of staphylococci that were found resistant against most of the commonly used antibiotics.
...

 Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa Andleeb2, Bushra Mazhar1, Anum Imtiaz1, Shaukat Ali2*

Assessment of antibiogram and resistogram of pathogenic bacteria isolated from irrigated wheat field water
...cacy of heavy metals and antibiotics against five isolated bacterial pathogens. Different morphological and biochemical tests were performed to identify and characterize bacterial pathogens. Among isolated strains, two belong to genus Staphylococcus spp., other two were Pseudomonas spp. and one strain belonged to genus Salmonella spp. Effect of various parameters such as temperature and pH on growth of pathogens were also studied. Antibiogram and resistogram a...
Muhammad Hidayat Rasool1,*, Muhammad Zaheer1, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Shafique1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar1
... testing against various antibiotics as per Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Carbapenem-resistant isolates were subjected to detection of Metallo-beta-lactamase production by Double Disc Diffusion test (DDDT) and Modified Hodge’s test. In 152 specimens, different species identified in order of their frequency were; Klebsiella pneumoniae (59; 38.8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (46; 30.3%), Escherichia coli (3...

 Abdul Maalik1, Shahzad Ali1,*, Anam Iftikhar1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Haroon Ahmad2 and Iahtasham Khan1

...istant for ten different antibiotics. It was concluded that multi-drug resistant strains of Staph. aureus were major causative agent of bovine subclinical mastitis and there were multiple risk factors associated with incidence of mastitis.

...
Emel Banu Buyukunal1,*, Rojan Ibrahim Albazaz1 and Mehmet Ali Bal2,3
...le to most of the tested antibiotics and highest resistance rates were detected for ciprofloxacin (2.8%) followed by ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem with equal resistance rates of 1.4% with CLSI interpretative criteria. However, analyzing of the same data according to EUCAST interpretative criteria resulted in higher number of resistant isolates (n=16). In this case, isolates showed resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (7%), cefpodoxime (5.6%), ciprofloxac...
Sher Bahadar Khan1,2,*, Zou Geng1, Cheng Yu-ting1, Asad Sultan3, Mumtaz Ali4,5, Irshad Ahmad6 and Rui Zhou1
...lates were tested for 15 antibiotics (CRO, AMX, GEN, STR, TET, CHL, CLR, LVX, OFX, GAT, CIP, SXT, AMP, LIN and AZM) according to the disc diffusion method and antibiotic resistant genes {tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), strA/strB, aadA, aac(3)IV), aadB, sul1, sul2 and sul3, blaCMY-2, blaTEM and blaSHV} using mPCR. Resistance for LIN was the highest in overall (96.3%, 77/80) isolates as well as from pig farms (100%, 20/20) and different markets (100%, 20/20, 85%, 17/20)...
Shad Mahfuz1,2, Shuyuan Wang1, Mo Chen1, Fei Zao1, Dong Zhen1
Zhongjun Liu4 and Hui Song1,3*
...div>The extensive use of antibiotics in poultry industry with the purpose of increasing production performance has led to human health hazards. A driving force for the interest of using natural herbs is to eliminate the use of low-dose antibiotics in poultry production. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Flammulina velutipes stem waste (FVW) inclusion in laying hens diet on production...
Barkat Ali1,2, Wasim Sajjad1,2,3, Imran Khan1, Muhammad Rafiq1, Sahib Zada1, Aamer Ali Shah1 and Fariha Hasan1,*
...g microorganisms against antibiotics already in use. Microorganisms from unusual environments, such as reported from the surface and inside of rocks are a repository of certain metabolites that might be able to solve the problem of increasing resistance against antibiotics. The present study was designed to isolate endolithic and epilithic bacterial strains from the rapidly weathering rocks collected from Nathiagali, Pakista...

Saleha Ashfaq1, Manzoor Hussain1, Nazish Bibi2, Jan Alam1, Muhammad Junaid2 and Sabi-Ur-Rehman3*

...anisms studied. Standard antibiotics were used as a positive control for bacteria and fungi respectively. The cytotoxic assay results showed that methanolic extracts of stem and root of H. gilesii had toxic effects on brine shrimp larvae with LD50 values of 116.72 µg/ml and 168.16 µg/ml respectively. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic parameters reported can be considered as quality standards of H. gilesii in herbal industry. 

...

Muhammad Rehan3, Asim Aslam3, Javeria Umber4, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan3, Waqar Azeem3, Hassan Aftab5, Ahsan Anjum3, Muhammad Abid6, Abdul Hameed Khan3, Hafiz Hasnain Ayoub5, Altaf Hussain2 and Muhammad Farooq Khalid1* 

...stance to currently used antibiotics requires cost effective alternatives while vitamin D can serve as inexpensive therapeutic agent in prophylaxis as well as treatment of several infections. This review summarizes current knowledge on complex immune-modulatory role of vitamin D at cellular level as well as different mechanisms through which vitamin D exert protective role against different viral, bacterial, parasitic infections and non-infectious disorders. &...
Sana Aslam1, Wayne Thomas Shier2 and Imran Sajid1*
...s the discovery of novel antibiotics and other biotechnologically useful compounds has been exhausted so molecular characterization of actinomycetes from less explored habitats may be an alternate solution to this challenge. The aim of this study was to explore the actinobacterial diversity of the saline lake, situated in the salt range, Punjab, Pakistan and to screen them for antagonistic activities against multi drug resistant pathogens and to characterize t...
Tasbihullah1, Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*, Tariq Ali3 , Umer Saddique1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Shafiq4, Sultan Ayaz2, Hamayun Khan1, Ijaz Ahmad1 Asadullah2, Raheela Taj5, Hafiz Nidaullah6 and Alamgir Khan7
...ree different classes of antibiotics. Class 1 integron was carried by (21/24) followed by additional class 2 integron (15/24). A total of 8 isolates were harboring insertion sequence common region 1 (ISCR1), which was found to be linked with blaCTXM in 50% (4/8) isolates. Results of the current study indicate contamination of eggs with ESBL-producing E. coli suggesting to improve hygienic process for end consumer during- egg pro...
Sana Khan1, Raheela Taj1, Noor Rehman2, Asad Ullah3, Imad Khan3 and Sadeeq ur Rahman3,*
...nce appropriate usage of antibiotics must be ensured to avoid further dissemination.
...
Murtala Muhammad, Ting Zhang, Siyu Gong, Jing Bai, Jiansong Ju, Baohua Zhao* and Dong Liu*
...to most of the important antibiotics, including Kanamycin, Amoxicillin, gentamycin, Penicillin G and spectinomycin. The bacteria is pathogenic to Chinese sturgeon via intraperitoneal injection. It instigated pathological changes in vital organs that lead to mortality of the infected A. sinensis with a cumulative mortality of 40% to 100%. S.iniae HNM-1 ability to evade the innate immune system was determined by whole blood killing, exposure to hyd...

Pravin Mishra1, Md. Muket Mahmud2, Md. Ahosanul Haque Shahid2, Alamgir Hasan2, Vivek Kumar Yadav3 and Moinul Hasan1* 

...tify;">The resistance of antibiotics to organisms is a matter of global concern. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is rapidly increasing in both humans and animals. A two and half years old indigenous calf brought with myiasis wound and bacteria associated with myiasis wound was studied and further molecular detection confirms the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from the outer part of the wound but not from th...
Aribah Naz1*, Uzma Badar1,Afsheen Arif2*, Zaid Qureshi1, Sondas Saeed1,Erum Shoeb1, Maqsood Ali Ansari1 and Obaid Yusuf Khan1
...MTC for heavy metals and antibiotics were determined. Morphological, Biochemical and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing have been done for the identification of the strain. 16S region was amplified by PCR and subjected to DNA sequencing. The sequence data analysis of the isolated strain showed 98% homology with Vibrio harveyi species. The sequence obtained has been submitted to NCBI under GenBank Accession# KY653092. Characterization of luminescen...
Sher Bahadar Khan1, Mumtaz Ali Khan2,*, Hameed Ullah Khan3, Sher Ali Khan4, Shah Fahad5, Faheem Ahmad Khan6, Irshad Ahmad7, Nighat Nawaz8, Sidra Bibi9 and Muhammad Muneeb10
...lates were tested for 15 antibiotics using disc diffusion method followed by detection of their respective antimicrobial resistant genes. Overall prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni was 14% being higher in Peshawar division (21%) followed by Bannu division (16%), Malakand division (13%) and Hazara division (8%). Over all highest antibiotic resistance was found against AMX (93%) followed by LIN (88%), AMP (86%), TET (82%), SXT (75), CHL (68%), CLR (65%), ...
Muhammad Aamir Naseer1, Amjad Islam Aqib2*, Ambreen Ashar3Muhammad Ijaz Saleem1, Muhammad Shoaib4Muhammad Fakhar-e-Alam Kulyar1, Khurram Ashfaq1, Zeeshan Ahmad Bhutta1 and Shagufta Nighat5
...esponse to commonly used antibiotics is not only becoming worrisome in bpSA but also in non-biofilm producing S. aureus (nbpSA). Current study was planned to detect bpSA from dairy milk, confirmation of presumed risk factors, and comparative analysis of antibiogram of bpSA and nbpSA at various cadre. Milk samples (n=250) from cattle (n=90) and buffalo (n=160) were aseptically collected from various dairy farms and put to biofilm detection and antibiogra...
Ayesha Talib1,2, Khanzadi Nazneen Manzoor1, Wajahat Ali1, Maria Saeed1, Muhammad Asif Gondal1, Malik Badshah3 and Abid Ali Khan1*
...ance towards a number of antibiotics in a variety of microorganisms is expanding at an alarming pace. There is a dire need to devise novel tactics to deal with these minute yet evolving ever clever microscopic entities. One of the possible ways to fight them is through nanoparticles. Green synthesis is an easy way to synthesize nanoparticles by using biological resources as it is cost effective, eco-friendly and large-scale production possibilities exist. Copp...
Adeen Kiran1, Umar Farooq Gohar1*, Ayesha Farooq1, Malik Muhammad Asif2 and Hamid Mukhtar1
Redressal of Antibiotic Resistance using Plant Extracts
...thetic or semi-synthetic antibiotics to the use of medicinal plants which are the part and parcel of traditional medicines. Thus, this review article explains the different mechanisms adopted by microbial life to develop resistance against antibiotics. This article also explains how the resistance can be reversed as well as the bio-medicinal importance of plants and their effectiveness against many pathogens.

...

Muhammad Iqbal1, Muhammad Ehetisham ul Haq1*, Muhammad Kamran1, Muhammad Idrees1, Shahid Nazir2, Ihsan Ullah3, Sumera Naz1, Shaukat Ali1 and Muhammad Zafar Iqbal2

Morpho-Molecular Characterization of Xanthomonas Axonopodis Pv. Citri Associated with Kinnow (Mandarin) and its Management
...f commercially available antibiotics against the pathogen was evaluated in the lab and in field conditions. A systematic survey of randomly ten localities/sampling sites was conducted for a reliable estimation of citrus canker disease in District Sargodha of Punjab Province. Nine sampling sites showed 90 % the presence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri and only one site was free of citrus canker disease. Total cellular DNA was isolated from freshly growing a...
Amjad Ali, Kafeel Ahmad*and Shaista Rahat
...using nineteen different antibiotics and multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index was determined. Prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamases was studied by double disc synergy test. The ESBL genes blaCTX-M, blaOXA-10, blaPER-1, blaSHV and blaTEM were analyzed by PCR amplification among the isolates. Susceptibility to antibiotics was: imipenem (85.02%), meropenem (82.88%), cefepime (76.47%), piperacillin-tazobactam (...
Basharat Ahmed1, Muhammad Hamza Azhar2, Farah R. Shakoori1 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori1,3,*
...s in response to fifteen antibiotics. Campylobacter isolates were identified as C. jejuni (66.4%) and C. coli (33.6%). An over whelming majority of isolates were recovered from children (72%), 52 % were from male patients. The highest number of strains was isolated in summer (30.8 %) followed by in autumn (25.3 %) and in spring (22.6 %). The lowest number of strains was isolated in winter (21.2 %). The isolates showed highest resistance ag...

Oluseyi A. Olayinka1, Temitope O.C. Faleye2, Oladipo O. Omotosho3, Oladapo A. Odukaye3, Bolaji Oluremi4, Ibipeju H. Ibitoye1, Oludayo O. Ope-Ewe1, Uwem E. George5, Oluwadamilola A. Arowolo6, Ijeoma M. Ifeorah7, Ewean C. Omoruyi8, Emmanuel Donbraye9, Olufunke P. Adeniji10, Olubusuyi M. Adewumi1,11* and Johnson A. Adeniji1,11,12

... targeted broad-spectrum antibiotics with over 50% targeting Tetracyclines. Five (ant(6)-Ia_3, tet(40)_1, tet(Q)_1, tet(W)_5 and tet(O/W)_4) of the ARGs were predicted to be plasmid-borne. Our findings show that the Swine industry in the region might be both a mixing pot and reservoir of ARGs. It is therefore crucial that effort is made to educate the stakeholders on the importance of good antibiotics stewardship.

...
Iqra Muzammil1, Muhammad Ijaz Saleem1, Amjad Islam Aqib2,*, Ambreen Ashar3Syed Ashar Mahfooz1, Sajjad ur Rahman4, Muhammad Shoaib4, Muhammad Aamir Naseer1, Imran Khan Sohrani1, Javeed Ahmad1, Razaullah Saqi1, Fizzah Laeeq Lodhi1 and
Qaisar Tanveer5

Muhamamd Rizwan1*, Muhammad Arshad2, Muhammad Kashif3, Aneela Zameer Durrani4, Asghar Abbas5, Tanveer Ahmad6, Muhammad Nadeem7 , Kinza Khan8

... bacterial virulence and antibiotics resistance. CRISPR Cas system is an integral part of prokaryotic (Bacteria and Archaea) immune system that provides protection against viral infection. When bacteria recognize viral DNA inside it, bacteria incorporate small fragment of viral DNA into its genome at specific site termed as CRISPR locus. Insertion of viral DNA at CRISPR locus allows to remember, diagnose and clear the viral infection by the mechanism of sequen...

Md. Sahidur Rahman1*, Tishita Ape1, Md. Islam1 and Sharmin Chowdhury2

...the most frequently used antibiotics in the study area. Among the participants, 99% did not follow the withdrawal period of the drugs and claimed their prescribers did not advise them on it. Among participants, 81% were found unaware of the effect of antibiotic resistance on animal health. The univariable significance test showed the educational status of the farmer had a strong (P < 0.01) relationship with the knowledge of antimicrobial resistance. Only 27...
Muhammad Noman Koondhar1, Asghar Ali Kamboh1,*, Muhammad Ammar Khan2, Riaz Ahmed Leghari3 and Parkash Dewani4
...was recorded against the antibiotics of penicillin group (88.5 to 93.7%), followed by the aminoglycosides (68.4 to 85.5%), tetracycline (73.9 to 78.6%), and quinolones (59.6 to 63.1%). While lowest resistance level was observed against the antibiotics of cephalosporin group (32.1 to 52.6%). Among 13 isolates of S. Pullorum, a highest number (10 isolates) showed resistance against neomycin, kanamycin and tetracy...
Maimoona Imran1,2, Soumble Zulfiqar2, Hafsa Saeed2 and Farah Rauf Shakoori1*
...otential against various antibiotics. KW was found to be resistant to broader range of antibiotics as compared to CC. All these characteristics viz., high tolerance against Cu++, excellent Cu++ uptake and efflux abilities, remarkable multi metal resistance potential and tolerance against substantial ranges of temperature and pH make K. pneumoniae KW an efficient tool for cleaning Cu++...
Zhongyong Wu1, Wenzhu Li2, Chunxia Ni1, Zhuolin He1, Xiao Hou1 and Wanxia Pu1*
...ronments, and the use of antibiotics may be the reasons for the varied distribution of different genotypes in those provinces.
...
Amjed Ali1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Sehrish Firyal1, Abu Saeed Hashmi2, Asif Nadeem3, Shagufta Saeed1, Ali Raza Awan1 and Muhammad Wasim1
...;-lactam ring containing antibiotics and showed comparable results to β-lactamase from Hi-media kit available in the market. The β-lactamase from current study was found suitable for its use as positive control in antibiotic susceptibility testing and this enzyme will be utilized for the development of antibiotic susceptibility testing kit at domestic level in near future.
...
Waqar Ali1,3*, Muhammad Yaqoob2, Abida Arshad1, Guifu Dai3,Safir Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Arshad Malik4, Imran Ullah1 and Ihsan Ullah1

Ayesha Muzamil, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir, Shaukat Ali, Iram Liaqat, Aamir Ali, Muhammad Summer

...on steroidal drugs i.e., antibiotics are used to treat inflammatory disorders. Theses synthetic drugs have many side effects on the health such as gastrointestinal problems, stomach ulcers, dizziness, liver or kidney problems etc. Cytokines play an important role in the induction and suppression of inflammation. Cytokines are diverse form of proteins that act pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The main component of immunity is IL-1. IL-6 cytokine play its r...

Stephen Chijioke Emencheta1, Chinelo Charity Eze1, Anthony Amaechi Attama2, Damian Ejike Agbo1 and Ebele Benedette Onuigbo1*

... with nine (9) different antibiotics, including;aztreonam (ATM), chloramphenicol (CPL), gentamicin (GTN), tetracycline (TTE), sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), meropenem (MEM), ciprofloxacin (CIP), ceftriaxone (CRO)). Plaque assay was done to determine lytic action of the bacteriophage on the lawns of the Pseudomonas sp. The host range of the isolated bacteriophages was also assessed. Cultural characteristics and biochemi...

Prima Mei Widiyanti1*, Mirnawati B Sudarwanto2, Etih Sudarnika2, Raphaella Widiastuti1 

...e of the fluoroquinolone antibiotics used for therapy in animals. The presence of enrofloxacin antibiotic residue in milk could affect product quality and human health. This study aimed to determine the heating effect of enrofloxacin antibiotic in milk. The milk samples spiked with enrofloxacin antibiotic were submitted to thermal treatments. The milk samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. This study showed that no he...

Asmaa G. Mubarak1*, Mona M. Mustafa2, Mohamed W. Abdel-Azeem3, Dina N. Ali2 

Keiven Mark B. Ampode1*, Federico C. Mendoza2 

...ant bacteria, the use of antibiotics in livestock and poultry feed has been banned in the European Union since 2006. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the effects of oregano powder (OP) as phytobiotic feed additives on the growth performance and cell-mediated immunity of broiler chickens. A total of sixty-day-old Cobb-broiler chickens were used in the study and arranged in a Completely Randomized Design experimental set-up with four dietary treatment...

Xiaoli Cai1,2, Saeed Ahmed3, Zhixin Lei1,*, Jianping Wu1,* and Taolei Sun1,2,*

... as compared to ordinary antibiotics. The nanoparticle has unique physical and chemical properties, a large surface area, and an electric charge. Additionally, its antibacterial drug encapsulation can make it easier to enter the cell and improve the concentration in the target tissue. In the current review, the purpose is to find a more effective nanometer system to fight against intracellular bacterial infection. Current observation describes the drug resista...

Mohamed S. Hussein1*, Hanan A. Fahmy2, Ashraf A. Abd El Tawab3 

...nes and fluoroquinolones antibiotics revealed that 62 (86.1%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic, with highest resistance rates observed against first generation (86.1% for nalidixic acid, and 81.9% for flumequine), and lowest rate against levofloxacin (33.3%). A total of 24 isolates, dsplaying high resistance to at least 5 fluroquinolone antibiotics, were then screened for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR)...

Mohammed H. Galhoum1, Hamza M. Eed2, Essam S. Soliman1* 

...gainst 60% of the tested antibiotics reflects a serious problem with the hygienic and biosecurity measures taken in the poultry and slaughterhouses, as well the extensive use of the antibiotic contributed to the recorded high resistance among the isolated strains.

Keywords | Antimicrobial, Broiler chickens, Conventional, Molecular, Prevalence, Salmonella 

...

Syed Haseeb Ahmed Shah, Irfan Shahzad Sheikh, Abdul Samad, Muhammad Kamran Taj, Mohammad Masood Tariq*, Majed Rafeeq, Sumaira Fazal, Niamatullah Kakar, Sabeera Afzal and Asadullah

... that supplementation of antibiotics used in broiler chicks at sub-therapeutic level is beneficial for growth performance parameters.

...

Mirza Lena1,2, Dinda Fathia Syahramadani2, Alfi Nurrachma Gustya2, Arif Darmawan2,3, Sumiati2, Wiwin Winarsih4, Minoru Maeda5, Komang Gede Wiryawan2*  

Kanakuntla Sandhyarani*, Dhoppalapudi Madhuri, Yadala Ravikumar 

...t into toxicity includes antibiotics, anticoccidials, manufactured chemicals, and pesticides can also induce gout in poultry. Clinical signs include decreased feed and water intake, lethargy, ruffled feathers, weight loss and abnormal droppings. Clinically, the body fluid reveals increase in TEC, TLC, Hb and PCV and decreased alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatases (ALP), serum total proteins, serum albumin and gluta...
Heba Mohamed Shaheen1, Ali Meawad Ahmed1*, Hosny Abdelltief Abdelrahman1, Rania Helmy Abohatab Abdou2, Aya Salama Mohamed Kamel1
...most conventionally used antibiotics for raising chicken in Egypt. The occurrence of antibiotic residues in broiler chicken is the chief causes of the development of antibiotic resistance in food-borne pathogens. Antibiotic resistance is setting the achievements of present day medication at chance. Therefore, in this study 300 chilled broilers carcasses were collected from different poultry markets in Ismailia City, Egypt to evaluate qualitative, quantitative ...

Kafeel Ahmad*, Muhammad Siqaf, Gul-E-Rana Abid, Ramla Somayya and Umama Qasim

...ffusion method using the antibiotics cefotaxime (30 µg), ceftazidime (30 µg), cefepime (30 µg), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (30 µg), imipenem (10 µg) and meropenem (10 µg). Three extended spectrum beta lactamases genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV and blaOXA-10) and one metallo beta-lactamase gene (blaNDM-1) were analysed in the isolates. Eight (16%) isolates were positive for extended spectrum beta-lactamases production phenotypically...

Stephen Chijioke Emencheta1, Anthony Amaechi Attama2, Ezinwanne Nneoma Ezeibe1, Adaora Angela Agubata1 and Ebele Benedette Onuigbo1*

...ceptibility test to nine antibiotics was determined. Multi-antibiotic resistance index (MARI) was assessed. Spot assay was done to determine lytic action of the bacteriophage on the lawns of the Escherichia coli. The phenotypic and biochemical tests confirmed Escherichia coli isolates. There was metallic green sheen on EMB agar. The isolates were citrate negative and indole positive. The isolates were found to be resistant to amoxicillin (100 %), meropenem (10...

Muhammad Ali Raza1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Kamran Ashraf2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali3, Kumayl Hassan Akhtar4 and Nazia Rubab5

...al products that include antibiotics and steroidal hormones. The day by day increase in human population across the globe is leading to the increased need of food production. Due to the excessive use of common antibiotics i.e. penicillin and oxytetracycline, the antibiotic (ABs) residues remain in livestock products like milk of buffalo and cow. It leads to antibiotic resistance in human beings as well as animals and thus le...

Saima Naz1*, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha2, Sajjad Ali2 and Muhammad Irfan Ullah3

...y metals, pesticides and antibiotics cause changes in insect diversity and continuously have become threat to health of living organisms. Additionally, pollutants coming from traffic smoke also affect the interaction of insects with other insects and plants. Exposure of toxic level of heavy metals can cause DNA damage, learning, sensory disability and memory deficit. Major portion of insects have malformed growth and mortality rate affected by heavy metals, ma...

Muhammad Ali Raza1*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Kamran Ashraf2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali3, Kumayl Hassan Akhtar4 and Nazia Rubab5

...ed to one-health, use of antibiotics, antibiotics (ABs) residues in milk, meat and yogourt, the role of food safety, organizations, antibiotic resistance, compromise on human health and harmful implications upon animal welfare and eventually one-health due to unnecessary over or under label use of ABs. The results have delineated the educated individuals had a very little knowledge about OH i.e. 18.2% persons knew about the ...

Sher Bahadar Khan1,*, Mumtaz Ali Khan2, Irshad Ahmad3, Faheem Ahmad Khan4, Hamayun Khan1 and Sher Ali Khan5

...aloes were tested for 15 antibiotics using disc diffusion method followed by detection of their respective antimicrobial resistant genes through PCR. Among them, the highest prevalence of Staph. aureus was found in Peshawar-Mardan division (30%), followed by Malakand (28.5%), Bannu-Dera Ismail khan division (25%) and Hazara division (16%). Over all the high resistance was found against Lin (96.25%) followed by AMX (82.5%), TET (63.75%), AMP (58.75%), SXT (50%)...

Amjed Ali1, Muhammad Tayyab1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi2, Asif Nadeem3, Shumaila Hanif4, Sehrish Firyal1, Shagufta Saeed1, Ali Raza Awan1 and Muhammad Wasim1

...;-lactam ring containing antibiotics makes it a suitable candidate for its utilization as positive control in diagnostics and in antibiotic susceptibility testing experiments.

...

Mehwish Saleem Khan* and Sumama Farooq

...es against the action of antibiotics. Antibiotics are chemical substances which bacteria and fungi produce either to inhibit or kill the other microbes. Antibiotics are classified on the basis of their structure and mode of action. Bacteria resist antibiotics by inactivating the drugs, altering the target site, chemically modifying the
Sara Mohamed Hemeda1, R.H. Sayed2, Hani Hassan1, Sheima A.E.2, Hassan Aboul-Ella3, R. Soliman3*
... following β-lactam antibiotics; Amoxicillin (AMX)- Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) and Penicillin-G (Pen G)-KLH conjugates. The prepared anti-β-lactam antibodies were conjugated with gold chloride nanoparticles and used in the development of competitive lateral flow kits for the detection of β-lactams antibiotic residues in dairy milk. The concentration of the gold chloride-antibody conjugate in the conjugation pad was adjusted to detect β...

Shahan Azeem1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer2, Liaquat Ahmad3, Sameera Akhtar1 and Talat Naseer Pasha4,5

...ommercial feed mill. The antibiotics were mixed in the feed as per the manufacturer’s instructions and offered ad libitum to the chickens for the entire study period. The chickens were vaccinated for NDV and AIV. None of the antibiotics adversely affected the development of NDV or AIV hemagglutination inhibition geometric mean titers. Flavomycin and zinc bacitracin did not adversely affect the mean splenic (1.27+0.20 g...

Md. Sabuj Rahman and Md. Mahmudul Alam*

...rgical administration of antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, a good prognosis in the calf was noticed. After 1 month, a mild skin problem occurred which was minimized simultaneously.

...

Zannatul Ferdous1, Abdul Goffar Sarder2, Mustasim Famous3*, Mahfuza Ferdous4, Shahabuddin Ahmed5 and Md. Amir Hossain6

...d diet supplemented with antibiotics in T1. The hematological parameters TEC, ESR, and DLC value of treatment group shows a significant difference, while Hemoglobin estimation does not show a significant difference from the control group. It could be concluded that Kalojeera and Ginger could act as growth promoters and alternatives to antibiotics in broilers.

...
Faiza Ghazanfar1, Masood Rabbani1*, Aamir Ghafoor2 and Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq3
...ntial as a substitute of antibiotics. These not only improve poultry performance by modifying the pH of the gastro-intestinal tract of bird, but also change the composition of its microbiome and ultimately protecting the chicken from pH-sensitive pathogens. The purpose of this study was to define the bactericidal action of organic acids on Campylobacter jejuni, individually and in combination. Total 120 broiler chickens were randomly distributed in ten groups....

Heba S.S. Salem1, Hend M. Megahed2, Marwa M. Sarhan2, Maha M. El Alem3, Gehan N. Alagmy3* 

...one or added to systemic antibiotics for curing septic arthritis caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Thirsty-five naturally infected cases of rabbits with arthritis were screened for the prevalence of S. aureus as a causative agent. S. aureus was diagnosed in 40% of the examined cases via traditional culture methods and molecular confirmation using PCR. All tested S. aureus isolates were positive for virulence-associated genes (nuc, icaA, and Hlg). In...

Ezz Ibrahim Khalifa, Ahmed Loly Ibrahim Desoky, Adel AbdElaziz Elbadawy, Gamal Ibrahim El-Emam, Tarek Messlam Mahmoud Mahdy* 

...es of energy (fructose), antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin), and antioxidants (vitamin E), which served as control extender (E0). However, 2nd, 3rd, 4thand 5th replicates were serviced as trial extenders as E1, E2, E3, and E4, which supplied 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 2.00 % of BBE as natural sources of energy, antibiotic and antioxidant, respectively. Results indicated that adding BBE to E1, E2, E3, and E4 extenders has increased (P<0.05) in all sperm ch...

Eman H. Abotalp, Sahar R. Mohamed, Jakeen K. El Jakee

...57. The resistance to 16 antibiotics and the creation of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) were identified on E. coli isolates by using Vitek2compact system. The creation of ESBL was distinguished in 5 of the isolated E. coli. The highest resistance was toward ampicillin (60%) and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (45%). No resistant was observed to piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem & amikacin. The present study concluded that canines and felin...

Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences

September

Vol. 10, Iss. 9, Pages 1887-2089

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