Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
..., urbanization and urban agriculture are three factors commonly quoted as important for disease emergence. Several of the mechanism by which urban disease emergence is promoted also increase the risks of vector-borne diseases, and the mosquito-borne Dengue virus is one of the pathogens benefitting from this. The related virus Japanese encephalitis virus is the most important cause of mosquito-borne encephalitis in the world, and is maintained in avian reservoi...

Zaheer Ahmed Deho1, Shamsuddin Tunio2, Qammaruddin Chachar2, Fateh Chand Oad2

Muhammad Irshad1, Abdur Rab1, Javed Rahman2, Muhammad Sajid1, Ilyas Khan2, Sajad Ali1, Muhammad Razaq1, Sallahuddin1

Rashid Saleem1*, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmad2, Muhammad Abbas Anees2, Abdul Razzaq3 and Ashiq Saleem1


Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2


Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1


... Due to modernization in agriculture sector over the last few decades, credit needs of the farmers have increased rapidly. Credit is considered an important factor for raising the productivity and income of the farmers. The current study attempts to analyse the impact of credit on wheat productivity in district Jhang. Furthermore, study explores the purpose of farmers for acquiring loan and major sources of credit in district Jhang. This study is based on prim...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...p yields and sustainable agriculture. A field experiment was conducted to study the residual effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of chickpea crop. The treatments included control (no organic or inorganic fertilizer), NPK (36-72-0 kg ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1), Farmyard Manure (20 t ha-1), Poultry Manure (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + FYM (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + P.M (20 t ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1) + FYM (20 t...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

...bution of irrigated agriculture is more than 90%, thus the sustainable water supply to meet the food and fibre demand of the ever increasing population is a big challenge. Increase in crop water productivity (CWP) is one of the most important options for sustainable use of water resources in semi-arid environment. A field study was conducted during Rabi 2010-11 and Kharif 2011 crop seasons to compare the CWP of main crops (wheat, sugar...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...zers. Top most source of agriculture information was input dealers followed by Model Farm Services Center. The top learned skills by respondents in MFSC were the agronomic practices whereas there was big gap in horticultural practices. Major constraints identified were less machinery utilization duration, complication in machinery booking process, costly rental prices, out-dated machinery, preference of progressive farmers, no timely availability of Inputs, un...

Imtiaz Hussain, M. Sajid, Noor ul Amin, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Abrar Hussain Shah, S. Mussarat       Hussain, Sayed Hussain and Nagina Zeb

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

...intenance of sustainable agriculture in developing countries, most notably in Western Africa and South Asia. Here, we review, using available data in research papers and reports of international organizations and databases, the factors that enables the spread of PPR in Africa and the required countermeasures that are required to control and eradicate it. However, with challenges such as uncontrolled movement of animals across porous borders, limited financial ...

Muhammad Jurial Baloch1*, Ghulam Murtaza Channa2, Wajid Ali Jatoi2, Abdul Wahid Baloch1, Imdad Hussain Rind1, Muhammad Ahmed Arain1 and Ayaz Ali Keerio1

 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

... has been prioritized in agriculture finance policies of Pakistan. The main objectives of this study are to explore farmers’ access to different formal and informal credit sources, and to investigate their credit adequacy and the role of important socio-economic factors in access to credit. The data were collected from 87 farming households in Mardan Tehsil of Mardan District. Questionnaire was the main tool used to collect the data from farmers. The cre...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli


Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

... 2015, to understand the agriculture land use changes during the past three decades and its impacts on traditional mobile pastoral system. For this purpose, participatory discussions, Global Positioning System (GPS) and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to identify and record land use changes during past three decades. Detail interviews were also conducted with nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoralists to identify and evaluate the impacts of

Muhammad Aslam

...ved irrigation, improved agriculture-education-training-research- extension-nexus, reclamation of salinized lands, improved agricultural credit and support price policies. Recommendations include improving agricultural research and extension systems, accelerating diffusion and adoption of latest agriculture technologies and inputs, enhancing good quality seed production, improving irrigation water management and improving re...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...ver different aspects of agriculture sector.


Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

...which may be helpful for agriculture sustainability and food security.


Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

...ings unemployment in the agriculture sector is likely to increase. There is a need to create off-farm employment opportunities. Agro based industries seems to potential area to generate employment opportunities. Simultaneously there is need for initiating skill development programs.


Aqila Shaheen and Mehwish Matien

...ssential for sustainable agriculture. Soil organic carbon of three land uses viz. forest land, grassland, and cultivated land were quantified. These land uses belonged to two soil groups having different soil type and climate. Selected soil groups were Inceptisols (site 1) and Mollisols (site 2). Soil samples were analyzed for bulk density (BD), soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (AP), extractable potassium (K) and pH. Statist...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

... health, environment and agriculture. The occurrence of bacterial “suprainfection” with tolerance to antibiotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to the consequences of multi drug resistance and potential threat to human health and the environment. With the increasing incidences of antimicrobial contamination, especially in food, dairy products, agriculture and environment, their regular monito...

G.E. Odo1*, E.J. Agwu1, N.I. Ossai2, C.O. Ezea3, J. Madu1 and V. Eneje2

...mmonly used pesticide in agriculture for pest control in Nigeria. This study investigated the effects of aluminium phosphide on the behaviour, haematology, oxidative stress biomarkers and biochemistry of African catfish (C. gariepinus) juvenile on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. Fish were exposed to 0.175, 0.0875 and 0.035 mg/L corresponding to 1/10, 1/20 and 1/50 of the 96 h LC50 value (1.75) of the pesticide. Behavioral responses which include colouration of the fish...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...conventional subsistence agriculture is changed to market farming i.e. from wheat to vegetable and sugarcane. The yield per acre of almost every crop grown has been increased, which considerably increased the crop revenue. Due to availability of irrigation water, the current fallow in both the Rabi (winter cropping) and Kharif (summer cropping) has decreased with matching increase in area net sown. The study suggests that mouza has capacity for further increas...

Zahir Shah, Ahmed Nawaz Tunio, Shakoor Ahmad, Ijaz Ahmad, Javid Ali, Sher Bhader Khan

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan the transformation of agriculture to produce more farm commodities in shortest possible time with minimum inputs. Agriculture is the pivotal source of producing food crops including dairy, fruit cultivation, poultry, bee keeping and edible and non-edible like forestry products etc. An Agriculture Extension Officer (AEO) plays the role of a hub in agricultural development and covers all ...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
... towards the sustainable agriculture.

Zia Ur Rahman1*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Hidayat Ur Rahman1, Fida Mohammad1, Mian Ahmad Raza1 and Ijaz Ahmad Khan2

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...y reflects that how this agriculture encroachment may have contributed to the pastoral resources degradation and subsequent landless pastoralist’s marginalization in uplands of Naran. Extensive field surveys carried out during last three years (2013-2016) to understand crops encroachment process and its implications for pastoral resources. Land use-classes such as forest, agriculture, pastures and snow cover were recor...

Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Arshad Ali Khan3*, Saeed Ahmed2, Sudheer Tariq2, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Noman2 and Nadeem Khan1 

Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2 the climate change on agriculture and particularly on maize. Fertilizer management and crop variety choices according to the changing climate will address this serious concern expected in the future.


Wajid Hasan1 and C. P. Singh2

Relationship between the population of mustard aphid,Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and weather parameters on different cultivars of Indian mustard ( Brassica juncea L.)

Madhuban Gopal, Rajesh Kumar and Arunava Goswami 

Nano-pesticides - A recent approach for pest control
...tential to revolutionize agriculture and food systems. We utilized nano-technological interventions for developing nanopesticides with potent fungicidal and miticidal properties. Nanosulphur and nanohexaconazole were prepared using encapsulation technique. The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) studies, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies confirmed the nano-structure of nanopesticides. Nanoparticles of sulphur and ...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...t complex ridden unaided agriculture as in India. PA is not about an abstract of characterization. The specific values indicating variations in population at exact grids and helping the individual farmer in decision-making in pest management at varied pesticide doses depending on varied soil pest population intensity and spatial distribution. Often it ends up in reducing the quantum of a pesticide threatened with withdrawal. We understand Appropriate PA (Appro...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...ed on full time basis in agriculture whereas 80% of the respondents reported agriculture as their major source of income. FSC was the major source of agricultural information followed by agriculture extension department. More than half of the respondents (i.e. 60%) reported that FSC arranged trainings for them regarding their capacity building. Fertilizer application was the major skill st...

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...ible without sustainable agriculture growth. Forecasting plays an imperative role in adjusting the vision and applicability regarding aspirations. The study attempted to forecast major crops area, production, yield and per capita food availability using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Sixty-seven years annual time series data from 1947-48 to 2013-14 was obtained to forecast major crops and per capita food availability for 21years from 2...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

Shantanu Jha1, A. Rama Devi1, Ngalaton Kasar1 and Abhishek Mukherjee2

 Zabih Ullah*, H. Rahman and Niaz Muhammad

Akerele Dare*, Ashaolu Olumuyiwa Fowowe, Sanusi Rahman Akintayo and Egbetade Adedolapo 

...nd fishery subsectors of agriculture,and the amounts of the fund allocated to each subsector from 1982 to 2013 were subjected to econometrics (time series) analysis. Results established positive and statistically significant influence of the amount of fund apportioned to crop (p<0.01) and livestock (p<0.05) subsectors on output growth in the respective subsectors. Likewise, the amount of the fund allocated to fishery subsector on fish output has positive...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...versity were recorded in agriculture crops and fodder crops, respectively. 


Arshad Iqbal1*, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1 and Muhammad Sharif Kakar

Sikandar Hayat, Khalid Usman* and Muhammad Tahir Amin 

Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 

Muhammad Anas1, Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2*, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Sohail Latif5 

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Muhammad Tahir2, Abid Ali3, Manzoor Hussain3, Muhammad Waheed Anwar4, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Ijaz Ahmad

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

...that unemployment in the agriculture sector is likely to increase with the decrease in the size of holdings. To generate off-farm employment opportunities agro based industries seems to potential area. Simultaneously there is need for initiating skill development programs. 


Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

...ajor problems of rainfed agriculture. Thus, to address these issues, a two year field study was carried out at Agronomic Research Area of University Research Farm of PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi during 2012-14.The effects of different tillage systemscombined with glyphosate herbicide on soil moisture content,bulk density and porosity associated with wheat grain yield were evaluated. Seven tillage treatments we...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...hed in Punjab and run by agriculture extension department. Farmer Field Schools were formed at each village level. Present study was designed to evaluate the role of integrated pest management for cotton production technologies by the registered growers of Hasilpur, Punjab. In order to collect this information an interview schedule was prepared and respondents (150 growers of farmer field school) were interviewed personally by the author. The findings revealed...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

...ossess land and practice agriculture. The study reveals that majority of the respondents are well aware of climate change and its effects on cropping calendar, crop variety, crop yield, crop diseases as well as an earlier blossoming of fruit trees. The respondents in all the fifteen villages unanimously agreed that sowing and harvesting dates of crops are 10-20 days earlier than it used to be 20 year ago (1992-2012). Similar change was reported in the time of ...

Waqas Liaqat1, Mohammad Akmal1* and Jawad Ali 

Saima Akhtar Qureshi1 and Asim Anwar2*, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

...t about pesticides based agriculture productivity motivated agriculture departments to collaborate with international agencies to introduce sound agriculture practices like Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Pakistan. In IPM technique natural parasites and predators are used to check pest growth instead of pesticides which reduces ecological and health damage. Pesticides are used at the l...

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

...ffects of floods-2010 on agriculture sector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data for the study were collected through a pretested interview schedule from 364 respondents belonging to 5 randomly selected villages of District Charsadda. The study findings reveal a significant difference in the area under wheat, maize and vegetables after the flood. At the same time, the area under sugarcane and fodder had also decreased to some extent. Similarly, the use of chemical fert...

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

 Muhammad Azam Niazi*, Hassnain Shah, Waqar Akhtar and Nadeem Akmal**

...erred to farmers to make agriculture an attractive investment domestically and competitive internationally.


Muhammad Athar Khan1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Syed Amir Gilani3 and Ifrah Bukhari4 of meat, sewerage and agriculture workers. Leptospirosis affect multiple organs in human body and may lead to myocarditis, renal failure, respiratory distress and hypotension. This disease is an emerging infectious problem in many developing countries like Pakistan. A total of 250 subjects were selected from five different rice growing districts of Punjab, Pakistan after the approval of institutional ethical review board (IERB), 250 subjects were selected f...

 Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Fakhar ul Hassan, Qamar ul Hassan, Usman Shaukat Qureshi, Saman Chughtai and Adnan Saleem*


 Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Muhammad Ansar*, Ashiq Saleem**, Zafar ullah Arif*, H.I. Javed and Rashid Saleem**


 Safdar Ali, Sahiba, M. Azim Malik, Fayyaz-ul-Hassan and M. Ansar*


 Muhammad Yaqoob*, Rukhsana Anjum, Mumtaz Hussain and Muhammad Jahangir Shah**

...eing a serious threat to agriculture in Pakistan can be possibly overcome through development of high yielding drought tolerant varieties. A field study was therefore, conducted to evaluate the performance of 10 hybrid rice along with two high yielding varieties under drought conditions at Arid Zone Research Institute (AZRI), Bahawalpur. The experiment was designed in RCBD with three replications. The crop was maintained under moisture stress conditions. The d...

 Sajida Taj*, Akhter Ali*, Nadeem Akmal*, Shujaat Yaqoob** and Mubarik Ali***

... % to the value added in agriculture and 2.6 % to the GDP. The agrarian economy of Pakistan is continuously under stress due to the low yield of almost all the crops and constrained with many problem. One of the most important issues of agriculture is water shortage which is increasing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is ...

 Sara Khalid*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz*, Khalid Saifullah Khan* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*


 Hafiz Sultan Mahmood*, Munir Ahmad**, Tanveer Ahmad*, Muhammad Azhar Saeed* and Muhammad Iqbal***



 Naveed Jehan*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla**, Muhammad Shahzad*, Abid Hussain**, Muhammad Zahoor*, Majid Khan* and Ahmed Bilal*

...laying important role in agriculture productivity enhancement, growth and farmers’ prosperity. Mobile phone helps farmers in getting information about commodity prices in different markets. The farmers can get up-to-date information about various markets in different regions and can accordingly arrange transportation and labor services in time. The study was conducted to see the effect of timely information availability with mobile on productivity. The d...

 Ali Ahsan Bajwa*, Ehsanullah*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Wahaj Nafees*, Mohsin Tanveer* and Hafiz Salman Saeed*

...erioration. Conservation agriculture offers a sustainable solution for all these problems most often. This review focuses the use of fertilizers in conservation agriculture and their impact on weed management. Weeds are major constraint in the productivity of agro-ecosystems. Fertilizer use can influence weed emergence, weed persistence, weed dormancy, weed dynamics, weed growth and weed dispersion attributes. The rate, timi...

 Rehmat Ullah*, Kalim Ullah** and Mohammad Zafarullah Khan*


 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi* and Abdul Jabbar**

...eries as a sub-sector of agriculture, is considered as one of the most important economic activity along the coastline of provinces of Sindh and Balochistan. This paper assesses current stock of seafood production, seafood exports, direction and future prospects of seafood exports from Pakistan. The production of inland and marine fish was 729,000 t in 2012-13. Not only seafood output in the country is low but dwindling to the disastrous level. Export of seafo...

 Usman Shakoor*, Abdul Saboor*, Irfan Baig*, Anila Afzal** and Abdul Rahman***

...ability has affected the agriculture production all over the globe. This concern has motivated important changes in the field of research during the last decade. Climate changes are believed to have declining effects towards crop production in Pakistan. This study carries an empirical investigation of the effects of climate change on rice crop of Pakistan by employing Vector Auto Regression (VAR) model. Annual seasonal data of the climatic variables from 1980 ...

 Syeda Aimen Hadi*, Abid Ghafoor Chaudhry*, Aftab Ahmed** and Shaheer Ellahi Khan***

PERCEPTION, APPROACHES AND PRACTICES OF LOCAL FARMING AND DEVELOPMENT: AN ANTHROPOLOGICAL APPROACH them. The traditional agriculture has completely been clutched into the nexus of modern farming methods, due to which they are being abandoned by the farmers. Modern farming which is representative of development has increased the competition, transitioning, breaking the community into people experimenting on modern technology and those who are still finding means to adapt their traditional agriculture to the fast changin...

 Muhammad Arshad Ullah*, Nazir Hussain**, Helge Schmeisky*** and Muhammad Rasheed**** 

...y important component of agriculture sector in the world due to variety of dairy and meat products and high income to the farmers. In Pakistan, this vast resource faces many crucial challenges like low quality and high priced feed and fodder and limited chances of increasing area under fodders due to competition for food crops. Intercropping (33%, 50% and 67%) of Panicum maximum grass and legumes (Vicia sativa and cowpeas) coupled with inoculation was studied ...

 Rashed Saeed*, Shoaib-ur-Rehman**, Muhammad Qasim*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood*** and Irfan Mehmood*

...g recommendations of the agriculture department regarding seed rate, fertilizers, and irrigations. Majority of respondents (94.2%) reported the local Meno as the best yielding variety. Imported and 40 day varieties were not popular as only 5.8% farmers were cultivating these varieties in the study area. On the basis of survey data, benefit cost and total factor productivity analyses depict that radish cultivation is a profitable enterprise in the study area. P...

 Muhammad Asif Jamil*, Nowshad Khan*, FarhatUllah Khan* and Muhammad Zakria*

EFFECTIVENESS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION TO THE FARMING COMMUNITY OF DISTRICT BHIMBER, AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR provided by the agriculture department. It is recommended that visits of extension field staff should be made regularly. The progressive farmers may be involved in extension activities because they are less in number and are easily approachable. Demonstrations, personal contacts and radio services were found most effective methods; therefore, it is recommended that these methods should be followed more effectively and used in modern shape.


 Said Salman*, Shah Jehan Khan* and Javed Khan**


 Ibrar Ali*, Abdul Mateen Khattak*, Muhammad Ali* and Kalim Ullah**


 Amjad Pervez*, Syed Muzaffar Ahmed*, Akhlaq Ahmad** and Qazi Mehmood Ali**

...important rodent pest of agriculture, forestry and irrigation network in Pakistan.


 Quratulain*, Muhammad Aslam**, Muhammad Khalid Rafique*, Mian Atiq Ahmad* and Rashid Mahmood***


 Nouman Badar*, Hina Fatima**, Abdul Jabbar*** and Muhammad Asif*


Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

...usiness as assessment of agriculture service providers (ASPs). It can be concluded that the necessary condition has been fulfilled for water conservation. However, for assessing the impact of these skills towards water conservation technologies needs to be investigated in short and long term scenarios. Therefore, for fulfilling the sufficient condition realizing the real benefits from these trained ASPs further follow up by the concerned technical institutes i...

 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem*, Munir Ahmad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza** and Abdul Shakoor*


 Muhammad Tahir* and Nawal Zafar* 


 Ghulam Sadiq Afridi*, Abdul Saboor**, Zahoor-ul-Haq***, Sultan Ali
Tariq**** and Muhammad Ishaq*****


 Abdul Razaq*, Muhammad Jamal Khan*, Tahir Sarwar* and Mohammad Jamal Khan**


 Muhammad Bilal*, Zafar Abbas*, Ijaz Ahmad**, Muhammad Aslam*, Muhammad Ijaz****, Adnan Shakeel***, Mushtaq Ahmad*** and Kashif Bashir*****


 Muhammad Tahir* and Neelam Yasin*

... proven importantance in agriculture. The deficiency of micronutrients is an expected trend among cereal crops which confines yield and nutritional value of grains. A field trial was laid out to evaluate the effect of micronutrients on yield and quality of maize in randomized complete block design (RCBD) at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad . The treatments comprised of no micronutrient applicati...

Mehwish Kiran*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani*, Kashif Waseem*
and Muhammad Sohail**


 Arshia Naeem*, Maria Anjum*, Mariam Rehman*, Zahid Mahmood** and Muhammad Asif Kamran**

...e country.


 Hina Ali* and Narjis Naz**


 Tassadduq Rasool*, Ali Zohaib*, Ehsanullah*, Riaz Ahmad*, Tasawer Abbas*, Tahira Tabassum*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem*, Mahmood-ul-Hassan*


Sher Muhammad , Ijaz Ashraf*, Amir Khatam**, and Naima

...ties towards sustainable agriculture by putting emphasis on the delivery of demand-based services through their active involvement. This improved situation regarding availability of agricultural inputs and good decision making may result in active participation by farmers in farm related activities. The present paper focuses on farmers' participation in various activities of MFSCs as influenced by their socio-economic characteristics. The target population of ...
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
...registered with the Oodi agriculture station. Farmers were visited to conduct face to face interviews and administer a questionnaire. The results showed that farmers milking average three goats constituted the highest (47%) share, and the majority (46%) of them had a daily yield of 1-2 L/day followed by those yielding <1L/day (40%). A significantly (P<0.05) high (62%) proportion of farmers adopted a 3-4 months lactation period while longer lactation peri...

Muhammad Iftikharul Husnain1, Aneel Salman1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Tahir Mahmood3 

...impact of temperature on agriculture controlling for potential endogeneity by using locality as an instrument. Unsurprisingly, the magnitude of temperature coefficient increases substantially when endogeneity is controlled and becomes significantly higher (6 percent to 13 percent) than the previously reported findings in the literature. The findings suggest that endogeneity is a crucial issue and must be controlled before carrying out an empirical analysis on ...

Mohammad Javad Golmohammadi1, Hamid Reza Mohammaddoust Chamanabad1*, Bijan Yaghoubi2 and Mostafa Oveisi

...d since the beginning of agriculture. An important part of the proper management of weeds in the paddy fields is rice postharvest weed management until land preparation for re-cultivation. In order to determine the frequency and relative cover (RC), the samples were collected from 481 fields during the growing season and 255 fields after harvesting rice in Guilan province (Iran) from 2014 to 2016 (from April to March of each year) based on the method of Thomas...

Muhammad Waqar Yasin*, Mobushir Riaz Khan and Muhammad Amin 

...g data obtained from the agriculture department, Government of Punjab, Pakistan. Lastly, changes in crop performance (what does performance mean here!!) were compared with changes in studied climate variables (temperature and rainfall). It was found that increased in mean annual temperature decreased the crop yield. In addition, the climatic variation imparts negatively on studied crop production in the Central Punjab (i.e. Jhang) and southern Punjab (i.e. Bah...

Madeeha Alamzeb1, Shazma Anwar1, Asif Iqbal1,2*, Song Meizhen2, Mazhar Iqbal3, Sara4, Muhammad Ramzan2 and Afza Tabassum1

Safdar Ali1*, Obaidullah Shafique1, Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Amir Hanif1, Ijaz Ahmed3 and Bashir Ahmad Khan

...ficant role in promoting agriculture and agricultural products. Agriculture and food industry aims for the sustainability and the protection of agricultural products, including crops for human and livestock. Nanotechnology helps in the manufacturing of innovative agrochemicals and novel delivery mechanisms to enhance crop production and decrease in pesticide use. Nanotechnology also contributes in increasing the crop yield i...

Qasim Iqbal1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Obaidullah Shafique1, Bashir Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Ihsanullah Khan4  

Ayesha Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Imran Sajid*
...solated from the soil of agriculture farmlands. The biochemical and physiological characterization along with the molecular identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed that caries isolates are pathogenic S. mutans and soil isolates belong to the genus Streptomyces. The antibiotic resistance profile of S. mutans illustrated resistance to optochin. The antimicrobial screening of Streptomyces against S. mutans showed th...

Usman Shakoor1, Ali Nasir2, Mudassar Rashid1, Muhammad Iftikhar-ul-Husnain1, Nabila Khurshid1 and Zuhair Husnain

...s analysed the impact of agriculture taxes on the share of agriculture GDP of Pakistan and empirically investigated the long run relationship between the variables using time series data for last 23 years. It was empirically evaluated that increase in agriculture taxes led to a decrease in agriculture share of GDP. 1% increase in in the level of agricult...

Muhammad Ismaeel1,2*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Aziz Ur Rahman1 and Mian Ahmad Raza

Shamsher Ali1*, Sarmad Khan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Naveed ullah4, Muhammad Rashid3 and Wiqar Ahmad1 

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Irshad Khan Abbasi2, Muhammad Tariq2, Jawad Ali3, Melad Karim4 and Rizwan Ahmad1 

Souheila Slimani1,*, Sonia Hamouda1, Chahrazed Souadi1, Sara Silini2, Cherif Abdennour2 and Leila Delimi3
...icals, very much used in agriculture, but they are associated with the appearance of certain metabolic, carcinogenic, neurotoxic and fertility disorders. The objective of this work is to study the toxic effect of the dithiocarbamate “thiram 80% purity” on seasonal reproduction of male domestic pigeons Columba livia domestica, subjected to a long photoperiod (19L: 05D). The fungicide was orally administered at 5 and 10 mg/Kg body weight/day f...

Saeed Ullah1, Amanullah Jan1, Murad Ali2*, Wiqar Ahmad3, Hafeez Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Ishaq2 and Bilal Ahmad2  

Dilshad Ahmad1*, Muhammad Irfan Chani1 and Muhammad Afzal2 

...rce participating in the agriculture sector, trade openness has been quantified through various econometric approaches in the study. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bound testing approach has been applied to analyze the long run cointegration among variables, obtaining annual time series data from 1973 to 2014. An empirical estimation of ARDL approach has indicated the evidence of long-run cointegration of model. Empirical findings of the study indicate ...

Fazal Munsif1, Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Arif2, Kawsar Ali3 and Ijaz Ahmad

Shahen Shah1*, Manzoor Hussain1, Arshad Jalal1, Mohammad Sayyar Khan2, Tariq Shah1, Muhammad Ilyas1 and Muhammad Uzair3 

Muhammad Sajid Mahmood1*, Muhammad Ashraf1, Ijaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Sohail Latif4 Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar5 and Waqas Ahmad6 

Saima Siddiqui1*, Ghulm Hussain Abro1, Tajwar Sultana Syed1 and Abdul Sattar Buriro

Muhammad Faheem Jan1*, Asad Ali Khan1, Waqas Liaqat1, Haseeb Ahmad1, Muhammad Dawood Ahmadzai1 and Wazir Rehan

Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali, Liaquat Ali Jamali, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro*, Shakeel Hussain Chattha, Khalil Ahmed Ibupoto, Naseer Ahmed Abbasi and Noor Mehdi Qumi  

Tariq Aziz1, Iftikhar Hussain Khalil1, Quaid Hussain1,3*, Tariq Shah2,3, Nazir Ahmad1 and Amir Sohail1 

Muhammad Abu Sufyan Ali, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Ghaffar Ali and Muhammad Fayaz 

...rmer’s return from agriculture and changing their perception in favor of using their lands for crops and livestock production 


Qaisar Mehmood1*, Muhammad Riaz2, Maqbol Hussain Sail1 and Muhammad Moeen1 

Muhammad Israr1*, Saeed Ullah1, Shakeel Ahmad2, Asif Yaseen3, Urooba Pervaiz4 and Nafees Ahmad5 was to measure the agriculture land degradation process in northern irrigated plains of Pakistan by studying the perceptions of the farmers about the different dimensions of agriculture LD with the construction of LD index. For achieving this primary data was collected by proportionate random sampling techniques form 90 sampled farmers through face to face interview survey method by filling a questionnaire. Farmer&rsqu...

Abid Hussain1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2, Muhammad Anjum Ali Buttar3, Umar Farooq4, Muhmmad Islam5 and Zahid Ullah Khan1 of production to make agriculture profitable is a major challenge and all out efforts have been made by successive government in Pakistan to pass benefits to the farmers by reducing input prices through reduction in GST, providing cash subsidy and supplying inexpensive feed gas for fertilizer industry. Currently, cash subsidy on urea is costing Rs. 12 billion to national exchequer and total tax relief (all products inclusive) costing around Rs. 40 billion t...

Muhammad Luqman1, Raheel Saqib2*, Mujahid Karim1, Khalid Nawab2, Abdur Rehman3 and Muhammad Yaseen1 

Arshad Iqbal1*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Hidayat ur Rahman1, Faiza Aman2 and Aziz-ur-Rahman

Shaista Naz1*, Noor Paio Khan1, Naveed Afsar2 and Ashfaq Ahmad Shah3

...he prime contributors of agriculture sector including livestock across the developing world including Pakistan. However, their extent of participation (time allocation) and constraints in livestock management have not been properly explored yet. To fill in the gap, the present research study was carried out to determine women’s participation in the types of livestock rearing, their livestock possession, participation in livestock activities, and the majo...

Aneel Salman1, Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Muhammad Ashfaq2, Mudassar Rashid1 and Usman Shakoor1 

...hange. Adaptation of the agriculture sector is imperative as it contributes 20 percent to the GDP and supports directly or indirectly about 68 percent of the population for their sustenance. Farmers’ perception about climate change, current adaptation measures, and decision-making process is important for farmers’ successful adaptation strategies. Using data of 205 conventional farmers from three district of Punjab province, this study provides ins...

Ijaz Iqbal1, Maqsooda Parveen1 and Zafar Mahmood2* out the experiment in agriculture sciences. In this paper an investigation is made of a special kind of incomplete block design known as the resolvable balanced incomplete block design. An algorithm is presented to construct diallel cross design through resolvable balanced incomplete block design, which is established via cyclic shifts. Construction of diallel cross designs using the proposed approach is illustrated with an example. A list of efficient dial...

Muhammad Kashif Asghar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Shahid Riaz Malik2, Waqas Ahmad3, Sumaira Zareen4, Safdar Ali5 and Abid Ali6 

Zubina Hameed1, Muhammad Azim Malik1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Farina Shaheen1, Ijaz Ahmad2 and Khisrao Kalim3 

 *Irum Javed1, Muhammad Asgher2, Sadia Noreen1, Humara Naz Majeed1 and Tanzila Sahar1


 Shagufta Andleeb*

Teratogenic potential of pyrethroids: a review
... used for house hold and agriculture purposes and are extracted from the flowers of pyrethrums (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and C. coccineum) in late 1900s. An extensive data on multiple aspects of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, reproductive toxicology and neurotoxicology is available except teratogenicity. This review concludes the teratogenic potential of sublethal doses of different types of pyrethroids in various groups of animals in syste...

Masab Umair Khan, Syed Mehar Ali Shah, Hidayat-ur-Rahman, Arshad Iqbal* and Ezaz Aslam 

Faheem Ali1*, Muhammad Naeem Arbab1, Abdul Basit2, Muhammad Kashif Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad1 and Muhammad Amir

...results. This would help agriculture-based industries in avoiding paneities, which would in turn lower the production cost of agricultural products. Also, sensitive equipment would not be encountering voltage fluctuations anymore 


Muhammad Iqbal1, Khalid Usman2*, Muhammad Arif1, Shakeel Ahmad Jatoi3, Muhammad Munir4 and Imran Khan

Salman Ali*, Inamullah, Muhammad Arif, Mehran Ali, Muhammad Owais Iqbal, Fazal Munsif and Arsalan Khan 

Raza Ullah1* and Jamal Shah

...n: justify;">Exposure of agriculture to natural environment makes this sector more vulnerable to climate changes and climate induced risks including rising temperature, changes in rainfall patterns, floods, droughts and heavy rains etc. Farmers adopt available risk coping tools to minimize the impacts of such risks at farm level however, these adoptions require farmers to incur cost or forgo part of the potential benefits from agricultural production. These co...

Shamsher Ali1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Zahir Shah2, Naveedullah3 and Abdul Jalal1 

... main constraints in the agriculture ecosystem creating major threats to crop productivity and, hence, affecting socio economic condition of the farming community. Growing of salt tolerant crop genotypes of species on salt affected lands is an effective tool for getting desirable productivity. A two-factor experiment using complete randomized design with three replications in pots having silt loam soil was carried out on April 03, 2016 to examine three maize g...

Mehran Ali1*, Inamullah1, Muhammad Bilal2, Salman Ali1, Farooq Nawaz1 and Muhammad Owais Iqbal1 

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

...edit facilities; Lack of agriculture education and awareness programs; Expensive Agriculture Inputs; Tenancy and Land rent problems; Farm to market roads and small plots hurdles in production of rice etc in the study area. On the basis of problems and constraints, policy recommendation for control measures are given as:- Credit should be provided without interest rate in time according to requirement to farmers by bank;

Naseer Ahmed Abbasi1, Mian Noor Hussain Asghar Ali1*, Bilawal Abbasi2, Shakeel Ahmed Soomro1, Najeeb Ahmed Khan Nangraj1, Jam Ghulam Mustafa Sahto1 and Sajjad Ahmed Morio1 

Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza2, Sami Ullah1, 3*, Malik Muhammad Yousaf2, Ahmad Mujtaba1, Mumtaz Hussain2, Muhammad Jahangir Shah2, Bashir Ahmad2 and Ijaz Ahmad4 

Muhammad Usman Asif*, Raza Muhammad, Waseem Akbar, Mubasshir Sohail and Muhammad Awais  

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Irshad Abbasi2, Himayatullah Khan1, Arjumand Nizami3, Abdul Hakeem4, Jawad Ali3 and Muhammad Jamal Khan

...snow water dependence of agriculture activities which have implications for livelihood of the communities. The data collection including flow discharge measurement out of the watershed was regularly measured during September 2015 to November 2015 and March 2016 to September 2016. The results show that during the winter months (November, December, January, February, March and April) flow discharge was relatively low that ranged from 0.76 to 0.82 cfs. In summer ...

Tanweer Ahmed*, Kashif Saeed Khan and Mohammad Naeem 

.... The relationship among agriculture value added per worker and public spending on education, health, road length, the number of tube wells in the agriculture sector, improved seed distribution has been estimated through various econometric approaches in the study. Pakistan’s agriculture growth has registered mixed trends from 1972 to 2014. Empirical evidence from developing countrie...
Kamran Zakaria1*, Noreen Munawar1 and Shafqat Ejaz2
...urces for urban uses and agriculture. For such purpose, Precipitation regions were recognized in river Indus basin in Pakistan by examining the rainfall frequencies with the help of global wavelet power spectra. Records from 52 rain gauges were studied and the outcomes of the whole power spectra exhibited a low annual frequency all over the basin; whereas additional frequencies are present with major significance that indicate changes in the rainfall system. W...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

...">In agrarian economies, agriculture considers a major source of population feeding, employing and coactive partner of industrial growth. The purpose of the study was to analyze technical efficiency of Bt and Non-Bt cotton farmers in two core cotton districts Muzaffargarh and Rahim Yar Khan of Punjab, Pakistan. In this study, the stochastic frontier approach was employed for empirical analysis and multiple stages random sampling technique used for data collect...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

...otential productivity in agriculture is possible with introduction of advanced mechanization, which is only feasible with financial injections in this sector. The study in hand has focused the role of credit in the cotton production of southern Punjab. Simple Random Sampling technique was used in the study for selecting the respondents in both districts of cotton area. Pre-tested questionnaire was developed for the collection of data 320 cotton farmers’ ...

Salman Anwar1, 2*, Farhan Anwar Khan3 and Atta-ur-Rahman4 

...on of KKH, their mode of agriculture system was subsistence and crude techniques were applied due to non-availability of modern machines and techniques. This was because of the remoteness and communication gap with the rest of the country. Therefore, this study is an effort to compare and analyze the impacts of KKH on the land use and Agricultural development of Gilgit-Baltistan before and after the construction of KKH. Results show a significant change in lan...

Farhana Gul1*, Dawood Jan1 and Muhammad Ashfaq2 

...of economy, particularly agriculture sector. Pakistan, being exposed to extreme events and low adaptation potential, is highly vulnerable to climate change. Benefits of adaptation strategies and associated impact on net farm returns, per capita income and poverty rates of wheat producers using extensive farm survey data from 150 farmers from different climatic zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were measured in this study. TOA-MD model was used to measure t...

Abdur Rehman1*, Iqbal Javed2, Zhang Nannan3, Muhammad Niamatullah1, Raheel Saqib4 and Allah Bakhsh

... the basis of the modern agriculture construction, but still incomplete for the system of information service, large capital needs, information service supply and demand contradiction and the lack of high-quality agricultural information personnel. The concept of informatisation can be incorporated into the construction of agricultural modernisation, improve the agricultural information services software and hardware facilities, improve practically the agricul...

Iftikhar Ud Din* and Qamruz Zaman (MLM) in the field of agriculture. Different areas of agriculture are pinpointed where hierarchical data structure call for the use of multilevel model. The study reveals that for such data structure highly significant improvement is achieved when we shift modeling approach from classical linear regression (CLRM) to multilevel modeling. The study also discussed an important problem in Multilevel Modeling (MLM) i.e. to fin...

Muhammad Shahid1*, Mehmood Shah2, Adiqa Kiani3 and Farhat Parveen4 

...>This study examined the agriculture particularly livestock sector which is considered the fundamental and back bone of any economy of the world. In the season of draught and a crop failure, the only sector which generates incomes and financial support for agricultural sector. This research paper debates on livestock implications in raising labour productivity by taking time series data from 1984 to 2017 and Auto Regressive Distributive lag model (ARDL) has be...

Abid Ali1*, Hidayat ur Rahman1, Farhatullah1 and Zahir Shah

Essossinam Ali* 

...Savannah) in subsistence agriculture in Northern Togo. Tobit and linear regression models were used to analyze the effect of farmers’ risk aversion on fertilizer and DTS uses, and labour allocation, respectively. The results indicate that on average 86.22% of farmers have risk aversion behaviors. Widening the land devoted to maize cultivation would increase farmers’ risk aversion while increasing the land devoted to sorghum, tuber and cotton crops ...
Syeda Shazia Bokhari*, Ghashia Qayyum, Uzma Rafi and Aisha Waheed Qurashi
...oductivity especially in agriculture based countries like Pakistan.Vermicomposting is an ecofriendly approach theoughwhich earth worms mediate the process for improving soil fertility. The present study was undertaken for the improvement of soil fertility using microbes isolated from internal and external parts of Lumbricus terrestris Isolates were identified through different biochemical tests and morphological characterization. Bacterial strains were ...
Fatima Tufail1, Sajid Abdullah1, Huma Naz2*, Khalid Abbas1, Laiba Shafique3
...ive use of pesticides in agriculture. The exposure of aquatic animals to these pesticides results in acute and chronic health effects. Fresh water fish species such as Channa striata serve as important bio-indicators for aquatic contamination to access the changes caused by human activities effectively and reliable monitoring bio-system to recognize and predict hazardous effects of pollutants. Therefore, this study was done to evaluate the toxicity...

Asad Ullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad1*, Amir Raza2, Farmanullah Khan3 and Muhammad Sharif3 

Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology
Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology

Umar Hayat1, Khalid Khan2, Saima Liaqat3* and Balach Rasheed

...g in water scarcity, low agriculture productivity, and variation in seasons across the country. The present study is an attempt to analyze the dynamic effects of variation in rainfall on economic growth in different provinces of Pakistan. Results show that low rains over the period of time have adversely affected the production, employment, and supply chain of crops. Furthermore, to avoid the adverse effects of climate change in the future, it is suggested to ...

Zafar Abbas1*, Muhammad Mubashir1, Umair Riaz1, Zeenat Javid1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Saeed ur Rehman1, Muhammad Javid Qamar1, Syed Ali Zulqadar1 and Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2 

Umar Hayat1*, Tariq Shah1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad

...f various sub-sectors of agriculture and their contribution to agricultural growth in the country. Data on key variables such as agricultural growth, institutional credit, agro-based industries, Livestock and mechanised inputs are taken from State Bank of Pakistan, World Development Indicators Databases and various issues of Economic Survey of Pakistan for the period 1980-2018. Ordinary least square technique is used to estimate the model. The result shows tha...

Ayub Khan* and Ghaffar Ali 

...vergrazing and extensive agriculture have made soil resource more vulnerable to rain and flood water. Programs at government and society level are required to control soil erosion. The objectives of this study are to seek the farm household willingness to pay (WTP) for forestation based soil conservation program on communal land in the Northern Area of Pakistan. Open-ended format of CVM is used for the elicitation of respondents’ WTP. For this purpose, a...

Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Gul Bahar Khaskheli2, Allah Jurio Khaskheli3, Arshad Ali Khaskheli4, Abdul Samad Magsi5, Ghulam Shabir Barham2, Arab Khan Lund5 and Maqbool Ahmed Jamali4 

Asad Abdullah, Muhammad Irfan Ullah*, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Arshad and Muhammad Afzal
...nt insect pest in global agriculture. Suitability of host plants is critical for the efficient management of this economically important insect pest. We studied the effect of various host plants on the growth, development and fecundity of S. litura. The larvae of S. litura were offered leaves of cabbage, alfalfa, sesbania and, maize in comparison to artificial diet under laboratory conditions (32±05 oC; 65±05 RH). Thelarv...

 Aftab Khan1, Shahid Ali1, Murtaza1, Sufyan Ullah Khan2 and Syed Attaullah Shah1

... of inputs, provision of agriculture credit with reasonable interest rate and easy instalments and field based trainings are policy options for enhancing maize productivity. 


Naveed Afsar* and Muhammad Idrees 

...e issue and is affecting agriculture directly. Present research was done to know the farmers perceptions about agricultural extension services in disseminating climate change knowledge in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data was collected from the 400 farmers of the two purposively sampled districts as these two were the highly vulnerable areas from climate change. The major source of climate change information of the majority of farmers was electronic media and the overa...

Muhammad Sharif1*, Sadullah1, Ghulam Rasool2, Muhammad Nasir Khan1, Zubair Rehman1, Ahmed Khan2, Ijaz Ahmad3 and Khalid Hussain4 

Muhammad Ramzan1, Unsar Naeem-Ullah1*, Muhammad Ishtiaq1, Ghulam Murtaza2, Mirza Abdul Qayyum1 and Faisal Manzoor1
Ejaz Ashraf1*, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel2, Umar Mumtaz1, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan3 and Abdul Naveed4
Faheem Aslam1*, Aneel Salman1 and Inayatullah Jan2
...portance for farmers and agriculture policy makers to improve production planning decisions. Numerous studies proved that traditional econometric techniques face significant challenges in out of sample predictability tests due to model uncertainty and parameter instability. Recent studies introduce several machine learning algorithms to improve time series prediction accuracy. The purpose of this study is to develop a precise wheat production model using ...

Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Rashid Mahmood2, Ziyad Abdul Qadir2, Muhammad Arshad1 and Mubasshir Sohail3 

Aamir Saleem1, Arshad Mahmood Malik2*, Najam Ul Hassan1 and Imtiaz A. Qamar

Wajid Shah Yousafzai1, Irfan Ullah1*, Amjad Ali1, Mahmood Iqbal2 and Salman Khan1 

Arifa Khan1*, Shazia Erum2, Naveeda Riaz1, Abdul Ghafoor2 and Farhat Ali Khan3 

Umar Hayat1*, Shahid Ali1, Abdul Mateen2 and Hazrat Bilal

...Pakistan. Thus, long-run agriculture growth programme in line with overall economic development targets of the country needs to be planned on operational grounds with strict implementation mechanism. It will enhance the tempo of agricultural growth towards poverty alleviation which will ultimately increase the speed of economic development in Pakistan. Furthermore, sub sectors of agriculture may be properly analyzed to find ...

Manzoor1*, Ahmad Khan1, Amir Sohail2, Shahzad Ali1, Fawad Ali Shah3, Junaid Iqbal3, Muhammad Owais Khan4 and Sultan Nawaz4 

Rahat Naz*, Mussawar Shah, Asad Ullah, Intikhab Alam and Younas Khan 

...udy variables i.e “agriculture production” and “climate change effects on human life”. To established association between the study variables the perception of climate change effect on human life was indexed and cross tabulated with local response to agricultural production at bi-variate level, using chi-square test statistics. The study found that climate change effects on human life had a highly significant association (P=0.000) with ...

Hassnain1, Abdul Basit1*, Mehboob Alam1, Imran Ahmad1, Izhar Ullah1, Noor Alam2, Inayat Ullah3, Muhammad Areeb Khalid1, Muhammad Shair4 and Noor ul Ain1 

Roshan Ali1, Afsar Ali2, Shamsher Ali2, Muhammad Arshad Khan3*, Haroon Shahzad3, Noman Latif3, Muhammad Waheed4, Ashraf Khan5 and Murad Ali6 

Muhammad Israr1*, Helen Ross2, Shakeel Ahmad3, Nafess Ahmad4 and Urooba Pervaiz5

..., financial services and agriculture development are necessary to overcome the situation and improve the likelihood of achieving the targets of the SDGs. 


Ajmalud Din1*, Munir Ahmad2, Fahad Masoud Watto2, Sheraz Ahmed1, Imtiaz Ali1 and Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah

Rakhshanda Kousar1, Muhammad Sohail Amjad Makhdum2, Raza Ullah1, Aqeela Saghir3, Sohaib Usman3* and Tahira Sadaf

Yousaf Ali1, Muhammad Zamin1*, Ibadullah Jan1, Shahen Shah2, Muhammad Mazhar Hussain3, Fazli Rabbi4 and Muhammad Amin

Saba1, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Waqar Khalid2* and Saifullah Khan

...ds that the provision of agriculture credit facilities and livestock training facilities to women farmers could stimulate their involvement in livestock practices and anticipates the decision-making power in livestock management practices. 


Masaud Khan1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Shahab Ahmad2, Asad Ali3, Numan Khan3 and Muhammad Adnan Fahad

Mudassar Rashid1, Zuhair Husnain2, Usman Shakoor1* and Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain

...fy;">In the recent times agriculture sector has been considered as one of the most affected sectors by climate change. Climatic factors that have direct influence on agricultural productivity are: rise in temperature, heavy rainfall, precipitation, floods and drought etc. This paper has empirically examined the effect of climatic variations on cotton productivity in Pakistan. In order to evaluate the climate change, three climatic variables (rainfall, max. tem...

Sanaullah1*, Urooba Pervaiz1, Shahid Ali2, Mohammad Fayaz2 and Aftab Khan

...n visits, involvement in agriculture, adoption of recommended farming practices, irrigation and HYVs had significant effect, while disease, fertilizer and pesticide had non-significant effect on maize yield. Nevertheless, adoption of recommended technologies were low due to some constraints in the study area out of which low income of the families and lack of required technical knowledge were of major concerns. The results of t-test indicated that higher maize...

Shazia Mansoor1, Muhammad Sohail2*, Saima Aslam3 and Muhammad Nauman ul Islam4 

Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Gul Bahar Khaskheli3, Allah Jurio Khaskheli2 and Arshad Ali Khaskheli1

Arjumand Nizami1, Muhammad Zulfiqar2*, Jawad Ali1, Naushad Khan2 and Imran Sheikh, water management for agriculture encompasses all technologies and practices leading to water productivity enhancement to address increasing irrigation water demand and declining water resources. One of such technology known as laser land leveling was introduced in Pakistan in 1980s. More recent introduction is of another water efficient technique known as The Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) technology evolved by International Rice Research Institute (IR...

Bahadar Sher Khattak1, Muhammad Kaleem1, Waqas2*, Humaira Naz1 and Muhammad Yasir under any prospective agriculture projects to achieve optimum results in farmers’ farm productivity. 


Muhammad Zeeshan Nazar*, Ayyan Umer, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar, Faiz Ullah Faiz and Sikandar Hussain 

...s a distinctive field of agriculture in which silkworms, Bombyx mori (Bombycidae: Lepidoptera), are reared on wide range for commercial purpose. Silkworm is susceptible to various pathogenic diseases. Among the all bacterial diseases of B. mori, flacherie is injurious disease that is initiated by entomo-pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis var. sotto (Bts). The impact of this infectious disease is weight loss, reduction in cocoon quality as well as quan...

Muhammad Zamin1*, Abdullah Khan1, Ibadullah Jan1, Fazli Rabbi2, Shahen Shah3, Rashid Ali1, Kaleem Ullah1 and Muhammad Amin4 

Muhammad Farhan1, Ghulam Murtaza1, Muhammad Ramzan2, Muhammad Waqar Sabir3, Muhammad Arsalan Rafique2, Saif Ullah

Muhammad1*, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Syed Akhtar Ali Shah1 fertilizer for urban agriculture. We also found that socio-economic variables namely education, monthly expenses, and agriculture farm size positively affect farmers’ WTP for organic fertilizer. Conversely, households’ size and land tenure of the farmer has a negative influence on farmers’ WTP. An Integrated Resource Recovery Centre (IRRC) is needed for green waste management to change the current parad...

Fazli Ahad1, Raziuddin1, Nazir Ahmad1,2*, Muhammad Nauman1, Touheed Iqbal3, Nabeel Khan1, Fazli Hameed4 and Quaid Hussain2 

Rehman Ali Keerio1, Nighat Seema Soomro1, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro1, Mohammad Aquil Siddiqui2, Muhammad Tahir Khan2, Ghulam Shah Nizamani2*, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro1, Maryum Siddiqui4, Hajra Khan3 and Farheen Deeba Soomro

Peer Sikandar Shah1, Ghulam Nabi1, Maqsood Khan*1,2, Saddam Hussain1 and Jawad Ali Jan1

Quratulain1, Ata-ul-Mohsin1, Muhammad Naeem1, Ghulam Shabir1, Muhammad Khalid Rafique2 and Rashid Mahmood2*
Muhammad Shuaib Khan1, Shakeeb Ullah1, Nisha. A.R2, Muhammad Umar3, Muhammad Inamullah Malik1*, Syed Muhammad Kamal Shah1, A. Zaman1, Shakir Ullah1, Imdad Ullah1, Sumera Ali Khan4 contribution in rural agriculture, livestock and dairy sectors of Pakistan. Their help ranges from the crop and livestock production to cottage industry. The women in rural societies of Pakistan deliver many farm duties especially in the Punjab province, anterior Sindh, KP, Gilgat-Baltistan and Baluchistan. In the hilly areas men and women of the rural community use the donkeys for daily practice work like fetching water, collection of firewood for domestic...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Riyasat Sultan 

... of forests, grasses and agriculture resources. According to field survey, availability of fodder (grasses) at the pastures, ban on cutting of grasses and grazing in the village, management of land at pastures, refuge from scorching heat of summer are the major causes of seasonal migration. There used to be a time when almost every household use to move to pasture before the onsets of summers, but today in Utla out of total 745 households, only 40 households p...

Mubashir Mehdi1*, Muhammad Bilal Ahsan1, Burhan Ahmad1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai2, Gulnaaz Hameed3 and Muhammad Asif4 

...t high prominence in the agriculture production system of Pakistan. Market incentives, vertical relationship management and increasing pressure for certified and standardized products has pushed mango farms in Pakistan to acquire certifications like Global GAP. Workers’ working conditions and their basic rights can influence on sustainability of mango value chain system in Pakistan particularly under the guidelines of LO decent work agenda. Double-log re...

Fazal Haq*, Asia Parveen, Safdar Hussain and Arshad Hussain 

...rea. The main problem in agriculture is, making decision for optimum selection of activities. Keeping in view such critical issues; this research study is conducted in District Hunza with the aim to explore the most beneficial cropping pattern for the three major crops wheat, potato and alfalfa grown in the study area and to maximize the net profit per year. The research study deals with statistical facts and figures so quantitative method of research is appro...

Anila Latif, Zaheer Abbas, Farhatullah and Ghulam Muhammad Ali* 

... possible application in agriculture


Ahmad Kiani1*, Shapour Zarifian1, Hosein Kouhestani1 and Hosein Karimzadeh of major potential of agriculture in Iran and also other developing countries. According to the statistics in Tehran province by the end of 2013 about 135 units of Agricultural industries were active but there is still the gap between urban regions and rural regions and many immigrants from rural regions to urban regions have been recorded. So, this research tries to prioritize the criteria of establishment and development of agricultural industries in the ...

Arshad Farooq1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan2, Abdul Hassan1, Muhammad Ishaq3 and Asif Nawaz

...s while contact with the agriculture extension department reduces the knowledge gap of sugarcane recommended management practices. The results further show that the coefficient value of knowledge gap of district Mardan farmers is high than the farmers of district D.I. Khan research area. The study suggested that government should provide proper education facilities to the farming community for reducing illiteracy. Agricultural extension department should provi...

Filza Fatima Rizvi1, Muhammad Umair1, Muhammad Kahlid Jamil2*, Masooma Hassan2, Komal Qayyum1 and Syed Mohsin Raza Kazmi

...ue for Pakistan that has agriculture based economy. The present study was undertaken to review energy consumption in the agriculture sector of Pothohar region of Pakistan. This region has no proper irrigation system due to its topography. Additionally, potential of renewable energy in Pothohar region that includes solar, wind and biogas has been calculated from the data, taken from different sources. Based on the analysis, i...

Jaffar Hussain1*, Syed Farman Ali Shah1, M. Zeenat Ali1 and Javad Ahmad Shah

...">Pakistan is one of the agriculture countries in world and about 80% population depend upon agriculture. Soil is an important medium on which crops grow and obtain nutrients for their growth and improvement. For determination of macro-micronutrients and some physico-chemical properties of soil, samples were collected from different area of Jamshoro (Soman, Murad, Abadnear Kotrai Jamshoro). These nutrients are so important f...

Ayesha Zafar1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sarfraz2, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Sher Muhammad3 and Ghulam Murtaza the sustainability of agriculture in Pakistan. The plants in saline environment are negatively affected due to several issues like low osmotic potential, specific ion effect, and nutritional imbalance. The fertilizer behavior in salt stress conditions is quite different as compared to the normal soils. Linseed is an important oil seed crop. Its 50 % yield reduction occurs at ECe 5.9 dSm-1 and ESP value of 25-30. A field experiment was conducted on saline so...

Ghani Akbar 

...ving large potential for agriculture and tourism development, while its strategic location indicates a tendency of increasing importance of this region in the near future. Agriculture, one of the main sources of income of 52% of population of Malakand division, is less profitable due to traditional farming methods. Therefore, this paper is aimed to investigate the key agricultural issues and to identify strategies for utiliz...

Filza Fatima Rizvi1*, Waqar khan2, Syed Mohsin Raza Kazmi3 and Muhammad Umer

...esources are used by the agriculture sector. It’s a need for time to manage water resources and conserve water. High-efficiency irrigation systems are the most efficient way of water supply to agriculture which can provide better yield with minimum loss of water supply. The current study consists of a design simulation of a High-efficiency center pivot irrigation system on MATLAB. It is the most widely used software fo...
Muhammad Mohibullah1*, Mehran1, Sundas Batool1, Muhammad Amin1, Zakiullah1, Muhammad Ilyas2, Irfanullah1, Abdur Rehman1 and Sardar Ali3

Jawad Ali Jan1, Ghulam Nabi1, Maqsood Khan1,2*, Shehzad Ahmad1, Peer Sikandar Shah1, Saddam Hussain1 and Sehrish

Amjad Ali1, Awais Salman1, Gul Daraz Khan1, Aftab Ahmad Khan2, Sher Shah Hassan2*, Muhammad Arif Goheer2, Mahmood Alam Khan3 and Sajjad Ahmed

...limate change, irrigated agriculture will take place under water-scarce conditions, at present and more so in the future. Inadequate water supply for irrigation will be the usual rather than the exception, and irrigation management will shift from emphasizing production per unit area towards maximizing the production per unit of water consumed. This field experiment was carried out to assess growth and yield responses of turnip to different deficit irrigation ...

Rana Shahzad Noor1,2*, Fiaz Hussain2, Muhammad Umair2, Waqas Aslam2, Muhammad Ameen4, Muhammad Adnan Islam3 and Muhammad Sheraz2 


 Abdus Salam* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...on technologies (ICT) in agriculture extension at three selected districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Based on the multi-stage sampling technique, population for the current study, 3 zones from 5 were purposively selected on the basis of their different agricultural condition. Selection of sample size was made using Yamane formula. The number of respondents as per formula was confined to 188 respondents in district Mansehra, 153 respondents in district Swabi and 5...

Muhammad Shahzad Khattak*1, Barkatullah1, Ayesha Aziz1, Jamil Ahmad2, Mohammad Sharif3, Mukand Singh Babel4, Muhammad Fahad5


Sajjad Ali1, Muhammad Shahzad Khattak1, Daulat Khan1, Mohammed Sharif2, Hamad Khan1, Asmat Ullah3,
Abdul Malik1 

...l sectors such
as agriculture, energy, water supply and health will face serious challenges in the second half of the 21st century.
Therefore, preventive and remedial measures are required to minimize the impacts of projected warming by formulating
long-term management and control policies for all sectors. 


Imran Shehzad1, Ghulam Sarwar1*, Muhammad Zeeshan Manzoor1, Ayesha Zafar1, Sher Muhammad2 and Ghulam Murtaza justify;">Decline in agriculture production due to salinity is one of the key problems in many areas around the globe including Pakistan. Around the globe approximately, 800-million-hectare area is salt affected and it is estimated that up to middle of 21st century, 50 % of the arable land all over the world will be destroyed due to salinization problem. Use of canal water is the only strategy where saline and good quality waters are used in a cyclic manne...

Azra1*, Muhammad Afzal2 and Dilawar Khan1

Factors Influencing Inflation and Economic Growth in Pakistan: An Econometric Analysis
... and value-added by both agriculture and industry contributed significantly to economic growth. Should the policy makers attach genuine attention to these factors, it is expected that Pakistan economy will perform reasonably well. Specification and diagnostic tests revealed the appropriateness and soundness of the inflation and economic growth models. Parameters stability was examined for two periods (1991 and 2002). CPI showed stability in both periods but GD...

Asif Nawaz1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1, Rehmat Ullah1, Arshad Farooq2 and Abdul Hassan2

Assessment of Weed Management Competency of Field Assistants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

M A Khalid*, A R Ghumman**, H. N. Hashmi**, E. Tanveer*

...e depends upon irrigated agriculture. The performance of irrigation system having large network of canals fed from rivers is influenced by many parameters. Inequitable water distribution, Shortage of water during peak crop water requirements, tempering of insufficient funds for proper maintenance and high sediment loads in canals are worth mentioning issues. In this paper the performance of Lower Bari Doab Canal with emphasis on sediment transport analysis has...

Asif Nawaz*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Rehmat Ullah, Khalid Nawab and Urooba Pervaiz

Investigation of Professional Competency Level and Training Needs of Field Assistants in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Fazli Rabbi1*, Muhammad Idrees2, Shahid Ali1, Muhammad Zamin3 and Hazrat Bilal4

Farmers Perceptions and Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in Peach (Prunus persica L.) Production and Marketing
...t the use of the ICTs in agriculture practices and marketing.


Saba Iqbal1*, Muhammad Luqman1, Hafiz Muhammad Nasrullah1, Asmat Ullah1 and Hafiz Muhammad Akram2

Response of Cotton to Application of Organic and Inorganic Source of Nutrients in Semi-Arid Climate of organic manures in agriculture is considered as environmental friendly, carbon smart and an economical approach to get maximum output in existing agricultural production systems. Unselective use of organic manures is often used in the agriculture to improve soil health but it cannot significantly increase yield. Application of organic and inorganic source of nutrients can uplift the economics of existing cotton based p...

Mehwish Liaquat1*, Arshad Mahmood Malik1, Muhammad Ishaq1, Hafiz Muhammad Qasim Ashraf2 and Ismara Naseem

Zakeer Ahmed Khan Abbasi* and Allah Nawaz 

...act of climate change in agriculture sector in the context of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. Pakistan’s agriculture is vulnerable to the cataclysmic transformations in the climate system; causing productivity loss, soil degradation, water scarcity, resource depletion etc. Climate change awareness empowers the farming communities to take appropriate measures to mitigate the negative consequences of...

Murtaza1, Syed Attaullah Shah1*, Shahid Ali1, Amjad Ali1 and Asia Baig2

Economic Analysis of Maize Production in Central Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
... level of involvement in agriculture and combined family structure as important factors significantly reducing inefficiency in maize production. The study recommends formal education and agricultural training for maize growers, provision of subsidy for hybrid seeds and chemical fertilizers and price support for their produce during harvest season.


Shahzad Malik* and Ayesha Khan

Gap Analysis of Farmers’ Capacity Building by Public and Private Agriculture Extension Sectors in Central Plain Valley of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan by public and private agriculture extension sectors. Three districts namely Peshawar, Mardan and Charsadda were selected purposively. In order to carry out the research, in the three districts of Peshawar, Mardan and Charsadda one tehsil was selected from each district i.e. Town-4 from Peshawar, Takhtbhai from Mardan and tehsil Charsadda from district Charsadda. Sample size for the present study was 270 respondents i.e. 90 respondents from each tehsil. Data...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Vol. 36, Iss. 2, Pages 374-733


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