Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

 

Life Sciences International Journal Issue 7 Volume 1
...red into PanAsian II lineage of FMD O serotype along with previously characterized strains of Pakistan. The network analysis of complete VP1 gene nucleotide sequence with other sixty PanAsian II isolates demonstrated central node with Nepal-2003, Bhutan-2004, Pakistani, Afghani and Iranian isolates. The O/PAK Lahore vaccine was at two mutations from central node, while HE647819 and HE647820 were clustered into a separate single taxon at eightieth (80) mutation...

Sehrish Kanwal, Ali Saeed, Muhammad Munir, Memoona Arshad

 

British Journal of Virology
...red into PanAsian II lineage of FMD O serotype along with previously characterized strains of Pakistan. The network analysis of complete VP1 gene nucleotide sequence with other sixty PanAsian II isolates demonstrated central node with Nepal-2003, Bhutan-2004, Pakistani, Afghani and Iranian isolates. The O/PAK Lahore vaccine was at two mutations from central node, while HE647819 and HE647820 were clustered into a separate single taxon at eightieth (80) mutation...

Robert E. Pollack

 

Science, Religion and Culture
...rld? I could go to the Sages for an answer from my religious tradition, but for a person like me — a scientist for fifty years and at seventy three already in Biblical terms 13 years an elder — it is easier instead to let the Sages come to me; that is, to turn to the Siddur, the Jewish book of daily prayers, codified in Hebrew for the most part a few hundred years ago but including some pass

Sehrish Kanwal1, Ali Saeed1*, Muhammad Munir2, Memoona Arshad1

British Journal of Virology
...red into PanAsian II lineage of FMD O serotype along with previously characterized strains of Pakistan. The network analysis of complete VP1 gene nucleotide sequence with other sixty PanAsian II isolates demonstrated central node with Nepal-2003, Bhutan-2004, Pakistani, Afghani and Iranian isolates. The O/PAK Lahore vaccine was at two mutations from central node, while HE647819 and HE647820 were clustered into a separate single taxon at eightieth (80) mutation...

David N. Livingstone, Dealing with Darwin. Place, Politics, and Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2014, 265 pp., ISBN 13: 978-1-4214-1326-6

Reviewed by Francisco J. Ayala, University Professor & Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, email: fjayala@uci.edu

Science, Religion and Culture
...Rhetoric in Religious Engagements with Evolution.

...

Thaddeus Metz

...isms of it that merit engagement. Specifically, Kershnar maintains, first, that I did not provide enough evidence that meaning in life is a genuine value-theoretic category as something distinct from and competing with, say, objective well-being, and, second, that, even if there were a value of meaning in life, my fundamentality theory of it would not capture its essence well. In this article, I reply to both of these criticisms, aiming to probe these underexp...

Reviewed by Elly Vintiadis (www.ellyvintiadis.com)

... different gender, race, age, and religion. If, like me, you have never heard of the term “deconversion” before, it is the atheist equivalent to the religious finding of faith – it is a conversion from belief to agnosticism or atheism.

...

Mark Zelcer

...ies to Yiddish (the language of Eu- ropean Jewry) and also to science. But what does it mean for an ethnicity to have strong cultural ties to science and how did it get that way in this case? Put another way, why put all this effort into producing Yiddish texts for an audience, part of which could get by in English and part of which was not particu- larly well educated enough to appreciate them? Why would Jews put such a Jewish spin on science?

...

Muhangi Denis

...s in changing disease management behaviour in managing this disease.

...

Yanina Panzera1*, Nicolas Sarute1, Lucia Carrau1, Jaime Aldaz2, Ruben Perez1

...virus is the etiological agent of “Distemper”, the most significant infectious disease among carnivores worldwide. Herein, we present the state of the art of CDV dynamics in South America, by means of a detailed analysis of the genetic diversity, evolution, and epidemiology of the virus in several countries. Our study allowed us to establish the presence of four genetic lineages in South America, being the contin...

Nicola J. Stonehouse

...lso as novel therapeutic agents. This commentary describes RNA aptamers selected to bind to the RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase of foot-and-mouth disease virus. The aptamers are able to inhibit the function of the enzyme both in vitro and in the context of a sub-genomic replicon and highlight the future potential of this technology in many aspects of virus research as well as in diagnostics and therapeutics.

...

Justin P. McBrayer

...elief is Pascal’s Wager. And although Pascal’s Wager fails, its failure is instructive. Pascal’s Wager fails because it relies on unjustified assumptions about what happens in the afterlife to those who believe in God verses those who do not. A renewed wager can avoid this difficulty by relying solely on well-documented differences betw...

Justin P. McBrayer

...elief is Pascal’s Wager. And although Pascal’s Wager fails, its failure is instructive. Pascal’s Wager fails because it relies on unjustified assumptions about what happens in the afterlife to those who believe in God verses those who do not. A renewed wager can avoid this difficulty by relying solely on well-documented differences betw...

Xingdong Yang and Lijuan Yuan

... models. Given the advantages of gnotobiotic pig models, it is expected that they will be used more widely in biomedical research for studies of human viruses and other human diseases.

...

Derk Pereboom

...e manipulation cases the agent is not morally responsible, and in others he is. A corollary of the soft-line reply is that there is a plausible compatibilist condition on moral responsibility that has not been met in some of the cases. One prominent response of this sort is that a key condition on basic desert moral responsibility (the notion of moral responsibility I will assume in this discussion of manipulation arguments) is the absence of intentional manip...

Khalid Usman, Aziz-Ur-Rehman

...ts are influenced by tillage and time of nitrogen application as well as soil type and cropping system. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of spring wheat seeded in three tillage systems viz., zero (ZT), reduced tillage (RT), and conventional tillage (CT) to split application of N fertilizer [50 kg N at sowing + 100 kg N ha-1 at fir...

Zaheer Ahmed Deho1, Shamsuddin Tunio2, Qammaruddin Chachar2, Fateh Chand Oad2

...ng dates and pick- ing stages on yield and seed maturity of cotton varieties at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture (NIA) Tandojam, Sindh Pakistan. Three cotton varieties (Sadori, Chandi-95 and Malmal) were evaluated under four sowing dates (15th April, 1st May, 15th May and 1st June). Four pickings at various boll openingstage viz. 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% of bollopening were carried out.The varieties responded differently for op...

Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...by exhibiting higher average spinach plant height (35 cm), number of leaves (16.4), fresh foliage yields (330 g pot-1), dry foliage yields (32 g pot-1), leaf length (40.5 cm) and leaf area (238.4 mm2) relative to poultry manure, compost or FYM treatments. Similar trend was observed during 2010-11. Over all, press mud with EM was more effective in improving soil quality and enhancing spinac...

Muhammad Irshad1, Abdur Rab1, Javed Rahman2, Muhammad Sajid1, Ilyas Khan2, Sajad Ali1, Muhammad Razaq1, Sallahuddin1

...routing, survival percentage, number of roots plant-1 and plant height were significantly affected by planting dates and soil media. Maximum survival percentage (29.16%), number of root plant-1 (13.31), and plant height (40.42 cm) was recorded for the cuttings planted on 20th Feb. On the other hand minimum days to 50% sprout- ing (28.49) were recorded for cuttings planted on 2nd March. Significant effect of planting media wa...

Muhammad Ashraf Khan1, Hizbullah Khan1, Abid Farid2

... egg, larval and pupal stages with the virus at field dose (x), 2x dose, and 0.5x dose ranged from 83.2- 87.3%, 87.1- 91.6%, and 83.7- 89.7%, respectively, relative to control eggs treated with water. The parasitism rates by female parasitic wasps emerged from host eggs treated at x dose when parasitoid was during egg, larval, and pupal stages were 21.6, 26.5, and 25.1%, respectively; the 2x dose resulted in parasitism (mean...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...collected through multistage stratified random sampling technique during 2009-10. Stochastic frontier analysis was employed for the estimation of technical efficiency levels and its determinants. Maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) technique was applied to estimate stochastic frontier Cobb-Douglas production function to ascertain the level of technical efficiency. The econometric computer software STATA was applied for the estimation. The estimated value of te...

Mohammad Fayaz, Abbas Ullah Jan, Dawood Jan

...tato, onion, tomato, cabbage & cauliflower and peas, mostly consumed in Pakistan. A comparison of quality elasticity between urban and rural households is provided using Household Integrated Economic Survey (HIES) data from Pakistan Social and Standards Living Measurement (PSLM) 2010-11. The elasticities of interest were obtained via log-log inverse (LLI) functional form of Engel equation. The quantity and expenditure elasticities remained less than unity ...

Farhad Zulfiqar, Muhammad Ashfaq

... was of mean maximum average temperature at the time of maturity, ceteris paribus with one oC increase in temperature the average wheat yield increased by 56.64 kg per hectare in the study area. It was deduced from the economic variable that the level of input used was less than optimum. The negative coefficient of the location variables revealed that increasing the area virtually decreased the yield. It was concl...

Raja Waqar Ahmed Azad, Tahir Sarwar

... conducted to assess the ageing effect of Plain Cement Concrete (PCC) lined watercourses on conveyance losses/efficiency in district Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kash- mir. Three watercourses namely, Sarai, Derkot and Mera Dadu were selected randomly on aging basis. Watercourses Sarai, Derkot and Mera Dadu were constructed in 2000, 2006-07 and 2011, respectively. Conveyance losses in the selected watercourses were determined by inflow-outflow method, wherein t...

Mohammed Ali Hussain, Zakiya Ahmed Hassan

... both locations with averages 768.56, 670.26 and 719.42 cm2, respectively, while hybrid sangaria recorded maximum value for 300 grains weight 68.16 g and the hybrid IK 8 x zp-707 showed highest rows ear- 1 at both locations and their averages reached 19.33, 17.33 and 18.33, and the same hybrid produced highest yield plant-1 at both location with average values of 146.94, 125.84 and 136.00 ...

Sajid Ali1, Nouman Badar1, Hina Fatima2

E-mail | sajid_economist@yahoo.com

...to Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) and Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models of forecasting. Using data for 1948 to 2012, productions and yields of both crops were forecasted for 18 years starting from 2013 to 2030. ARMA (1, 4), ARMA (1, 1) and ARMA (0, 1) were found appropriate for sugarcane production, sugarcane yield, and cotton production respectively, whereas ARIMA (2, 1, 1) was the suitable model fo...

Varadaraja V. Raman

...vading soldiers over the ages have terrorized innocent civilians in many regions of the world. Governments have terrorized their own people, the most glaring instance was in post-Revolutionary France during the Reign of Terror. On the other hand disgruntled, oppressed, and frustrated citizens (Irish Catholics, Algerian Muslims, Sri Lankan Tamils, etc.) have terrorized people and governments for various causes.There has also been terrorism by the majority on th...

Frank Griffel

...Hebdo” and the hostage taking at a Jewish supermarket two days later, yet another Western country asked itself why do they attack us? Why do they hate us? France experiences a moment of bewilderment and soul-searching similar to the one the US went through after the attacks of September 2001 and to what took place in Britain after July 5, 2005. The gut-reaction of nations struck by such horrific acts of terrorism is to say: We have done nothing wrong. In...

Gerald Misinzo1,*, Tebogo Kgotlele1, Epaphras A. Muse1, Jan Van Doorsselaere2, Mikael Berg3, and Muhammad Munir4

...classified into four lineages. Serological investigations in Tanzania indicate that peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was introduced in 2004 in Ngorongoro district bordering Ken- ya before official confirmation of the disease in most districts of Northern Tanzania in 2008. In 2011, the presence of PPRV in goats of southern Tanzania district of Tandahimba bordering Mozambique was reported. The aim of this study was to perform molecular typing of PPRV strains tha...

Yashab Tur

 

Science, Religion and Culture, Vol. 2, Iss. 2
..., missionaries, colonial agents, officials of the fledging Ottoman Empire, Arab propagators of a new science, and religious scholars (‘Ulama) who are not ready to deal with a science that attempts to extract God from the explanatory hypothesis.

 

...

Suresh V Kuchipudi* and Kin-Chow Chang

 

...nse to physical demands, age and disease. The contributions of skeletal muscle to immune response and virus pathogenesis are increasingly recognized. Recent evidence strongly indicated that skeletal muscle cells fully support productive replication of influenza A virus (IAV) and could play an important role in disease outcome. We are of the opinion that skeletal muscle could be a key innate immune tissue/organ in the pathogenesis of influenza and other system...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...nd causes more severe damages in lymphoid tissues when compared with virulent viruses of other genotypes. Therefore, severe pathology in immune organs, caused by genotype VIId of NDV, is associated with high levels of virus replication and an intense innate immune response.

...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

...itrogen fertilizer on forage production and quality and economic return of fodder maize cultivar Kissan. The experiment was conducted on silt loam soil at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan during 2011. Six nitrogen treatments (80, 120, 160, 200, 240 and 280 kg ha-1) and a control one were studied in this trial. Growth and yield traits and quality such as plant height, stem diameter, leaf area plant-1, leaf area index, chlorop...

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...eficit but also on the stage of plant growth at which it develops. A pot study was conducted during 2011-12 at College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan, to assess the effect of induced water stress on performance of different wheat varieties at critical growth stages. Three wheat varieties viz. Faisalabad-2008, Lasani-2008 and Kohistan-97 were manually sown in polythene lined pots. Five water stress treatments were created by...

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

... 3, 4, 5, and 6. The average weight gain (g) was found non-significant at week 1 and week 6, however, the statistical analysis revealed significant effect from week 2 to 5, respectively. Times of gain were found significant difference at week 1 to 4; however, at week 5 and 6, it was non-significant. Feed intake (g/bird/week) differed significantly during the entire study period, whereas, feed conversion ratio (FCR) at week-4 only. Imported quail strain (M) per...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...d in 2013 from eight villages in district Jhang – Punjab, Pakistan. The district was divided into four zones and two villages were selected from each zone. An equal number of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries, i.e. ten each, were selected from each village. Thus the total sample size was 160 farmers. Cobb Douglas Production Function (CDPF) was used to analyse the data. The results ...

Dallin D. Oaks

 

...ediate confusion of languages, or even a sequence in which a confusion of languages led to a scattering of the people. Indeed, a close examination of the account seems to allow an interpretation of events that is compatible with what linguists have observed about how languages can diversify, though some challenges may still remain in reconciling assumptions about the available post-Babel t...

Aqeel Ahmad, Zammurad Iqbal Ahmed, Irfan Aziz*

 

...o optimize fertilizer management strategies for rainfed cultivation under lentil (lens culinaris) based cropping systems field trials were conducted at University Research Farm, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during 2007-2009. Lentil was planted in winter and during summer sorghum (sorghum bicolor) and mung bean (vigna radiata) followed lentil. Five different fertilizer treatments i.e. farmyard manure (FYM) 30 tons ha-1, N...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...tral role at the early stage of viral life cycles. The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a major concern for the swine industry and causes high degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, re...

Kemi Funmilayo Omotesho1*, Isreal Ogunlade1, Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde2

...study area using a two-stage random sampling technique. Data used for the study were analysed using descriptive statistics, Likert scale and the regression analysis. The study revealed that farmers perceived the level of accountability of extension to farmers in the study area as poor. Level of education, access to training and membership of farmer-groups negatively influenced accountability at p<0.05. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended t...

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

...d varieties which discourages, the production and use of the original seed, and also the technological development.

...

Faheem Khan*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...this purpose. A multi-stage sampling method was used to draw sample of 336 sugarcane growers for the present study and an interview schedule was used to solicit responses that addressed the research objectives. The findings from the study showed that 80 percent of respondents were illiterate while the 20 percent of respondents who were literate had achieved various levels of education. In the years 2012 and 2013, the average

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

.... Integrated nutrient management is important for higher crop yields and sustainable agriculture. A field experiment was conducted to study the residual effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of chickpea crop. The treatments included control (no organic or inorganic fertilizer), NPK (36-72-0 kg ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1), Farmyard Manure (20 t ha-1), Poultry Manure (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1)...

Jonathan Jong

...e belief in supernatural agents, participation in rituals, formation of non-kin groups, obedience to moral codes, and so forth—that variously co-occur in packages we intuitively label as particular religions. Furthermore, these distinct phenomena are also present among ostensibly nonreligious (or secular) individuals and groups. Scholars of religion and nonreligion should therefore all but abandon the terms “reli...

Ethan G. Quillen

...icle will attempt to assuage this issue by mapping out the discursive shifts presented within the discourse on defining the term, as well as promote a more discursive approach, linking the study of Atheism with the study of religion, and thereby the issues addressed in defining ‘religion’ with those affecting the definition of ‘Atheism.’

...

Luke Galen

...iefs, chiefly, social engagement and embeddeness in supportive groups. Often, those with the lowest levels of well-being and prosociality are uncommitted or indifferent religious believers, not socially engaged nonbelievers. Therefore, defining individuals who are not committed or engaged in socially supportive groups solely in terms of their lack of religious belief virtually guarantees t...

Gareth Longden

...en to the topics of sex, age, residence, employment, and education background of the members.

...

Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi

...ure, which is a mirror image of itself. How can we explain the secularity of academics? Research indicates that it has to do with a process of selection and self-selection, which starts in childhood and channels individuals who are highly intelligent, critical, independent, and confident towards the academic world. Contrary to what some might think, it is not getting a Ph.D., which contributes to individual secularity; it is young secular individuals who are h...

 David F. Bradley*, Julie J. Exline, Alex Uzdavines

... or gods often hold an image of a god with relational characteristics (e.g., loving, cruel, and/or distant). Can nonbelievers form an image of a hypothetical god? What characteristics do their hypothetical gods have? We conducted an Internet-based survey of adult nonbelievers in the U.S. (N = 458). Most (86%; N = 393) were able to form an image of a hypothetical god. On aver

Amanda Schutz

...ppy children, navigate tragedy, or cooperate effectively with others in society. Phil Zuckerman spends the remainder of the book refuting this claim. His goal is to explore “how secular people navigate their lives,” which is no small task. Throughout the book he discusses how secularists do in fact have morals, successfully raise children, deal with death and heartache, and build communities—basically, how they carry on without supernatural g...

Rick Repetti

...one that does no damage to the often radically different frameworks, methods, and modes of discourse that are distinctively Buddhist, much of which it presents in its own modality.

...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa and Muhammad Arshad Khan

... micro nutrients were managed in soil and mulberry foliage through application of urea and diammonium phosphate (DAP). Urea at the rate of 608 kg/ha and DAP at the rate of 260 kg/ha was applied on six mulberry varieties. The results showed a deficiency in nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc and manganese in soil before the fertilizer application. Contrarily, high copper and potassium contents were found. After three weeks of fertiliz...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

...esults revealed that average CWP of wheat, maize, sugarcane and tomato was 0.96, 1.11, 3.31, 3.61 kg m-3 under public and 0.90, 0.77, 2.36, 2.98 kg m-3, under civil system, respectively. In public canal system, the average CWP of the selected crops was 7, 40, 44 and 21% higher than civil canal system, respectively. Low CWP in civil canal system was mainly attributed to over irrigation (because of high wat...

Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro*, Habib-Ur-Rehman Memon, Muhammad Ali Ansari, Ahmed Naqi Shah

...nt friendly weed management and enhancing cotton yield.

...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...ples refrig- eration storage at 4±1 °C. The pH of meat samples were checked and recorded on similar intervals. During 12 days storage, significant reductions (i.e. P <0.05) were found in both E. coli O157: H7 and S. typhymurium growth when exposed to these treatments. Results revealed that levels of citric and lactic acid concentrations effect were maximum for 5.0%, followed by 3.0% and least for 1.0% on E. col...

Brittany D. Rife 1,2, Marco Salemi 1,2*

E-mail | salemi@pathology.ufl.edu

Rick Repetti

... the possibility of free agency that stands up against four powerful arguments for free will skepticism in contemporary analytic philosophy: Peter van Inwagen’s consequence argument, which asserts that if choices are lawfully necessary consequences of prior events, then they are unfree; Derk Pereboom’s two arguments for hard incompatibilism: the manipulation argument, which asserts that manipu...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...ecember, 2014). The mean age and mean CD4+ count of the subjects were 40.14±0.47 years and 387.28±18.91 cells/mm3 respectively. Out of 275 subjects tested, 15(5.45%; 95% confidence interval) were positive for anti-HEV IgM. Anti- HEV IgM was highest among the age group 11-20 (9.09%), female (7.83%), civil servant (7.37%), > 500 CD4/ mm3 (7.89%). The multivariate analysis between age

Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas Faleye1, Johnson Adekunle Adeniji1, 2 *

...f some of the cVDPV2 lineages described in Nigeria between 2005 and 2011 originated from NPEV-Cs circulating in Northern Nigeria. Here, we further investigate whether NPEV-Cs circulating in south-western Nigeria (SWN) contributed to the emergence of these lineages. In 2013 sewage contaminated water samples were collected from two sites in Lagos, Nigeria. Samples were concentrated and inocu...

Rodolfo Villagra-Blanco1*, Gaby Dolz1, Danilo Montero-Caballero2, Juan Jose Romero-Zuniga2

...ck seropositivity percentages ranged between 0% and 100.0%. Flocks with the highest seropositivity were found in low altitude regions close to the coast. Risk and protective factors determined in the present study were not in accordance with this insect borne disease. The results of this study indicate that BTV is endemic in sheep herds from Costa Rica, and animals seem not show clinical signs. We recommend carrying out further studies, to determine the presen...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El-Naggar2, Abdulrahman M. Gamal3, Elshaimaa Ismael3, Mohamed M. Hamoud4, Sherif T. Moubarak3, Ashraf M. Metwally1, Manal M. Zaki3, Shimaa A.E. Nasr3, Samah Elsaid3, Mohamed M. Ali3, Hussein A. Hussein1 and Osama K. Zahran3

Email: mohammedvet1986@gmail.com; mohammed_abdelmohsen@cu.edu.eg

...ypt is facing various management problems along with infectious diseases including avian influenza (AI). Biosecurity measures, controlling poultry movements and inactivated vaccines were devised to combat the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1. HPAIV are highly susceptible to all disinfectants because they are enveloped viruses. Disinfection against avian influenza viruses at the poultry farms would significantly reduc...

Shumaila Manzoor1, Afshan Ahmed1 and Muhammad Abubakar2*

... in animals of different age groups was observed as less than 1 year, 1-2 years and more than 2 years for both ELISA and SNT. The peak immune response measured by SNT was 2.8log10 whereas ELISA detected serum antibody titer up to 2.4 log10. Findings showed that highest titers were seen in animals of age > 2 years i.e. 1.70 log10 (for serotype Asia 1), 1.99 log10 (...

Youssef Lhor1*, Mounir Khayli1, Mohamed Bouslikhane2, Mehdi El Harrak3, Ouafaa Fassi Fihri2

Email: y.lhor@yahoo.fr

...onstrate that the life stage “bumper” of the female imicola is the indicator of the infecting activity of C. imicola. Collectively, the distribution patterns and emergence of BT can be predicted by the abundance of the Culicoides species in a specified locality so that control measures
can be implemented well in time to contain the disease spread.

...

Tomas Jinnerot1*, Karin Malm1, Erik Eriksson1 and Jonas Johansson Wensman2

E-mail | Tomas.Jinnerot@sva.se

...) in dogs. Other disease agents include various respiratory viruses and co-infection can exacerbate the clinical signs. CIRD is highly contagious and can spread rapidly, especially among dogs in close quarters. Fast and accurate diagnostics enables the selection of proper management. Our objective was to develop a sensitive and specific real-time PCR for detection of B. bronchiseptica in samples ...

Claudia Kohl*, Andreas Nitsche, Andreas Kurth

Email: kohlc@rki.de

...biology and medicine. Metagenomics is one of these emerging NGS applications and offers the opportunity to study i.e. whole ecosystems. Basically, the metagenomics approach is similar to well-known shotgun-sequencing, though on a much bigger scale. For instance, the metagenome of a lake would include all the fish, ducks, plants, fungi, bacteria and everything else that belongs to the lake....

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...t all doses and growth stages observed, attaining maximum with 40 grams Imidacloprid active ingredient per hectare-1 at day 15 after treatment. The antioxidative enzyme activity of SOD, APX and GR showed increasing trend in a dose-dependent manner, attaining maximum at 40 g.a.i ha-1 of Imidacloprid treatment at day 7 after treatment (DAT) followed by 3 and 15 DAT, respectively. On the contrary, the CAT activity was increased at lower concentrations of Imida- c...

Ummara Waheed Khan, Raza Ahmed, Irum Shahzadi and Mohmmad Maroof Shah

Email | mmshah@ciit.net.pk

...nds largely upon the average effect of several important factors including explant tissue, culture medium, plant genotypes, and their interactions, the detail of which is not fully explored. Current article described this issue in detail. The information synthesized would be important to select and manipulate appropriate factor(s) for successful wheat tissue culture and regeneration that in turn
would help its improvement.

...

Muhammad Imran1*, Muhammad Mobashar2, Muhammad Irfan3, Shazia Hanif4, Sumaira Hanif5 and Muhammad Abubakar6

...arly similar lactation stage and body weight, sixteen individually confined buffaloes were randomly blocked and allotted to four different dietary treatments. MOLM in proportion to CSC was supplemented along with maize silage as basal diet. Four dietary treatments having MOLM were 0.0, 0.71, 1.42 and 2.16 Kg DM/day used as replacement for CSC containing 2.16, 1.42, 0.71 and 0.0 Kg DM CSC/day. Overall the apparent digestibili...

Tauseef Taj Kiani1*, Mozammil Hussain1 and Hidayat ur Rahman2

 

...ncluding shelling percentage, kernels per row, kernel rows per ear, and 100-grain weight and grain yield. Non-additive gene action was evident for shelling percentage, kernels per row and 100-grain weight and grain yield for which both heterosis and inbreeding depression were expressed by crosses like NCMLQ2 x NCMLD2 and NCMLQ2 x NCMLD4. The parental lines used in above F...

Shahid Ali1, Habib Akbar2, Mohammad Tariq Jan2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3 and Abdul Bari4

... applied and standard management practices (inter-culturing, earthing up, and irrigation) were performed. The objectives were to find best planting source, cane portions, setts placement methods and interaction for maximum emergence, visible crop stand leading to yield and yield components. Significant differences were observed among cane portions and setts placement methods for all the traits except emergence %. Planting sources exhibited significant differen...

Ghulam Ali Bajwa1, Faizah Abood2, Yusof Bin Ibrahim3

...ial as microbial control agent against A. sciodoxa and should be exploited under field conditions.

...

Ali Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein Ebrahimi

... remedy for effective management of such ailments. Out of the available and applied implants, none of them was evaluated by motion analysis system. It has been shown that severity of pain and overall function of knee joint were improved following the use of this implant. Although it has been mentioned that KineSpring knee implant is an effective method to relieve pain and improve function in Knee OA, there are incomplete evidences to s...

Seyed Mohsen Mirbod

...nce as that of the knee cage, and additionally is more cosmesis, ease in use and is economical.

...

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...et), their incorporation age (40, 70 and 100 days after sowing, DAS) and parts (whole plants incorporation and stubbles incorporation) under varying nitrogen levels (0, 75 and 100 kg ha-1) on physiology, yield and economic returns of Canola (Brassica napus L. cv. Bulbul-98). The experiments were laid out in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement having three replications. Findings of the experiment revealed that guar as previously green m...

Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...s i.e. frequency, percentages and rank order was calculated. Chi-square test was performed to find out association among demographic characteristics and MFSC registration duration and Rank Based Quotient was calculated for problem identification. It was found that machinery was provided to almost half of the respondents. Similarly seed was the most provided input followed by fertilizers. Top most source of agriculture information was input dealers followed by ...

Abiodun D. Olabode

...view to identify farm management practices that enhance sustainable production of rice in the study area. Primary data were obtained through the use interview schedule. Eighty copies of structured interview were purposively employed to obtain individual response of the farmers whose plots fall within the demarcated forty-sampled quadrats from both irrigated and non-irrigated farms. Information on socio-economic activities of the rice farmers, level of rice yie...

Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...ear Eid-ul-Adha. Haemorrhages are the major signs of this fatal disease. No treatment of CCHF is available currently but Ribavirin antiviral drug is used to cure this disease. There is currently no commercially available vaccine for this disease. It is recommended that the disease can be controlled by adopting preventive measures such as avoiding of tick bites and contact with blood of the suspected animal. 

...

Mohammed A. Rohaim1*, Rania F. El Naggar2, Ahmed M. Helal3, Hussein Ahmed Hussein1 and Neil LeBlanc4

...12KRQKR116), at the cleavage site of the fusion (F) protein indicated the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of the F and haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) genes indicated that the isolate clustered with the PPMV-1 strains recently reported from Israel within subgenotype VIb. Our findings report the emergence of PPMV-1 in Egyptian pigeons and the potential role these wild birds can play in the transmission and evolution dynamics of PPMV-1.

...

Moustafa Kardjadj

...an class="s1">and 06 lineage are circulating in the North Africa, of which serotype O is responsible for most of the outbreaks. However, the rapid spread of SAT2 and other exotic FMDV lineages in Libya and Egypt demonstrated the need for a robust surveillance system to detect and respond effectively to exotic infections. Emergence and re-emergence of FMD virus genotypes/line

Nazish Huma Khan*, Mohammad Nafees and Adila Bashir

...ults showed that the average concentrations of metals in soils of orchard and non-orchard fields were as chromium (Cr) 56.9 and 52.2 mg kg-1, Ni 29.8 and 27.9 mg kg-1 and Cd 2.46 and 1.11 mg kg-1, respectively. The risk contribution from Cd, Cr and Ni were significant in crop seeds of orchard field (THQ>1). The substantial load of heavy metals in studied fields showed the anthropogenic source of pollution. Therefore regular ...

Murtaza Ali*, Yasser Durrani and Muhammad Ayub

...d ash content during storage. It was concluded and recommended on the basis of mentioned facts that mulberry fruit dehydrated by using solar drier and portable solar drier are best drying technique for mulberry fruits. 

...

Mukhtarullah1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal1*

...ing system, however, average yield differs by 100% from the national average yield due to rainfed planting (67%). Sowing of wheat in the area starts in October subject to onset of winter rains which delays its planting in the season. This study aims to compare yield performance of newly released varieties of wheat by delay in sowing in the season under rainfed condition. Field experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research...

Imtiaz Hussain, M. Sajid, Noor ul Amin, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Abrar Hussain Shah, S. Mussarat       Hussain, Sayed Hussain and Nagina Zeb

...nd more sprouting percentage (96%), number of sprout plant-1 (6.45), sprout length (27.41 cm), sprout thickness (0.12 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (16.33) and plant survival percentage (81.72%). The more day to new bud sprout (24 days) and the minimum sprouting percentage (79%), number of sprout plant-1 (4.80), sprout length (23.96 cm), sprout thickness (0...

Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan*, Gurrappa Naidu Govindaraj and Habibur Rahman

...culation of a single lineage virus and most importantly effective planning and implementation of the vaccination programme. Sharing the experiences on the PPR control strategies adopted by some of the states in India may motivate other Indian states or other countries of similar socio-economic and small ruminant rearing pattern to vaccinate and control PPR.

...

Neil Levy

...having, and taking advantage of, a capacity for culture. AIs with such a capacity may have intellectual powers greater than ours currently are, but the collective deliberation that underlies the power of cumulative culture is more powerful when there is sufficient diversity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity. 

...

Neil Levy

...having, and taking advantage of, a capacity for culture. AIs with such a capacity may have intellectual powers greater than ours currently are, but the collective deliberation that underlies the power of cumulative culture is more powerful when there is sufficient diversity among the deliberators. This fact will give AIs a reason to value our continued flourishing, so that we are able to contribute to valuable epistemic diversity. 

...

Klara Fischer1*, Erika Chenais1,2, Emeli Torsson1, Jonas Johansson Wensman1

...s that social science engagement in PE to date is virtually non-existent, but that increased efforts to draw lessons from the social sciences and to increase the degree of participation in PE could increase its potential as an important tool in disease impact assessment and control. Particular attention is paid here to the potential role of PE in future research on the epidemiology and control of PPR. 

...

Keyvan Sharifmoradi1*, Nader Farahpour2

... to compare with healthy age group. A total of 14 patients with PD and 16 normal elderly subjects with matched age and gender were included in the study. A motion analysis system (Vicon Motion Analysis System) and two Kistler force plates were used to measure forces applied on the legs. Data were evaluated using independent t-test with significant point set at p< 0.05. There was no difference in cadence betw...

Ali Tahmasebi1, Parvin Raji1*, Mostafa Kamali2

...ic diplegic CP with mean age and body mass index of 7 ± 1.3 years and 14.70 ± 1.73 kg/m2 respectively and 15 normal children with mean age and body mass index of 7.2 ± 1 years and 14.83 ± 1.57 kg/m2. Children were instructed to stand with bare feet for 60 seconds on a 5-cm-thick piece of foam which was placed on a Kistler force plate with their Eyes Open (EO), Eyes Close (EC) and Mirror Visual Fee...

Mohammad Mushfiqur Rahman1, Rokshana Parvin1, Ataur Rahman Bhuiyan1, Mohammad Giasuddin2, Shah Md. Ziqrul Haq Chowdhury3, Mohammad Rafiqul Islam1, Emdadul Haque Chowdhury1*

 

...ngladesh belonged to Lineage IV and they formed a separate sub-cluster along with recent isolates from Nepal, Bhutan and China. On genetic analyses, it appeared that the N gene of PPRV is less conserved as compared to the F gene. Two unique amino acid substitutions (K423Q and E426G) were observed in Bangladeshi and Chinese isolates in the partial sequence of N protein.The recent Bangladeshi isolates are somewhat divergent from the earlier Bangladeshi isolate, ...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...g of the PPRV within lineage IV with significant substitutions in the nucleoprotein (NP) gene. Genetic variations within NP gene, and possibly in other proteins which are essentially mediating protective immunity, may explain the extreme infectious nature of the virus and its host-specific pathogenesis. Moreover, understanding the nature of such circulating field viruses is essential to underpin the endemic potential of PPRV and its possible spread to the susc...

Muhammad Siddiq1* and Hamid Ullah Shah2

 

...etable oil with good storage stabilities. The current study was conducted to identify the best oil blend in terms of physicochemical properties between olive and palm oils. Laboratory experiment on “Effect of stress conditions on the quality and stability of olive and palm oil blends” was conducted at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Tarnab Peshawar and The University of Agriculture Peshawar KP-Pakistan during 2015. Olive: palm oil...

 Zar Muhammad and Mohammad Tariq Jan

...nents over two years average data. Compost application produced more maize ears m-2 (13%), grains ear-1 (28%), 1000 grains weight (14%), biological yield (56%), grain yield (65%) and harvest index (5%) over control. Among varying composition composts, higher grains ear-1(274), 1000 grains weight (270.7g), biological yield (16151 kg ha-1) and grain yield (4803 kg ha-1) were observed for 100% FYM compost. Higher grains ear-1 (245), 1000 grains weight (255.3 g), ...

 Shahab e Saqib, Mokbul Morshed Ahmad, Sanaullah Panezai, Hidayatullah, Khalid Khan Khattak

...ccess to credit whereas, age and farmers’ group had negative association with access to credit. Our findings suggest that there is a need to revamp the policy to address the interests of small landholders, particularly those who possess land less than 5 acres because they had limited access to formal sources of credit.

...

 Farmanullah Khan, Samad Khan, Wiqar Ahmad and Imran Khan

...d WHC, saturation percentage, organic matter content, plant available N, P and K significantly (p<0.05) both at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths. Effect of fertilizer sources either alone or in integrated form was non-significant on Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn concentration. Economic analysis showed that NPK75FYM20 rewarded the maximum net income of Rs. 43108 ha-1, indicating its superiority for profitable wheat yield under rain-fed conditions. It can be concluded from these...

 Inamullah Khan, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi, Rajwali Khan, Syed Muhammad Sohail, Ijaz Ahmad, Muhammad Shoaib and Asim Ijaz

...ion under the Biorisk Management framework and One Health perspective. A total of 410 and 202 blood samples were collected from cattle and humans respectively. Total 40 samples of subsistence farms and 30 nomadic herds were analysed. Forty eight farm workers, 40 farm owner 36 abattoirs workers, 15 veterinary assistants, 15 veterinarian and 40 butchers were also screen out. Overall sero-prevalence in cattle was 15.36% on SPAT, 14.39% by i-ELISA and 14.14% throu...

 Arif Khan, Abdur Rahman, Shoail Akhtar, Siraj Uddin, Zahid Ullah and Nazir Ahmad

 
...in relation to breed and age. A total of one hundred and eight beef samples from Longissimus dorsi muscle were collected from three age groups (i.e. group 1= 12-18 monts, 2 =18.1-36.0 months and 3= > 36 months) of Kundi and Nili Ravi breeds of buffalo. Samples were obtained from freshly preselected slaughtered buffaloes at local municipal abattoir Peshawar. The effect of breed and animal age

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

...major problem in the storage of fatty acids in foods. Oxidation occurs by several molecular mechanisms such as generation of reactive oxygen precursors and free radicals. Oxidation affects many interactions among food constituents, leading to both desirable and undesirable products. Food lipids are the foods components that are most susceptible to oxidation, therefore oxidation reactions are one of the major sources of deterioration that occurs during manufact...

 Abdul Qahar and Bashir Ahmad

...or efficient nutrient management and has considerable role in enhancing crop yield. To study the effect of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) on maize hybrids, field experiments were laid out at the Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 2013 and 2014, respectively. Nitrogen (0, 250, 300, 350 kg ha-1) and Sulfur (0, 20, 40, 60 kg ha-1) in main plots, whereas maize hybrids (R-3305, R-2210, R-2207) in subplots, were replicated t...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

 John G. Bruno and Jeffery C. Sivils

...rn blot formats is advantageous for validation of aptamer binding and specificity based on molecular weight matching of detected electrophoretic bands across a spectrum of related and unrelated bacteria.

...

Koksal Karadas1, Muhammad Tariq2, Mohammad Masood Tariq3* and Ecevit Eyduran4

...rithm displayed that ewe age, number of milking and lactation length for lactation milk yield should be taken into account and lactation lengths for Akkaraman sheep milked more than 2 a day should be longer than 150 days at 3 year old age group, and longer than 160 days at 4 year old age group for sustaining high productivity in lactation milk yield. Consequently, it is recommendable that ...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

...dly approach for weed management. A pot experiment to evaluate the allelopathic potential of leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (L.) against Convolvulus arvensis (L.) and Cyperus rotundus (L.) was undertaken during summer 2011. The study was conducted at Department of Agronomy, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan. The experiment was laid out in three replicated completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of control (untreated), eucalypt...

Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Waqar Ahmad1, Ghulam Sarwar1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Noor Islam1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1 and Zain Ul Abiden2 

...r, respectively. The average efficacy (%) of the four groups were 86±.58, 66.5±3.93, 75±7.04, 18.25± 10.25 in winter, 77±3.52, 76.75±30, 79±2, 18.25±0.75 in spring and 74.75±1.44, 65.75±1.11, 63±2.04, 18.25±1.11 in summer season, respectively. No queens were lost, and there was no adult honeybee mortality in any of the colonies during the experiment. It can be concluded that sc...

Muhammad Ibrahim, Jawaria Ali Khan, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Avais, Ali Husnain, Naimatullah Khan, Muhammad Kamran Ameen and Abdullah Iqbal

...d a 50 % recovery percentage when treated with lemon for five days and 33 percent cows recovered from subclinical mastitis when treated with Black Pepper for five days. Udder health status and milk quality can be enhanced with use of Garlic and Vitamin E + Se combination in cows.

...

Sayeda Sarah and Muhammad Ibrar

...s and Gigaspora. The average AMF spore density ranged from 56-260 spores/100g soil while root colonization ranged from 32-100%. Mycorrhizal enhancement regarding AMF spores density and root colonization ranked asRP0>RP1>RP2>RP3 in all hybrids i.e 0%>25%>50%>100%.

...

Hina Fatima, Muhammad Azeem Khan, Mahreen Zaid-Ullah, Abdul-Jabbar, Khurram Nawaz Saddozai

...n farmers. Hence the average output of Non-BT cotton and BT-cotton farms could be increased by 30 and 10 percent, respectively by adopting the technology with an appropriate approach. The results of the inefficiency model reveal that the factors like education, experience and distance from the main market, are the most influential determinants of the technical efficiency in both NonBT and BT- cotton farms. Extension of cotton production required the developmen...

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

...he effect of nutrient management on growth, yield characters and leaf reddening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Cotton variety Haridost was studied under 4 NPK treatments (000 NPK kg ha-1, 120-0-0 kg N ha-1, 120-70-0 kg N ha-1, 120-70-40 kg NPK ha-1 and 5 secondary and micronutrient (Control, 50, 3, 4 and 1.5 kg ha-1 Mg, Fe, Zn and B, respectively) treatments. NPK @ 120-70-40 kg ha-1 resulted maximum plant height, number of green leaves plant-1, number of o...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...bor (male and female) of age 14 to 60 significantly (P<0.01) reduced during past 30 years and partly shifted to cropping. The male herding labour reduced 40.2% in semi-nomadic pastoralists and 8% in nomadic pastoralists. Similarly the female herding labour reduced 54.3% in semi-nomadic and 32.2 in nomadic pastoralists. This reduction is highly observed in herding labour of semi-nomadic pastoralists followed by nomadic pastoralists. It is concluded that due ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...ggs (95.6%) and second stage juveniles (J2) (95.8%) infection. In greenhouse experiment, similar trend was found. L. muscarium proved to be more effective against M. hapla whereas S. rugosoannulata and C. rosea showed better results among other tested fungi in experiments. Moreover, plant growth parameters were also improved due to antagonistic relationship of fungi and nematodes in soil.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...to compare biological management through nematophagous fungus Lecanicillium muscarium with chemical nematicides, Vydate, Basamid (G) and fertilizer, Calcium cyanamide through soil application to control sugar beet cyst nematodes Heterodera schachtii. Lecanicillium muscarium decreased nematode population significantly (P=0.05 and caused reductions in final numbers of cysts per 250 g of soil, eggs and juveniles per cyst. Nematicides effects were not quite signif...

Felwa A. Thagfan1, Mohamed A. Dkhil1,2* and Saleh Al-Quraishy1

...he number of parasitic stages and the number of goblet cells in the jejunal villi in the infected mice. Moreover, the expression of the goblet cell mucin gene, muc2 was upregulated after treatment with the root extract. Based on our results, it could be concluded that, S. persica root extracts acts as anticoccidial agent.

...

Muhammad Aslam

...that in Pakistan, on average current yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane is 2.26, 1.87, 2.88, 1.77 and 48.06 tons per hectare, respectively against 6.80, 4.30, 5.20, 9.20 and 300 tons per hectare potential yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane, respectively, obtained through research. This reflects a yield gap of 67, 57, 45, 81 and 84 % between average and potential yield of wheat, cotton, rice, mai...

Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq, Li Cui Xia, Rukhsana Rasheed, Zeeshan Ahmad, Muhammad Abdullah

...lating the values of average treatment effects (ATE) on eight performance indicators. The outcomes of study disclosed that cooperative members have higher farm income, more milk production, reared improved cattle breeds, get better access to veterinarian services and used more nutritious fodder (silage), as compared to non-members. The findings of study also provided the evidence that establishment of milk marketing cooperat...

Muhammad Mushtaq, Umer Sadique, Naila Chand, Iftikhar Ahmed, Said Sajjad Ali Shah, Ijaz Ahmad, Imran Ullah and Muqadar Shah

...ycemic and hypolipidemic agents.

...

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

...cation and intensive tillage is the norm on Pakistani farms, which exacerbate water logging and salinity and reduce the water productivity of major crops. Addressing these issues, a long term experiment (2000 to 2009) under wheat-maize (9 seasons each) cropping pattern was conducted on raised beds (with furrow spacing of 65 cm (Narrow Bed-NB), 130 cm (Medium Bed- MB) and 180 cm (Wide Bed-WB)), with controlled traffic regime emplaced, in comparison with traditi...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

... and Charsadda. Four villages were studied two each from the sampled districts. Analysis showed that owners (59.31 percent off-farm employment) were performing more off-farm jobs than the tenants (50.74 percent off-farm employment) and owner-cum-tenants (41.77 percent off-farm employment). The dominancy of owners in the off-farm employment was associated to the farm holding size (up to 1 acre), they operated. Similarly the small farm households (Owners, Owner-...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...ding key factors such as age and ethnicity, communal domain, education level, employment status and demographic factors (drug route, drug dose) have bearing upon heroin addiction was collected. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Early age of addiction onset, low literacy rate, peer pressure, occupation type, and stress are among risk factors increasing susceptibility towards heroin addiction ...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

...sponse to the infectious agents is necessary. Identification of the genes, and their variants, involved in innate immune responses is essential for the understanding of this inflammatory disease and to identify potential genetic markers for resistance to mastitis. This article presents a systematic integration of complex biological interactions of 226 mammary gland genes to uncover underlying regulatory networks. Data were collected from various databases afte...

Aqila Shaheen and Mehwish Matien

...ge difference in SOC storage and physico-chemical properties mainly in relation to climate, soil type and vegetation.

...

Zisha Liu1, Na Song1, Takashi Yanagimoto2, Zhiqiang Han3, Bonian Shui3 and Tianxiang Gao3*

... arrangement and codon usage analyzed. Phylogenetic Bayesian and ML analyses were conducted, using a concatenated set of 12 protein-coding genes, and adding 16 other species of gobies (Gobiidae). The mitogenome sequences of O. lacepedii,

Metin Duru1*, Asuman Arslan Duru1, Köksal Karadaş2, Ecevit Eyduran3, Harun Cinli4 and Mohammad Masood Tariq5

...ntained individually in cages of 35 x 40 x 45 cm. The strongest correlations were found for egg weight-egg width (r=0.910, P<0.01), haugh unit-albumen index (r=0.876, P<0.01), egg weight-egg height (r=0.799, P<0.01), and egg shape index-egg height (r=0.693, P<0.01). ANOVA results revealed that treatment factor influenced only egg height among all the egg characteristics (P<0.05). The effect of treatment by week interaction on all the characteris...

Haji Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal* and Saira Saleemi

...ndus River at Taunsa Barrage, situated in South Punjab Pakistan. The survey was conducted from September 2013 to August, 2014 at eight sampling sites to ascertain fish diversity and their distribution pattern. A total 2249 fish specimen were collected using a variety of fish nets and identifications of these fishes were made by using standard taxanomic keys on the basis of morphometric characters. Seventy species belonging to 43 genera and 17 families were rec...

Irfan Ullah and Abbas Ullah Jan

... vegetables, sugar, beverages, wheat and wheat flour, rice, other cereals, pulses, oil and fats, tea and coffee, backed products and other food. Economic factors such as food commodities price and household’s income and their socio-economic and demographic characteristics are included in the model. Results indicate that with an increase in the age, household consume more of meat, fruit, wheat and wheat flour, pulses, t...

Robina Karim and Dawood Jan

...f WTO’s unfinished agenda. The rate of increase in imports is greater the rate of increase in exports and that is why Pakistan still faces the problem of trade deficit even after the implementation of WTO.

...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...stem. Among many pest management approaches, biological control is considered as the main strategy to address these issues including sucking pests. Different biocontrol agents are being used for the management of these sucking insect pests. Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been proved as an efficient acarine predator of sucking insect pests of different crops. This predator has...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...iostatic or bactericidal agents either to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Their abuse results in various side effects on the human health, environment and agriculture. The occurrence of bacterial “suprainfection” with tolerance to antibiotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to the consequences of multi drug resistance and potential threat to human health and the environment. With the increasing incidences of antimi...

Asma-ul-Husna1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari2, Bushra Allah Rakha3, Rabea Ejaz1, Nemat Ullah1 and Shamim Akhter1*

...: justify;">Oxidative damage to sperm during cryopreservation is one of the main causes of decline in fertilizing potential. Present study aimed at evaluating the role of melatonin in extender for its cryoprotective effect on post-thaw quality of buffalo bull semen. For this purpose, two consecutive ejaculates were collected from three Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls using artificial vagina at weekly intervals for a period of three weeks (three replicates). Qualifying...

Muhammad Imran*, Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Farooq Nasir, Imran Bodlah, Muhammad Nasir and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh

...on three developmental stages i.e., colony initiation, development and maturation stages under controlled laboratory conditions. Queen oviposition rate was 1.4-fold higher in polycarbonate box compared to wooden and cardboard materials. Early start of egg-laying (first oviposition period) and earlier emergence of first worker were found in polycarbonate box as compared to others. Similarly, colony foundation st

Ayanda Opeyemi Isaac,1,* Oniye Sonnie Joshua2 and Auta Jehu2

 

...f equilibrum and haemorrhage. Observation of opercular ventilation count (OVC), tail fin movemant rate (TMR) and air gulping index (AGI) showed a marked difference between control and exposed fishes, indicating that the herbicides negatively impact on these parameters. These behavioural and morphological anomalies became more pronounced with increasing concentrations of the herbicides. Mortality was also observed to be concentration dependent. After 96 h ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

... pest of sugar beet, cabbage, broccoli and radish, among other crops. It is a cyst-forming nematode that affects plant growth and yield. We report on studies aimed to evaluate the effects of five nematophagous fungi on the population dynamics of this pest in sugar beets in laboratory and greenhouse trials. The fungi chosen were Arthrobotrys oligospora, Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannulata, and Lecanicillium muscarium. In the ...

Syeda Farzana Bibi*, Lal Badshah and Siraj-ud-Din

...species should be discouraged which might become problematic in future for the indigenous flora.

...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...opping season. Their average maximum populations (5.65 and 3.20 individuals / leaf) were recorded during 3-week of May 2009. Aphis gossypii was recorded during the month of March and its maximum population (28.3 individuals / leaf) was observed during 2-week of March 2009. Likewise, Nysius inconspicuous was observed during seeds development and its maximum population (126 individuals / head) was recorded during 4-week of April 2009. Spodoptera spp, Thysano...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

... fungal conidial Pi. Foliage growth was directly related to fungal Pi and inversely to nematode Pi. Our results showed that the higher Pi of L. muscarium was associated with the lower Pf of M. incognita. Foliage growth increased with increased fungus inoculum.

...

Misbah Riaz1, Qaiser Mansoor2, Maleeha Akram1, Muhammad Ismail2, Parveen Akhtar3, Shakeel Mirza4, Mazhar Qayyum1, Afzaal Ahmed Naseem1, Faheem Tahir5 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1*

...ty and thirty one normal age matched controls were examined. Genomic DNA was extracted and amplified by PCR using specific primers for GPR54 and GNRHR splice site exons. Mutations were analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and/or sequencing. No mutation was identified in GPR54 gene, while two mutations in GNRHR gene were observed in one sporadic case of isolated HH. The first was a synonymous substitution mutation of T to G at nucleotide...

Afzaal Ahmad Naseem1*, Maleeha Akram1, Sarwat Jahan2, Kiran Afshan2, Zubaria Iqbal1, Faheem Tahir3, Mazhar Qayyum1 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1

...secretion. Nevertheless, age and developmental stage dependent changes in GH and T and LGV and their associations require further investigation. This study examined relationships between GH and LGV, T and LGV and GH and T in 540 normal healthy boys of 1 to 20 years (n=27 boys/age group). The concentrations of GH and T were measured using specific ELISA systems and LGV was calculated for ea...

 Ali Murad Rahoo1,2, Tariq Mukhtar3,*, Simon R. Gowen1, Rehana Kanwal Rahoo4 and Shaukat Ibrahim Abro5

...ship between nematode dosage and production of infective juveniles (IJ) of Steinernema feltiae and ability to locate hosts, therefore, in the present studies investigations were done on these aspects. A significantly greater emergence of IJ of S. feltiae from Galleria mellonella was observed with White traps than with modified Baermann trays. Maximum juveniles of S. feltiae emerged at 50 IJ dose followed by 100 IJ. The emergence of IJ decreased significantly a...

Adedeji A.J, Sati N.M, Pewan S.B, Ogbu K.I, Adole J.A, Lazarus D.D, Ijiwo S.J, Okpanachi A, Nwagbo I.O, Joannis, T.M and Abdu P.A

...nclude ecchymotic hemorrhages in the breast and thigh muscles, mucosa of the junction between the proventriculus and gizzard, severely enlarged and hemorrhagic bursa of Fabricius (BF) and splenomegaly. The bursa of Fabricius was harvested for laboratory investigation using AGID for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). As part of investigation to screen for co-infection of CIA and IBD in the flock, the BF was also screened for the presence of chicken anemia ...

Pan-pan Guo1, Wei Liu2, Yan Li2, Rui-yu Ma2, Wang Zaigui1*, Kai Zhan2*, Jun-ying Li2 and Sheng-nan Liu2 

...dge chickens) of similar age and weight were evaluated in the present study. We extracted DNA from blood samples and analyzed polymorphisms of HTT gene as wells as possible association with egg production performances including age at first egg (AFE), laying rate (LR), egg production (EP), egg weight (EW), average egg weight (AEW). Two polymorphisms (G50831C and G62976A) were detected and ...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

... detected during early-stage embryonic development, decreased during subsequent developmental stages then increased gradually from the stage of midgastrula onward. This study provides some basic evidence that SS1 may play a role in growth, development and metabolism in C. nasus, and provides a basis for further study of SS neuropeptide family in C. nasus.

...

Sania Subhan Qureshi, Mian Saeed Sarwar and Zahir Shah

...aily check-up for any damage to the stitches and for regular dressing of the wound with antiseptic. Antibiotics and analgesic was recommended for 3-5 days respectively. As per feedback of the owner, the wound was healed and no complication was reported from the owner.

...

Muhammad Sohail1,*, Muhammad Naeem Khan1, Naureen Aziz Qureshi2 and Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry3

... to determine the DNA damage by comet assay. The tail DNA (%), comet tail length and olive tail moment (OTM) were the parameters selected to detect DNA damage. Low doses (120 µg L-1) of each metal induced significantly higher levels of DNA strands breaks as compared to medium dose (240 µg L-1) and very low levels of DNA damaged was observed at high dose (360 µg L-1). Cu a...

Jose M. Rojas, Noemi Sevilla and Veronica Martin

...rus (PPRV) is the causal agent of a highly contagious disease that affects domestic and wild small ruminants, Peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Due to the important economical losses caused by this virus in Africa and Asia, the development of more effective, targeted and successful treatments for the disease are necessary. Like other Morbilliviruses, PPRV induces a suppression of the immune system during the acute disease, which favours the establishment and e...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...f fish meal strategic management of fisheries resources will be required.

...

Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1, Farzana Abbas1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Khalid Javed Iqbal3, Ghulam Abbas4* and Syedah Andleeb5

...nna marulius with an average weight of 948.02±5.72g was randomly stocked in duplicate earthen ponds (90×70×4ft) and fed on 40%, 35% and 30% protein diet @5% of their live body weight. In 40% protein diet treatment, male fish was injected 1st dose with ovaprim + HCG (0.3+0.3ml) and female fish was given 2nd dose after 24 hrs of intervals with ovaprim (0.2ml), while 1st dose ovaprim (0.7ml)+HCG (1.0ml) and 2nd dose ovaprim (0.7ml) was given to...

Faiqah Ramzan*1 and Muhammad Haris Ramzan2

...toneally in different dosage concentrations (1μg, 1 ng, and 10 ρg) to adult male mice twice daily for 12 days. Prostatic citric acid levels were determined photometrically. The levels decreased significantly at all tested doses. Intermittent administration of Kisspeptin –10 negatively regulates the prostatic citric acid levels in adult male mice.

...

Marryam Bakhtawar1, Qamar Saeed1* and Naeem Iqbal2

...elopment of all larval stages on all diets with maximum survival of lady bird beetle larvae on mustard aphid (76.6%) followed by on grain moth’s eggs (20%), immature mealybugs (6%) and the least survival on honey. These findings can lead to the discovery of new artificial diets for the C. undecimpunctata for the mass release in fields in order to biologically control a number of pests for an eco-friendly pest control system.

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Abdul Sattar Baloch1*, Abdul Rasheed1,2, Rahmatullah Rind1, Jam Kashif Sahito1, Rehana Buriro1, Muhammad Faisal Ayoob1 and Parkash Dewani1

...els less than 9 years of age (13.33%). Milk samples were collected to detect the antibodies against the disease, however, none of the sample was found to be positive for brucellosis. It was concluded that the brucellosis is prevalent among camels of studied areas.

...

Hira Akhter1, Bilal Aslam2*, Naveed Shahzad3, Tanzeela Farooq4, Muhammad Umer5 and Muhammad Hidayat Rasool2

...selected randomly at the age of 35-50 weeks without any direct clinical manifestation of avian influenza. Serum collected from 120 birds was tested for antibodies against H9N2 by using Haemagglutination Inhibition assay. Calculated geometric mean titers of 5.37 revealed the infectivity of the flock with H9N2 Influenza virus. To investigate the presence of virus in the study population, trachea, lung and intestine tissue samples were processed for RNA isolation...

Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed

...lity in Pakistan. Its management has largely relied upon the indiscriminate and injudicious use of conventional insecticides resulting in problem of insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, fruit contamination and health hazards. The major goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a bio-insecticide, emamectin benzoate with other conventionally used insecticides against B. zonata. The results revealed the high toxicity of emamectin ...

Abdul Mannan Babar1* and Abdul Hannan Nagi2

...ral perichondrium, cartilage, and dorsal perichondrium punch excision, leaving behind only dorsal skin.

...

Atta ur Rehman1, Sher Ali2 and Sajid Malik2*

Hussain Ahmad1, Inamullah1, Ijaz Ali2, Tauseef Ahmad3, Muhammad Tufail4, Kabir Ahmad5 and Bibi Nazia Murtaza3,6*

...h female and male of all ages, meeting our inclusion/exclusion criteria) with informed consent were included in the study. Blood samples were collected and brucellosis was detected by Standard Plate Agglutination Test (SPAT) and Serum Tube Agglutination Test (STAT) and later on confirmed by PCR. Disease was detected in 3.66% (11/300) individuals by SPAT and 2% (6/300) by STAT and confirmed in 2.66 % (8/300) by PCR. The prevalence of disease in females was foun...

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

...difference close to cleavage site (HARSSR/ GLF) and (PARSSR/GLF) for V3 and RSF/1 respectively. Results of growth kinetics in PBMCs showed that V3 replicated more efficiently comparing to RSF/1 at all-time points. Further, strain V3 induced significant up-regulation of IL-1b and IL-6 at 24 hours post infections (hpi) comparing to RSF/1. However, both strains induced significant up-regulations of interleukin (IL)-8 at 1 and 3hpi and interferon (IFN)-α lat...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole, Oloke Julius Kola and Awoyelu Hilda Elukunbi

...osorbent assay. The mean age of subjects was 39.5±0.48 years and the mean CD4+ was 384.27 ±17.77 cells/µl. Out of 278 subjects tested, 11 (4%) were positive for anti-EBV IgM. Anti-EBV IgM was highest in the age group 41-50 years, 5 (5.81%); females, 8 (4.85%); students (14.21%); and CD4+ 350-500 cells/µl, 4 (36.36%). The multivariate analysis using age and the CD4...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

...t weight gain (NWG), average daily gain (ADG), survival, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PRE), irrespective the addition of the 4TX in the diets. Among different dietary groups of the fish, % survival was not affected significantly (p<0.05). T1 showed maximum NWG (45.49±3.85), FER (0.739±0.02) and PER (36.36±1.83) when compared to other dietary treatment groups. The addition of 4TX clay in the diet...

Nighat Sultana1,2,*, Shazia Iftikhar1, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif2 and Iffat Tahira2

...66%) fodder, with an average concentration of 9.49 and 8.36ng/g respectively. Aflatoxin B2 was detected in only two samples (16%) (1.2 and 1.3ng/g), aflatoxin G1 and G2 were not found. Ochratoxin A was found more frequently in fresh (54.16%) than in ensiled (20.86 %) samples with a mean of 8.06 and 4ng/g respectively. Average values for total aflatoxins (TAFs) and OTA were below the permissible limits as per regulation of E...

Wang Tian1, Huayong Zhang1,*, Jian Zhang2, Lei Zhao1, Mingsheng Miao3 and Hai Huang1

.../L in spring. Annual average biomasses of protozoa, rotifera, cladocera and copepods were 0.13 mg/L, 0.11 mg/L, 0.63 mg/L and 0.34 mg/L, respectively. The lowest values of zooplankton species richness, abundance and biomass appeared at the site which provides the maximum concentrations of nutrients. Zooplankton communities were more correlated to phytoplankton community biomass than environmental factors. Results of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) reve...

Abdul Baset1, Qun Liu1,*, Muhammad Tariq Hanif1, 2, Baochao Liao1, Aamir Mahmood Memon1,3 and Muhammad Mohsin1

...Logistic models. The average annual landings of S. longiceps stocks were 38 353 t while the highest and lowest 65 050 t in 1994 and 26 937 t in 2009 was recorded correspondingly. The MSY was estimated using the initial proportion (IP) value of 1 because the starting catch was approximately 100% of the maximum catch. The estimated values of MSY using CEDA with the Fox model under three error assumptions of normal, log-normal and gamma were 25 860.07 t (R2 = 0.8...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

...n ongoing era, bacteriophages are an alternate possible effective remedy. Therefore, in this study the infection ability of three lytic phages SA, SANF and SA2 was determined against ten isolates of Staphylococci and one Micrococcus, isolated from five raw milk samples. Their morphological, biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA sequencing indicated that two strains were S. aureus, while all others were different coagulas...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

... collected using a two-stage sampling technique to select one hundred and sixty respondents for the study. A purposive selection of two Local Government Areas each from the two Agricultural Development Programme administrative zones (Zones C and D) in Kwara State where fish farming is prominent and well-practiced was carried out. Forty fish farmers were then randomly selected from the fish farmers’ association chapter present in each selected Local Gover...

Bahattin Cak1, Orhan Yilmaz1, Siddik Keskin2, Tahir Bayril3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*

...ody weight at a specific age. We investigated the growth characteristics of Colored Mohair goat using four nonlinear growth models. Thirty (n=22 males and n=8 females) Colored Mohair kids were used. The kids were weighed at 2-week intervals from birth to 150 days. The Monomolecular, Gompertz, Richards and Three Parameter Logistic models were used. The best model was determined by considering the root mean square error, R2 % and asymptotic correlation coefficie...

Shazia Irfan1*, Asima Rani1, Muhammad Arshad2 and Razia Bashir1

...00 individuals including age and gender matched healthy individuals (control group) and RA patients were genotyped. Detection of rs2070424 polymorphism was carried out using allele specific PCR based amplification strategy. The serum samples were analyzed for determination of metals and minerals through Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA 6600 Shimadzu). The statistical analysis indicated that non-significant association existed between SOD1 (rs2070424) ge...

Sidra-Tul-Muntaha1, Muhammad Sagheer1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan1 and Shahbaz Talib Sahi2

...e helpful in organic storage of pulses by integrating the reduced risk pesticides with plant extracts.

...

Aziz-ul-Rahman, Farooq Yousaf, Naveed Anwar and Muhammad Abubakar

...evaluation of intrinsic (age groups and sex) and extrinsic factors (season fluctuation) clearly indicated the occurrence of previous outbreaks of PPR virus due to persistency of virus in endemic regions.

...

Ahmed Zein Mahmoud, Muaz Abdellatif and Ahmed Abdalla

...nd camels (n=155) of all ages and sexes were collected in a cross-sectional study in Hail, Bagaa, Shenan and Ghazalah. Saudi Arabia. The seroprevalece was determined by NP-epitopes based competitive ELISA. The overall prevalence was 59.9%, goats had a significantly higher sero-prevalence of 75.3% compared to 59.4% obtained from sheep, whereas camels were seronegative. The prevalence of PPR was increasing from 27.9% in 2011 to 77.3% in 2016. Seropositivity was ...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...leaves (124%), fresh foliage yield (136%), dry foliage yield (16.4%), leaf length (20.2%) and leaf area (77.4%) were noted where pressmud + EM was applied as compared to its corresponding treatment without EM. Maximum Fe, Cu and Mn concentrations were found where pressmud + EM was applied. Dietary fiber, vitamin C and crude proteins were also increased in spinach with pressmud + EM application. It was concluded that EM-inocu...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

...the study area. A multistage sampling method was used to select a sample of 274 livestock farm households from 6 union councils, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the female respondents through face to face interview. Cobb-Douglas production function and cost benefit analysis were used to arrive at the main conclusion. Results show that feed cost was the major component of total cost followed by labor cost. Aver

Nusrat Habib, Safeena Inam and Abdul Hayee Qureshi

...s its production and acreage decreased both in Pakistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. During 1997 area of sunflower was 6763 hectares with decreasing trend it reached at 503 hectares during 2011-12 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. This study was conducted to quantify the factors contributing to the non-adoption of sunflower. Data was collected from 100 respondents of different categories comprised of 43 adopters and 57 non-adopters of sunflower. The probit estimates were carr...

Amjad Ali and Abbas Ullah Jan

...h same resource base average sugarcane growers can increase his yield up to 14% and most technical inefficient grower can increase his per acre yield up to 52% in order to achieve technical efficiency level (98%) of efficient fellow grower in study area. Maximum Likelihood Estimate (MLE) of technical efficiency describes that in study area one percent increase in land under sugarcane crop, seed , urea, DAP, farmyard manure, tractor hours, irrigation, pesticide...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir, Anwar Saeed Khan, Said Alam and Saeed Akhtar

...dda, adjacent to Mohmand agency. The construction of dam was started in 2009 and was completed in 2011. It is claimed that dam will irrigate 5000 acre of land in four mouza’s of district Charsadda. Present study is an attempt to determine the impact of Palai dam on the land use and cropping pattern, crop production and revenue of mouza Qilla, Tehsil Tangi, district Charsadda in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Secondary data was collected from reve...

Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed and Dilnawaz Ahmed Gardezi

...odes length, brix percentage and reducing sugar while S-08-FSD-19 showed maximum values for number of tillers and stem girth, whereas S-05-FSD-307 revealed maximum values for plant height and number of nodes. Analysis of variance revealed highly significant differences for plant height, number of tillers, leaf area, brix percentage, reducing and non-reducing sugar. A total of 79.75% cumulative variance was estimated in genot...

Hina Fatima, Lal Almas and Bushra Yasmin

...ng their inputs. The average allocative efficiency was around 75%. Approximately 36 percent of farms allocative efficiency varies from 0.20 to 0.60. Around 60% of farms allocative efficiency ranges from 0.61 to above 0.90. The under and over-utilization of inputs such as land, seeds, fertilizers and pesticides reflect the general performance of the inputs in terms of their degree of changes in cotton-melon output to change inputs reflected by the allocative ef...

Aqila Shaheen and Nadia Sabir

...ermine the effect of tillage with and without residues and organic and inorganic fertilizers on yield of wheat-maize cropping systems in the erosion-vulnerable sub-humid area. Treatments included tillage levels i.e. ST (shallow tillage), STR (shallow tillage with residues), DT (deep tillage) and DTR (dee...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...ted by employing multi stage sampling technique. At first stage, all the three tehsils (i.e.; Mardan, Takht Bhai and Katlang) of the district were selected. At second stage, two villages from each tehsil were randomly selected. In third stage, all the beneficiaries of ZTBL credit program for maize crop was selected and...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...rexpression lines on average showed 33.26% less electrolyte leakage after induction of heat stress at 42°C compared to wild type plants (WT). No significant decrease was recorded in the chlorophyll content of overexpression lines whereas significant decrease was recorded in the chlorophyll content of WT plants following heat stress. Similarly, no significant reduction in the water content of the leaves of overexpression ...

Zeeshan Haider, Inayatullah Jan and Waqar Akram 

...a collected from two villages namely Shilozan and Pewar in Kuram Agency in the northwest of Pakistan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired t-test. The results of the paired t-test reveal that farmers observed a significant difference in the overall income and income from tomato crop after the conflict as shown by larger t-values of 6.17 with (p<0.01) and 10.91 with (p<0.01) respectively. It was ma...

Muhammad Afzal1 and Murad Khan2*

...argin were used. The average total cost of small poultry farm was Rs. 3,10,067 per flock while that of medium and large farms were Rs. 4,99,002 and Rs.7,34,290 respectively. The highest cost was estimated for feed followed by chicks cost. The average gross margin of small farms was Rs. 38,556 while that of medium and large farm were Rs. 62,844 and Rs. 89,261 respectively. The highest net benefits were reported from the large...

Gökhan Kuş1,*, Hatice Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Emre Comlekci3 

...ng cytotoxicity of these agents by trypan blue assay, apoptosis inducing ability by annexin V and JC-1 staining and ultrastructural alterations by transmission electron microscopy. Our data clearly shows that ceranib-2 is more effective than C2 ceramide in promoting apoptosis. The cytotoxic effects of these components cause ultrastructural changes in A549 cells.
...
Yusuf Koc1, Ecevit Eyduran1* and Omer Akbulut2
...shki), birth weight, dam age, and dam weight. To choice the best regression tree method, goodness of fit criteria such as coefficient of determination (R2%), adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj-R2%), coefficient of variation (%), SD ratio, relative approximation error (RAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Pearson correlation between actual and predicted weaning weights were estimated for each combination. It was determined that CHA...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
...ll as polyphagous and damage wheat, oilseeds, vegetables and fruit crops. This study was carried out to observe the effect of plant extracts and semiochemicals on physiology and performance of endoparasitoid of aphids, Diaeretiella rapae. Seven different treatments of semiochemicals and plant extract were applied on aphid pests, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi and parasitoid was released. The data regarding emergence, parasitism, se...
Muhammad Arshad1*, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2*, Faisal Hafeez3, Ravaid Sherazi1 and Naeem Iqbal4
...coriandri (Das); cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L.;pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris) was evaluated in the laboratory in no choice and free choice feeding assays. In the no choice feeding assay, the stages of beetle (adults, 3rd and 4th instar) consumed more aphids than early stages (1st and 2nd instar). In the free ch...
Serkan Sayiner1* and Hilal Karagul2
...fers, together with roughage selenium levels in eight livestock regions of Northern Cyprus from two different seasons. We also evaluated whether these concentrations were adequate. Heifer blood, feed samples including concentrate feed or roughage were analysed. It was found that there are significant seasonal differences for each region and regional differences in each season were due to different feeding conditions. Heifer ...
Naime Zülâl Elekcioğlu*
...al periods of immature stages ranged from 34.98 days at 15ºC to 9.15 days at 35ºC. The lower developmental threshold for C. phyllocnistoides estimated was 8.93°C. Mortality rate of immature stages decreased as the temperature increased, ranged from 27% at 15ºC to 8% at 35°C. Longevity of both sexes were different at all temperatures studied (except 30 and 32.5°C), ranged from 22.1 days at 15...
Irshad Ahmad
... nature and extent of damage done to walnut, and the preventive measures applied under integrated pest management program (IPM) and includes the cautious use of chemical insecticides, mechanical means, cultural and biological control methods for the substantial control of walnut borer. The present study offers valuable information through IPM, which appears to be a promising approach for the control of walnut borer. Collecti...
Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Zhong-Yuan Zhang1, Yan-Guo Han1, Wei-Wei Ni1, Ming-Xing Chu2, Yue-Hui Ma2, Jian-Ning He3, Huai-Zhi Jiang4, Jia-Hua Zhang1, Zhong-Quan Zhao1, Yan Zeng1, Ri-Su Na1, Gao-Fu Wang5, Hang-Xing Ren5 and Yong-Fu Huang1*
...o-ecological zone and management history. This indicated that the frequency of those five microsatellites did not increase during the reproduction of those six breeds. Therefore, these five fecundity related microsatellites are not appropriate biomarkers for goat breeding.

 

...
Rashid Mahmood1*, Saima Asad2, Ghulam Sarwar1, Waqar Ahmad1, Ziyad Abdul Qadir1, Ammara Balouch1 and Muhammad Khalid Rafique1
... the number of pollen foragers returning to the hive entrance was recorded for 10 min duration on hourly basis between 0800 h to 1600 h for 3 days per week. The data was collected at 0800–1000 hours (early morning foraging activity), 1000-1200 hours (late morning foraging activity), 1200-1400 hours (Noon foraging activity) and 1400-1600 hours (afternoon foraging activity). The pollen collected in the pollen trap trays at regular intervals for a period of...
Syed Fazal Baqi Kakakhel*, Asad Ullah and Abdur Rashid
... in Mankial valleys. Vintage point count surveys revealed that the Markhor preferred habitats in Kalam and Mankial valleys in District Swat. Among the six sub valleys of Kalam, only Shahoo and Mahodand valleys have some population of Flare-horned Markhor whereas in Mankial the sub valleys of Basharai, Tanazgah and Bara Dara are the main habitats of this Markhor. The total number of Markhor recorded in Kalam and Mankial valleys was 136, out of which 84 were rec...
Sameera Akhtar1*, Muhammad Akram Muneer1, Khushi Muhammad1, Muhammad Yasin Tipu1, Muhammad Anees2, Imran Rashid1, Raza-ur-Rehman3 and Irshad Hussain1
...rtaken. Proteolytic cleavage site of F0 showed a cleavage motif (112RRQKR↓F117), representative of a velogenic serotype. Moreover, based on F and HN gene nucleotide sequence analysis, the isolate clustered as genotype VII closely associated to those reported from Indonesia. Further sequence analysis of hyper-variable region within F gene revealed its clustering to sub-genotype VIIe. The ...
Sumra Ashraf1, Zain ul Abdin1,*, Saqi Kosar Abbas2,Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan3, Muhammad Tahir1, Sehrish Rasool1, Maryam Anwar1 and Fiaz Hussain1
...ifferent solution percentage (25, 50, 75 and 90%). It was observed that honey fed wasp pair produces significantly more number of eggs, adults and also lived significantly longer than other treatments. Highest fecundity and longevity of parasitoid was recorded in case of parasitoids feeding on 50% honey solution followed by 25% sugar and date syrups solutions respectively. It has provided useful information for the mass rearing of this potential biocontrol
Zafrullah Khan1, Shah Alam Khan1*, Hamayoon Khan2, Naeem Khan3, Khwaja Junaid1 and Inamullah Khan1
...eat cultivars to help manage R. padi. During this study seven wheat genotypes were evaluated as antixenosis, antibiosis and tolerance. These tested genotypes were (Pir Sabaq-2004, Atta-Habib, Saleem-2000, Serin-2010, Khyber-87, Sarhad-82, and Khushal-69) in three separate experiments. Antibiosis resistance was identified to R. padi in wheat cultivar (Serin-2010), where a minimum number of R. padi progeny were produced in 11.4 days. ...
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
...e for the sustainable management of this threatened carp in Bangladesh and also neighboring countries.
...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...llected from various storage facilities of Punjab, Pakistan viz., Mandi Bahauddin-I, Mandi Bahauddin-II, Gujrat, Gujranwala and Sargodha. The activities of all esterases tested were significantly increased in all field collected phosphine-tolerant populations when compared with phosphine-susceptible population. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher esterase activities than 6
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
...lated with 1000 second stage juveniles of M. incognita. Eggplants inoculated with nematodes only served as control. Each treatment was replicated tenfold. Data were recorded after one week interval up to five weeks to record different developmental stages of M. incognita. After each harvest, neemex in combination with G. mosseae proved the most effective as the development of nematode was adversely affec...
Muhammad Luqman Sohail1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Avais1, Muhammad Yasir Zahoor2, Omer Naseer1 and Muhammad Usman Saleem3
...icate renal and liver damage. Concentration of Na, K, Ca, Mg, P, Cu and zinc in serum were significantly decreased (P< 0.05), indicating tubular damage in kidneys. 
...
Amjad Islam Aqib1, Muhammad Ijaz1,*, Aneela Zameer Durrani1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Riaz Hussain3, Saba Sana2, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Kashif Hussain1 and Syed Saleem Ahmad1
...ed remarks of research staged Staph. aureus to the most obvious pathogen and widely resistant to antimicrobials camel mastitogen. The risk factors were found soul determinants of pathogen spread among mammary glands of camels.
...
Rashid Mahmood1,*, Waqar Ahmad1, Muhamamd Khalid Rafique1, Ghulam Sarwar1 and Anjum Shahzad2
...d in twenty different managed and unmanaged apple orchards of Murree for determining relationship of different pollinator groups with crop yield. Apple is dependent on insect pollinators to set fruit. Farmers in Pakistan are generally not aware of pollination needs of apple. Results depicted a high population decline of Syrphids and Non-Apis bees. Syrphids were recorded as 12.65 to 13.85 per 250 flowers in 2013 but decreased...
Jun Cui, Xiaoxu Zhou, Zhicheng Wang, Derong Kong, Xuemei Qiu, Hongdi Wang and Xiuli Wang*
...ng a signal peptide cleavage site between amino acids 18 and 19. The CcWap65 is a hydrophilic protein and no trans-membrane topological proteins. The SMART analysis revealed that CcWap65 contains three hemopexin-like repeats (E-value < 0.05). The crucian carp Wap65 was mainly expressed in liver, with limited expression observed in intestine, skeletal muscle and kidney. CcWap65 was significantly up-regulated in the liver of crucian carp after h...
Fazal Said1,Mian Inayatullah2 and Hussain Ali3*
... of both speciesfound engaged in foraging during 20th and 25th day after initiation of blooms on sunflower due to more number of pollen and nectar. Minimum number of honeybees was recorded during initial and very last days of flowering due to less number of plants with blooms and less availability of pollens and nectar on flowers. Maximum seed production as well as oil contents was obtained from sunflower plots kept under natural conditio...
Shazia Ali, Hizb Ullah and Sarwat Jahan*
...to 4 groups according to age and gender i.e ≤13 years females, >13 years females, ≤13 years and >13 years males. Height in centimeter, weight in kilogram was measured to calculate BMIKg/m2. Serum ferritin (ng/mL) and hemoglobin (gm/dl) alongwith hormonal assay of GH (ng/mL), T3 (ng/mL), T4 (µg/dL), TSH (μIU/mL), and kisspeptin (ng/ml) was done. BMI and hemoglobin were significantly reduced...
Fermín Lopez-Uriostegui1, Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox2,*, Fabiola Lango-Reynoso1, María del Refugio Castañeda-Chavez1, Virgilio Eugenio Arenas-Fuentes3 and Fernando Vega-Villasante4
...d M. tenellum in caged-pond system were studied. A total of 120 caridean shrimp (60 M. americanum and 60 M. tenellum) had their stomach repletion analysis. Samples were taken four-hly over a 24 h cycle. In general it was found that stomach repletion index showed both species feed 24 h, but forage activity differs in intensity in the two species. In M. tenellum repletion index was greatest during t...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
... The optimum monthly average temperature and relative humidity ranged from 26 to 35 °C and 60%, respectively. The population of the fruit fly was positively correlated with the temperature and slightly negative correlation was seen for relative humidity.
...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
...prey activities. The average group size of the scaly-sided merganser was 3.91 ± 2.94 individuals, and extremely significant differences existed at different time of day (F = 25.540, df = 11, P < 0.01). The largest group size (5.22 ± 5 individuals) appeared at 16:00–17:00, and the smallest at 08:00–09:00 (2.6 ± 1.12 individuals), similar results obtained between December 2015 and March 2016, which was related to the da...
Akbar Ali1,*, Khalil Mohamed2 and Fawzia Toulah3

 

...2 women of child bearing age were included from Rafha city of Saudi Arabia. Demographic data was recorded. Specific Toxoplasma gondii IgG and IgM were detected in serum by ELISA method. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected using PCR. Most women were in the 20-29 years age group (48%), followed by 30-39 years (33%) and >40 years (14%). Overall prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii IgG was seen in 12%, with sig...

Tuli Dey, Sonnet Poddar and Mukti Barua

...apsed mass of cow was managed with lukewarm water and manual pressure replacement in non-raising condition of hindquarter. Vulvar Retention Suture (modified Bhuners suture) was given for not to recurrence of the condition. Proper postoperative treatment with antibiotic, antihistaminic and hormonal drugs were given. This case as well as the condition of the animal were followed up and gave the result of successful recovery without any complication.

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Iftikhar Ahmad, Abdul M. Saleem, Ghulam Mustafa, Khurram Ziaf, Irfan Afzal and Muhammad Qasim

...igher final germination %age (11% for gerbera and 7% for zinnia), seedling vigor (83% for gerbera and 46% for zinnia), and fresh weight (0.95 g for gerbera and 2.29 g for zinnia) and dry weight (0.3 g for gerbera and 0.5 g for zinnia) of the seedlings. These halopriming treatments (25 to 50 mM CaCl2 or 50 to 100 mM KCl and KNO3­) can be commercially used by the growers for early, uniform and healthy nursery stand of the tested species, which can ensure uni...

Idowu Fagbamila1*, Adaobi Okeke2, Micheal Dashen2, Patricia Lar2, Sati Ngulukun1, Benshak Audu1, David Ehizibolo1, Paul Ankeli1, Pam Luka1, Maryam Muhammad1

...oint in the processing stage is likely to affect meat hygiene. Waste water generated during these activities typically has high presence of organic material such as blood, fat, flesh and excreta. In developing countries like Nigeria where access to portable water is lacking, it is not uncommon to “reuse” rinse water for processing several batches of poultry carcass.Several samples were collected from three poultry slaughterhouses within Jos metropo...
Mirza Imran Shahzad1,*, Anna Iqbal2, Farrah Ali1, Nuzhat Sial3, Muhammad Ashfaq4, Abul Hasanat5 and Azra Khanum6
...d is using antimicrobial agents in various forms since last 2000 years. The present study was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of different culture microbes against each other. A total six bacteria including Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pasteuralla multocida, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureius were used against each other to evaluate their antimicrobial activities. All of bacteria were ...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...mproved weight gain, average daily gain, and feed conversion (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed in feed intake (P>0.05). The treatment groups supplemented with Allium sativum showed higher growth performance compared to Cassia angustifolia and Artemisia scoparia and control(P<0.05). Relative organ weights and relative carcass yield of treatment groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). The Relative length ...
Nadeem Rashid1,*, Masroor Ahmad Bajwa1, Mohammad Masood Tariq1, Tanvir Ahmad2, Majed Rafeeq1, Zafar Ahmad1, Mohammad Arif Awan1, Mohammad Ali1, Muhammad Zahid Mustafa1, Muhammad Shafee1, Asad Ulah1 and Amanullah Khan3
...ile mean moisture percentage was recorded as 5.3% with a significant difference (P<0.05), the pH was noted to be slightly acidic with non-significant difference (P>0.05) among seasons. Overall mean viable fungal count was 4.72 × 103±708 with a significant association (P<0.05) among seasons. Out comes from study showed that, 44.8% of the assayed samples were contaminated with A. flavus. From them,48.8% of isolates were ca...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

...al traits of alfalfa, forage crop, as factorial and based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in two cuttings during 2013-14 crop years. The experimental treatments were weed interference and non-interference in two levels (hand weeding and non-hand weeding) and plant density in four levels (20, 40, 60 and 80 stems per square meter). The results obtained in two cuttings in the third year of established alfalfa showed that the weeds ca...

 Saqib Ali1, Suliman Ali1, Lina1, Wen Zhou1, Muhammad Irfan Waris1, Ashfaq Ali2 and Man Qun Wang1,*

...mic significance, and management. Beetles in the Cerambycidae family have implicit increasing importance as pests of green forest in addition to shade trees, shrubs, and pink wood products as well as vectors of tree ailments. The alien species related to hardwood packing substances have been remarkable tree destroyers in the urban and semi-urban areas of China. In forests flora and fauna inhabitant species take action against disturbances, for instance fires i...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
... positivity was found in age group of 16-25 rather than teenage (≤16) and older age group (≥50). From the result of this febrile illness study we concluded that males and young people are more susceptible to Dengue virus infection. Moreover serotype-2 was the main causative serotype of the 2013 outbreak of dengue fever.
...

Erum Bughio1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi*1, Muzamil Memon2, Reema Bughio3, Pervez Ahmed Khoso4, Zafar Ali Khoso1 and Ali Asghar Baloch5

...nvestigate the effect of age and route of administration on the efficacy of live IBDV vaccines on broilers. A total of 120 broilers were randomly divided into six groups (20 birds in each) were coded A, B, C, D, E and F; vaccinated with various combinations of IBD through different routes. Results showed that the birds of different groups received different maternal antibodies did not induce any antibodies as recorded in all groups received vaccines at days 1,...
Irum, Akram Shah*, Sobia Wahid, Nazma Habib Khan and Qaisar Jamal
...dracunculiasis, five villages of Dera Ismail Khan including Kath Garh, Wanda Dost Ali, Chah Mundar Wala, Ketch and Gara Baloch were surveyed for a total of 206 randomly selected households, where the household heads (106 males and 100 females) were interviewed for any previous dracunculiasis lesion scars or active infections among household members. No active cases of dracunculiasis were observed in the present study. However, 11 individuals, had history of af...
Uzma Farid Durrani1,*,Sagar Mal Goyal2, Asim Khalid Mahmood1,Cathleen Hanlon3, Susan Moore3, Muhammad Waqas1 and Raheela Akhtar4
...0 puppies (< 3 months age), in rabies endemic Lahore city of Pakistan, to evaluate their maternal rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer (mRVNA). All puppies were whelped by dams regularly vaccinated with high quality inactivated rabies vaccines. Rapid Fluorescence Focus Inhibition Technique (RFFIT) revealed mRVNA titer (>0.5 IU/mL) in 29 puppies while 48 puppies showed mRVNA titer less than minimum protective level (0.2-0.4 IU/mL). RFFIT did not revea...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

...f seeds of different storage containers on growth, yield and quality of cotton genotypes. The experiment was conducted between July, 2010 to February, 2011 at Cotton Research, Training and Seed Multiplication Farm, Sreepur, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Significant variations related to genotypes and seed sources were observed for stand establishment, branch development, phenology, yield components, yield and fiber quality attributes of cotton. Yield and quality of cot...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...rs. They have had an average work experience of 16 years. Significant differences were observed among the competencies of AEOs with their participation in training programs and their higher educational qualification. The differences were considered as training needs and the AEOs need in-service training to enhance their ability in agricultural mechanization. A significantly high competency level was found in describing the agriculture machines and equipments a...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady 1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, A. Arafa1, M.K. Hassan1, M.M. Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

Waqar Islam

...us diseases and their damage caused to economically important crops are reportedly increasing every day particularly in the countries embedding tropical and subtropical conditions. Integrated management approaches involving utilization of virus resistant crops and efficient management of insect vectors can reduce this disastrous problem. However, in developing countries such strategies are...
Mohammad Salim1, Arshad Javid2,*, Faiz-ur-Rahman3, Khalid Javed Iqbal4 and FarmanUllah5
... 1.41 mm. Similarly, average greatest length of skull was 23.35 ± 0.20 mm while the total length of baculum of a single specimen was recorded 4.13 mm. The mean body mass, head and body length and forearm length of the R. lepidus specimens captured from the study area was 3.93 ± 0.21 g, 38.49 ± 0.54 mm and 38.02 ± 0.63 mm, respectively. Average greatest length of skull of two specimens was 1...

Sadiq Ali* and Ijaz Ahmad Khan

...arthenium weed. Five villages were selected and thirty locations were randomly selected from each village. The data revealed that the flora is predominated by parthenium weed with the highest relative density of 63.4% among all weeds, followed by Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Cannabis sativa L. and Chenopodium album L. with relative density of 11.37, 10.86 and 7.31%, respectively. Moreover, at different locations, the parthen...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
...previous internal sublineage differentiation of this subspecies. Of the three clades, only CAS1 was detected in all the samples from mainland China. M. m. musculus exhibited no broadly distributed clade, which might be explained by frequent human-assisted movements. Our study offers a newly detailed perspective on the subspecies distribution of M. musculus and its history of migration to eastern China.
...
Jun Gao1,2, Liang-Liang Yue3, Xianhuan Jiang1, Liju Ni4, Muhammad Aqeel Ashraf5, Yuxun Zhou,1 Kai Li1,* and Junhua Xiao1,*
...nto one monophyletic lineage. Three main clades are recovered within M. fortis: (1) North group; (2) South group; and (3) GX group. The North Group distributed on the north side of Qinling Mountains-Huaihe river line as well as the South Group was on the south. It suggests this geographic barrier played an important role in differentiation of M. fortis in China. Furthermore, the samples all from Southwest China in the GX group may be an example o...
Xiang Nong1,2,3,*, Yao-jun Yang1,2, Guang-you Yang3, Feng-zheng Chen2, Mei Tang1,2 and Gang Wang2
... was weaker than that of ageraphorone compound obtained from E. adenophorum Spreng. Through preliminary separation. However, in the experiments, we found an interesting phenomenon, that is, the dead state of mites treated with stigmasterol was similar to that of mites of the positive control group treated with fenvalerate. Furthermore, the dead state of mites treated with stigmasterol was different from that of mites of the negative control group. This ...
Maoying Zhu, Yuntao Ji, Xiaoyu Wang, Junying Pu and Changqing Qu*
...H and H in long-term storage has the potential to be helpful in commercial and clinical application of ADSCs.
...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
...logy of different life stages, beta-esterase phenotype and amplification of rDNA and partial sequence homology of ITS-1and ITS-2. Host differential tests confirmed the race 2 of M. incognita infecting passion fruit. Pathogenic relationship with the passion fruit was proved through inoculation studies and inoculated plants also produced almost similar above-ground symptoms and profuse root galling. The pathogenic potential of M. incognita on passi...
Adel Eid Mohamed Mahmoud*
... 60:40 concentrate: roughage ratio.There was no effect of bakery by-products inclusion on nutrients digestibility and nutritive values except digestion coefficients of crude protein and digestible crude protein. Ruminal pH values and ammonia nitrogen concentrations did not show any significant differences among groups.No significant differences were observed in meat chemical analysis of slaughtered animals among different groups. Animals fed BBP recorded insig...
Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*
...njection of the three AD agents. These results open the door to new small-animal studies of AD that complement and extend studies in rodents and primates.
...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Momen Khan2, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3, Shakoor Ahmad1, Ali Gohar4, Hameed Ullah5, FarmanUllah6, Arab Hussain7, Pershotam Khatri8, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Hamid Rehman1 and Azmatullah Khan1
...reeding bulls of similar age at the Semen Production Unit, Harichand, District Charsadda, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Collection of semen was done using artificial vagina (42°C) for three weeks. Semen was extended in egg yolk extender at various inclusion levels (0.0%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75 and 1.0%) of green tea extract. Testing was consummated for quality characteristics of post-thawed spermatozoa such as motility, viability and plasma membrane integrity. The data w...

Neelum Andaleeb, Munir Khan and Syed Attaullah Shah

... participation. A multistage sampling method was used to select a sample of 274 livestock farm households from 6 rural Union Councils, and a well-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from female respondents through face to face interviews. A composite index was constructed to measure the extent of women’s participation, and a linear regression model was used to determine factors affecting women’s involvement in livestock farming. Resul...

Zia Ur Rahman1*, Syed Mehar Ali Shah1, Hidayat Ur Rahman1, Fida Mohammad1, Mian Ahmad Raza1 and Ijaz Ahmad Khan2

... Oryzae, the fundamental agent of bacterial leaf blight, most of the studied rice accessions and the two commercial rice cultivars displayed susceptible reactions. Seven rice accessions viz. UoA-2, UoA-5, UoA-11, UoA-48, UoA-53, UoA-102, and UoA-123 showed moderate levels of resistance while eleven rice accessions viz. UoA-4, UoA-6, UoA-22, UoA-41, UoA-60, UoA-67, UoA-68, UoA-84, UoA-126, UoA-129 and UoA-133 displayed strong resistance against the disease. The...
Abdus-Subhan1, Qudratullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2, Muhammad Jamil Khan1, Ammanullah2, Matiullah Khan3

Muhammad Khurshid1,2*, Muhammad Nafees1, Mehmet Somuncu2

...for pasture resources management with efficient and sustainable livestock production in Northern Pakistan.

...

Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Arshad Ali Khan3*, Saeed Ahmed2, Sudheer Tariq2, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Noman2 and Nadeem Khan1 

...h some extra care and management practices in orchard and proved to be the best planting distance for citrus under agro ecological conditions of Punjab province of Pakistan.

...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...eties as affected by storage intervals at room temperature” was conducted at post harvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during the year 2015. The research work was conducted in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and two factors i.e. guava varieties (Safeda and Karela) and storage intervals (0, 3, 6, and 9 days). The data was recorded onfirmness (kg...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

...esult professed that average temperature will affect Maize crop negatively bringing about 6% reduction in maize production till the year 2030. Average minimum temperature brought about 9% increases in maize production till 2021. Increase in overall rainfall will also benefits Maize crop production. Maize production will increase by 2% by the year 2030 from the base year i.e. 1980. Water availability in the crop growth period...

Zain-ul-Aabdin Abro1*, Naheed Baloch1, Niaz Hussain Khuhro2, Waseem Akbar Qazi2, Noor Abid Saeed3

...ops i.e., bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) and ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula) using cue-lure baited traps. The male lure baited traps were arrayed at three meter height and replenished on fortnightly basis in experimentation sites. Results revealed that significantly highest (124.86) population was recorded on L. acutangula and lowest (104.725) on L. siceraria at both experimental sites throughout the course of experiment....
Mustafa Cengiz1*, Jama Hussein Ali2, H. Mehtap Kutlu2, Djanan Vejselova2 and Adnan Ayhanci3
...EA, a decrease in the damage of the liver tissue, a significant decrease activated Bax and caspase-3-positive hepatocytes, while increase in the number of Bcl-2 positive hepatocytes, a decrease in the biochemistry markers levels were found. Group 4, given EA before D-GaIN, showed better results when compared to Group 5, given EA after D-GaIN, in terms of histopathological and biochemical values. In conclusion, EA might play an important role in repairing D-GaI...

Nirbhay Kushwaha, Achuit K Singh, Brotati Chattopadhyay and Supriya Chakraborty

Recent advances in geminivirus detection and future perspectives
...tion using the bacteriophage 29 DNApolymerase allows for a reliable diagnosis of geminiviruses and presumably all viruses with small single-stranded circular DNA genomes. The results show the efficiency of this technique in characterizing viral DNA components of several geminiviruses from experimental and natural host plant sources. Nucleotide sequence data offers identification of viral molecule to strain/species level for accurate diagnosis.

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M. B. Meah

Biopesticides for crop growth and crop protection
...ted trichoderma) and bio-agents (bracon,trichogramma, ladybird beetle) and sex pheromone are in the pipeline for commercial use.

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Honnur Basha, Vinaya Hemannavar, B.Ramanujam, R. Rangeshwaran and S.Sriram 

Screening of chilli microflora and other biocontrol agents for their antagonistic effects on Colletotrichum spp. infecting chillies
...collection of biocontrol agents were tested for their antagonistic effect on Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici by dual culture test. Among the isolates of chilli microflora tested, Aspergillus flavus showed 70.2% inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and 54.9% inhibition of C. capsici.Among the isolates of Trichoderma sp. tested, T.virens (Tvs-KSD isolate) and T. pseudokoningii (Tpk-1) showed highest percent inhibition of C. gloeosporioides (69.7%) and ...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
...period of study. The bio-agents recorded belonged to Order Dictyoptera, Neuroptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera.

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K.N. Ahmed, S.H.A. Pramanik, M. Khatun A. Nargis M. R. Hasan

Efficacy of plant extracts in the suppression of insect pests and their effect on the yield of sunflower crop under different climatic conditions
...everely attacked the foliages and florets in the capitulum (inflorescence). Other pests encountered were Spilosoma obliqua (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae),Homoeosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Phyticidae),Heliothis armigera (Hb.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Monolepta signata(Oliv.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Epilachna septima Dieke. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) . The efficacy of five kinds of plant extracts or botanicals viz., Neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil, ca...

A. K.Bhattacherjee and B. K. Pandey

Dissipation of carbendazim in mango after pre- and post-harvest treatments
...red after 10 days of storage from 0.05 and 0.1 percent doses, respectively. The corresponding values in fruit pulp after same days of storage were 0.51 and 1.05 mg kg . The residual half-life values of carbendazim in whole fruit were calculated as 4 and 3 days at both the concentrations from pre harvest spray and post harvest dip treatment, respectively. Pre and post harvest interval of 3 and 7 days were suggested from 0.05 ...

Palash Mondal1 , Amitava Konar2 and N. Johnson Singh3

Evaluation of insecticidal schedules for the management of insect pests of potato
...d 70 DAP(T ).Yield of damaged tuber caused by soil pests was found maximum in control plot and it was recorded lowest in T treatment which received soil application of phorate 10G at 40 DAPand foliar spray with imadichloprid and chlorpyriphos + cypermethrin at 55 and 70 DAP, respectively. But soil application of phorate at planting followed by spraying of chlorpyriphos, azadirachtin and Bt (T) was not as effective as T.

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S. K. Mukhopadhyay and M. V. Santha Kumar

Studies on the biosafety of botanical insecticides to native natural enemies of mulberry ecosystem
... coccinellid bio-control agents (Micraspis crocea, Micraspis discolor, Brumus suturalis and Scymnus bourdilloni ). All botanicals tested showed least mortality and was on par with unsprayed control. Dimethoate (0.1%) was highly toxic causing 100% mortality. Whereas, dichlorvos (0.1%) was least toxic in comparison to dimethoate. Botanical insecticides tested in different conc./combinations are compatible with natural enemies and may be incorporated in IPM in mu...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
... attention as biocontrol agent due to the fact that it is effective against a large number of soil-borne plant pathogenic fungi, suppressive effects on some root nematodes without adversely affecting beneficial microbes like Rhizobium and capable of promoting growth of certain crops. There are two major methods of inoculum production of Trichoderma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is grown on ...

1Parvin Noor and 2Md. Nashir Uddin

Morphological changes of different castes of the subterranean termites (Odontotermes proformosanus) in fungus combs of termitophiles
...ober of 2006 to 2008 Average lengths and standard deviation (mean±SD) of the eggs were (0.66 ± 0.09), width (0.04 ± 0.07) mm and egg shape ratio is 0.53. Eggs were mostly of broad type. Distinct quiescent period was also observed. Morphological changes completed within 1st to 5th stages. In the 1st stage, total length ranged from 0.8-1.5 mm. Terminal form of workers an...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...n-specific integrated management schedule of the parasite, crops, other than sugarcane, grown in the target area were evaluated for their potential as trap and catch crops of the parasite. Twelve crops, selected on the basis of germination induction test of A. pedunculata seeds on root exudates as compared to that of three germination inducing chemicals (viz.; NaOCl, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and GR24-a strigol analogue) and growth of the para...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...inoculated with second stage juveniles of M. incognita @ 2J2/g soil. The exposure of M. incognita eggs and juveniles to the culture filtrates showed high inhibition in egg hatching and caused high mortality of juveniles than the control (P< 0.05). The microorganisms which caused high nematicidal activity also showed antifungal activity in dual plate culture test in vitro. All the antagonists showed reduction in root knot and root rot disease and promote pla...

K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
...od of all four nymphal stages lasted for 32.6 ± 4.17 days at an average room temperature of 28 ± 2ºC and 70-75% RH during September, 2009. Male mealybug has a short life span of 3.0 ± 0.21 days. Females live for nearly 80.7 ± 10.43 days with an oviposition period of approximately 21 days. This mealybug is capable of active movement throughout its adult life. The stripped mealy bug, Ferrisia v...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...r pest causing severe damage to the foliage in the conservatories (borojas) of West Bengal. The seasonal incidence of A. rugosa in boroja was recorded during 2003-2004. A. rugosa adults were active in the boroja throughout the year with two peaks, one in pre-monsoon and another in post-monsoon i.e., period prior initiation of winter season. During the faunastic survey in betelvine, a new species of Aleurocanthus (description...

S. Subharani, S. S. Thorat, N. Abem, L. Amit Kumar and T. K. Singh 

A database on parasitoid of insect pests of crops in Manipur, India
...r and its biology etc. Image of the parasitoid species are also provided for helping in easy identification of the species. Keywords: Database, insect-pest, parasitoids, Manipur
 

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S. K. Dutta, S. Roy Chowdhuri, D. Pandit and A. K. Bajpai

Rot diseases of muga host, Som (Persea bombycina) in Assam, India
...fection. Correlating the age of Som plants with susceptibility rot infection was found to be maximum in 10 years old plantation. Keywords: Rot disease, Som, Muga, Heart rot, Canker rot, Phellinus contigus, Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Assam
 

 

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Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...egrated plant disease management framework for sustainable crop production. A considerable number of biocontrol agents have been established successfully for their bioconrol potential including strains belonging to bacterial genera such as Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces and Bacillus, and fungal genera such as Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Ampelomyces, Candida and Coniothyrium. Trichoderma and Pseudomonas fluorescens ar...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
...ality by applying two bioagents, viz., P. fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. P. fluorescens inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1 was applied once at pre-monsoon, twice during pre- and post- monsoon and four times at quarterly intervals. T. harzianum inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1was applied at quarterly intervals. Bordeaux mixture (BM) was used to compare the treatments in preventing the intensity of foot rot. The results revealed that minimum foot rot d...

Debjani Chowdhury, P. C. Paul and B. Dasgupta

Management of leaf spot of Centella asiatica (Thankuni) caused by Alternaria sp. and target leaf spot of Rauvolfia serpentina (Sarpagandha) caused by Corynespora cassicola
...25%) and four biocontrol agents (Trichoderma viride at 107 cfu / ml, T. harzianum at 107 cfu / ml, Pseudomonas fluorescens at 108 cell / ml and Biomonas-a formulated product of P. fluorescens preparation at 0.15% for three times at an interval of 15 days. The results revealed that the lowest percent disease incidence (PDI) of leaf spot of Thankuni caused by Alternaria sp. and highest yield in number of leaves per sq.M was recorded where carbendazim was sprayed...

Amitava Konar, Palash Mondal and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of potato pests in different dates of planting in Gangetic plains of West Bengal, India
...althy tubers. The rat damage was not so influenced by different dates of planting. But, the total tuber yield was obtained maximum in second date (4th week of November) which was closely followed by 1st, 3rd, 4th and 5th dates of sowing.

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K.N. Ahmed , M.A. Al-Helal, N-E-P. Khanom, S. Bulbul

Control strategies of papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink infesting vegetable crops in Bangladesh
...ble and inedible. The damage appeared to be in the range between 70 and 95 per cent. Generally young plants die due to heavy infestation and colony formation of the mealybug. P. marginatus is a polyphagous pest attacking several agricultural, horticultural crops, ornamental plants and weeds of economic value. The papaya mealybug feeds on the sap of the plants by inserting its stylets into the epidermis of the leaf as well as into the fruit and stem. In doing s...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
...-friendly insect pest management practices emphasize the host plant resistance, preparation and application methods of new botanicals and microbial pesticide formulations, evaluation of field bio-efficacy and conservation of biological agents, cultural control measures, genetic techniques and sex pheromones technology. In tea husbandry, cultural control measures such as plucking, pruning, shade regulation, field sanitation, ...

Nilesh Suresh Gole and Bijan Kumar Das

Biology of Dichromia sagitta (Fabricius) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), a serious pest of Indian ipecac, Tylophora indica
...easonality, extent of damage and biologoy of D. sagitta on T. indica. The larvae were active almost throughout the year, fed voraciously on leaves and flowers causing extensive damage to T. indica during June and December. Eggs were laid singly or in batch of 2-3 on younger leaves (mostly on under surface) or on young shoot tips. Life cycle was completed in 41-46 days during January- February and 26-32 days during June-July....

SK Fashi Alam, Atanu Seni and Ajoy K Sahoo

Biology of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Pseudococcidae: Hemiptera) on sprouted potato and brinjal plant
...to respectively. The average oviposition period was 5.89±0.89 days and 7.5±0.52 days on brinjal plant and sprouted potato tubers. Fecundity rate was 205¬278 eggs/female.


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A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...ing effective biocontrol agent [Acerophagus papayae (Noyes and Schauff)] through ICAR-NBAII (National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Insects)-TNAU was emphasized as the existing biocontrol agents could not give relief. Later, when the exotic parasitoid was imported by NBAII, Bangalore, the papain industry wholeheartedly supported the training programmes by deploying its field staff in release and multiplication of the pa...

S.K. Sahoo

Incidence and management of mustard aphid (Lipaphis ery-simi Kaltenbach) in West Bengal
...s incidence and their management during the winter seasons of 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12 at the Pulses and Oilseeds Research Station, Berhampore, West Bengal (India). The natural appearances of the aphid on the yellow sarson variety, Binoy (B-9) was observed from 52nd standard week, with the peak population on 6th standard week and the aphid disappeared after 10th standard week. Among the different chemical insecticides evaluated for their bio-efficacy again...

Goutam Samui and Shantanu Jha

Branch gall of mango (Oligotrophus mangiferae Keiffer) its bioecology and management
...pulation dynamics and management of this pest. Branch gall is a univoltine species. Emergence of adults from gall could be found from 2nd week of February, which continued up to 2nd week of March. Incubation, larval and pupal period lasted for 3-5 days, 315 days and 30-45 days, respectively. Eggs were laid singly throughout the young vegetative shoots by puncturing the tissue. A full grown larva was yellow in colour with a clear dark brown constriction on head...

Md Riton Choudhury, Koushik Brahmachari, Sudeshna Kar and Rupayan Deb

Integration of weed management practices in rice-potato-groundnut cropping sequence
...ect of different weed management measures (e.g. hand weeding, herbicides, mulching etc.) on the yield of crops in sequence and cost effectiveness of different weed control measures. Rice exhibited the maximum yield when treated with two hand weedings, but it may be profitably replaced by the application of herbicides. From the point of eco-safety measures and economy, combination of hand weeding and mulching can be judiciously recommended in potato and groundn...

M. A. Al-Helal, K. N. Ahmed, N-E-P. Khanom, and S. Bulbul 

Observations on papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Willink (Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae) damag-ing some crops in Bangladesh
...re papaya fruits and foliages from BCSIR Vegetable Garden during March, 2011. It is a small polyphagous insect pest sucking saps from the attacking fruits and leaves. P. marginatus passes through egg and three nymphal stages to become adult. Generally, three and four nymphal instars occur in case of female and male mealybug, respectively. The adults are most active in warm, dry and humid weather. The male adult mealybugs pos...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...e filtrate of biocontrol agents and found both positive and negative effect on seed germination, plant growth and vigour. Maximum increase in germination by 13.64% (chilli), shoot length by 59.69% (tomato), root length by 84.51% (cauliflower) and biomass by 46.55% (cauliflower) were obtained by the isolate B16 followed by B14 and B13. However, the isolate, B18 showed negative result with maximum reduction in germination by 25.56% (cauliflower), shoot length by...

M.A. Pendse, P.P. Karwande and M.N. Limaye

Past, present and future of nematophagous fungi as bio-agent to control plant parasitic nematodes
... their potential as a bioagents to control nematodes. Their inconsistent success in control of nematodes in field trials, however, is enigmatic. This paper takes a review of the researches done by various workers on the diversity, morphology ecology, physiology of nutrition, trap formation and mechanism of nematode capture as well as probable causes of death. The review traces the shift in the areas of research as well as ups and downs in the interest shown by...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
... at the various growth stages of the cowpea plant in the two seasons. Therefore the advent of increased fauna on cowpea established in this study portrayed a need to find possible ways to reduce the emission of Greenhouse gases in the region in order to ameliorate the effects of induced global warming on cowpea production in the country and also provide effective control of the identified pest in order to maintain or stall resurgence. 

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A. Sajeena and T. Marimuthu

Efficacy, stability and persistence of Ganosol, a Ganoderma based fungicide against plant pathogens
...p to three months of storage. Surprisingly, spraying cowpea plants with the formulation as simultaneous spray reduced the number of lesions produced by Groundnut Bud Necrosis virus in cowpea by 88.39% when compared to the inoculated control, suggesting the antiviral potential of the formulation. 

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S. Patra, V.W. Dhote, SK F. Alam, B.C. Das, M.L. Chatterjee and A. Samanta

Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage under new alluvial zone of West Bengal
...r natural enemies on cabbage were studied at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Kalyani, West Bengal(India) during rabi season of 2011-12 and 2012-13. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Cabbage (cv Rareball) seedlings were transplanted in the plot of 9 m2 area with 45cm x 45cm spacing. Observation was recorded at weekly interval from randomly selected five plants /plot. Peak...

D.K. Hazra, Megha Pant, S.K. Raza and P. K. Patanjali

 

Formulation technology: key parameters for food safety with respect to agrochemicals use in crop protection
...L to ME), increased coverage of applied surface area (EC to ME/Nano-formulations), reduced wastage (Dust/WP to Con-trolled Release Formulations) and dose rates of same pesticides applied to improve food quality with minimum pesticide residues. 

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Lakshman Chandra Patel and Chandan Kumar Mondal

Management of causal agents of chilli leaf curl complex through bio-friendly approaches
...t the cost effec-tive management schedule to minimize the crop loss. Seven treatments were taken up for study including two chemicals i.e. profenophos and diafenthiuron, three ecofriendly approaches i.e. garlic extract, spirit and alternate use of garlic with spirit, one predator insect Chrysoperla carnea and untreated control. The lowest population of thrips, mites and white fly was recorded with application of diafenthiuron at 15 days interval from seedling ...

Dinesh Kachhawa and Sahidur Rahman

Factors influencing incidence of red spider mite of tea, Oligonychus coffeae (Nietner) in Assam
...). Whereas the mo-tile stage of red spider mite, O. coffeae and eggs had a negative and significant correlation with average relative humidity (r = -0.357 and r = -0.282 for mites and eggs, respectively). 

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Shams Ur Rehman, Muhammad Arif and Abdul Mateen 

 

Soil-borne viruses in major potato growing areas of Pakistan
...akand divisions. The average symptoms based incidence in Hazara divi-sion for PMTV was 8.83% and TRV was 6.80% while in Malakand division the average symptoms based inci-dence for PMTV was 8.46% and TRV was 9.95%. DAS-ELISA based average incidence in Hazara of PMTV and TRV was 17.34% and 11.99% respectively. The average DAS-ELISA based incidence in Malak...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...parasitic to parasitic stage in ear cockle nematode and molya disease of wheat. Currently attempts are being made to utilize RNAi technology to identify the genes targets for the management of root knot and cyst nematodes. In this paper some of the success stories of the technology developed by the scientists at IARI are discussed.
 

 

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Goutam Samui and S. Jha

Biology, seasonal incidence and management of Apsylla cistellata Bucton. on mango in West Bengal
...ergence of nymphs. To manage the shoot gall psylla, mechanical control (Pruning) and insecticidal control measure were taken up in the district of Murshidabad. In mechanical control, both pruning of 15 cm and 30 cm of affected shoots resulted in the formation of lower number of gall/shoot as compared to control. But pruning at 30c m had been found to be most effective in managing the psyllid gall. In insecticidal control, lowest number of galls were recorded p...

Amitava Konar and N. Johnson Singh

Occurrence of aphids on various potato germplasms in eastern gangetic plains of West Bengal
... species declined due to age of the crop and increasing effect of temperature. It is also concluded that K. Chandramukhi was susceptible to aphid, and K. Jyoti and K. Jawahar were tolerant to aphids while K. Chipsona-1, K. Chipsona-2 and Atlantic germplasms of potato were quite resistant. Therefore, it may be inferred that Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Chopsona-2 and Atlantic needed only one or two insecticide application at 15 days interval during late January to p...

Someshwar Bhagat and Sitansu Pan

Comparative ecological behaviour of some pre- and post-tsunami isolates of Trichoderma harzianum and T. viride from Andaman & Nicobar Islands
...oiur of these biocontrol agents. All the isolates showed better parasitic ability and rhizosphere colonization when the competition of other organisms withdrawn compared to natural and sun dried soil. Both competitive parasitic behaviour and rhizosphere colonization was low in post-Tsunami isolates of Trichoderma. The chlamydospore inoculum was found best in percentage colonization of sclerotia of boh R. solani and S. rolfsi...

Dhananjoy Mandal

Eco-friendly management of mealybug and wilt in pineapple
...for eco-friendly pest management of mealy bug, Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell in pineapple, the treatments were: T1 [Farmers’ practice: phorate 10 G @ 20 kgha-1 during planting + monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.03% at 100 DAP + endosulfan 35% EC @ 0.02% during 150-180 DAP]; T2 [Treating planting materials (basal portion) with monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.02% + phorate 10 G @ 15 kg ha-1at 100 DAP + Neem oil 1500 ppm spray @ 2.5 m/L-1 at 150 DAP]; T3 [Treating planti...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...ulture and controlled management of a single major soil borne pathogen or pest across vast cultivated area but not for the peasant farming or the pest complex ridden unaided agriculture as in India. PA is not about an abstract of characterization. The specific values indicating variations in population at exact grids and helping the individual farmer in decision-making in pest management at varied pesticide doses depending o...

Partha Pratim Ghosh and 2N. C. Mandal 

Some disease management practices for bacterial wilt of potato
...ffect of some disease management practices in potato, an investigation was conducted in slightly acidic (pH 5.62) loamy sand soil with medium fertility status in a Randomised Block Design with three replicates and seven treatment modules, as described in Materials & Methods. Investigation revealed that T1 (TPS whole tuber planting) and T4 (supervised management - cowdung @ 40 ha-1 at land preparation + seed piece tuber t...

T. P. Ghosh, D. Mandal, S. Laha and M. K. Dasgupta 

Dynamics and severity model in managing fungal diseases
...le decision rules for management early in the season as soon as the disease appears in one case, and when some intensity has been achieved in all other cases. Where validated this approach may be a useful tool in plant protection, especially supervisory management and appropriate IPM.
 

 

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K. K. Hegde and B. S. Nandihalli 

Bioefficacy of some indigenous products in the management of okra fruit borers
...recorded higher fruit damage of 55.70 and 52.10 per cent, respectively. GCKE was significantly superior in reducing the fruit borer damage to the tune of 64.83 per cent with higher fruit yield of 35.87 q.ha-1. The highest incremental benefit: cost ratio was noticed in endosulfan treatment (15.00) followed by treatment involving NSKE alternated with cow urine 10% (13.00), repeated sprays of GCKE (10) and NSKE alternated with ...

B. S. Nandihalli

Utilization of botanicals in the management of the coconut perianth mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer
... of botanicals in the management of the coconut perianth mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer was conducted at Main Agricultural Research Station, Dharwad, Karnataka during 2003-04 with nine treatments. The results of the present study indicated that among different botanicals, NSKE 5 percent was found significantly superior in reducing the mite population with higher healthy nuts (81 nuts 4 bunches), least percent of damaged nut...

Shekharappa

Biological control of earhead caterpillar, Helicoverpea armigera Hubner in sorghum
... @ 30 kg.ha-1 for the management of ear head caterpillar (H. armigera) in sorghum ecosystem of University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad. The mycoinsecticide N. rileyi was highly infective at both the dosages 1x108 conidia per litre & 2x108 conidia per litre against H. armigera as compared to Ha NPV 250 LE per hectare and chemical control in mitigating the pest population as well as in obtaining the higher yield.

V. S. Desai, S. D. Desai, A. J. Mayekar and V.G. More 

Infestation of coconut eriophyid mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer in Konkan region of Maharashtra
...was reported to cause damage in coconut plantations in Konkan region of Maharashtra from January 2002. Three orchards from this area were surveyed to record infestation level of this pest in April and October of 2004 and March 2005. The survey indicated that the infestation was higher in Thane district followed by Sindhudurg district.
 

 

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N. Mandi and A. K. Senapati 

Integration of chemical botanical and microbial insecticides for control of thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood infesting chilli
...d to be effective for management of thrips and it gave highest marketable yield, higher cost benefit ratio and percent reduction in thrips’ population.
 

 

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V. N. Jalgaonkar, M. S. Gawankar, V. W. Bendale and P. D. Patil

Efficacy of some insecticides against cashew tea mosquito bug Helopeltis antonii Sign
...ative insecticide for management of Tea Mosquito Bug relative to the recommended spray schedule. The results indicated that out of six treatments selected, the treatment of 0.003% lambda-cyhalothrin was observed significantly superior over all other treatments followed by 0.01% triazophos that was also significantly superior over rest of the treatments.
 

 

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S. Pal and I. Sarkar

Pests infesting ornamental plants in hilly region of West Bengal
...nt inflicting serious damage to Carnation, Gerbera, Gladiolus, Chrysanthemum and Straw flower. The green semilooper, Plusia orichalcea caused damage to Gerbera and Gladiolus by feeding on the leaves. The tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera litura) was serious on Gladiolus and Anthurium. Cutworm (Agrotis segetum) damaged the seedlings of Gladiolus. Among the Coleopteran pests, the Blister beetl...
Bao-Ming Ge* Dai-Zhen Zhang, Qiu-Ning Liu, Sen-Hao Jiang, Jun Cui, Chun-Lin Zhou and Bo-Ping Tang
...ify;">The effect of dike age on distribution of pill bug (Armadillidium vulgare Latreille, 1804) in the forests was studied at a reclaimed coast in Yancheng, China. The aggregated distribution of A. vulgare population was found by Taylor’s power law and Iowa’s patchiness regression methods in each season (P< 0.001). The abundances were markedly affected by habitat type (F5,120 = 49.409, P < 0.001) and season (F3,...
Beenish Zahid1,*, Asim Aslam2, Zafar Iqbal Chaudhry2 and Raheela Akhtar2
...n 2nd week of age through eye drops. Group B specific antibody negative (SAN) chicks were challenged with same dose at 2nd week of age. While the group C and D was unchallenged control containing commercial and SAN chicks. The Blood samples were collected from group A, B, C and D on 3rd, 5th and 7th day of post infection for biochemical analysis. The Albumin and total pr...
Muhammad Mansoor, Zaigham Abbas and Nageen Husssain*
...ucose level and renal damage. We detected increased symptoms of arthritis and gastrointestinal tract involvement in gluten containing diet group compared with standard diet disease control group. ANA autoantibodies, C3c and renal damage between gluten and standard diet group was non-significant. The remission of SLE manifestations was observed in prednisone treated group except renal damage
Bushra Niaz1,*, Tahir Zahoor1, Muhammad Atif Randhawa1 and Amer Jamil2
...of natural antimicrobial agents to control prevalence of food borne pathogens in final packaged food products as well as for food preservation/ biocontrol, this study was designed to isolate lactoferrin from milk of camel. Cation exchange resin (CM-Sephadex C-25) was used for the isolation of lactoferrin using the fast protein liquid chromatography. The lactoferrin was further characterized through sodium dodecyl sulphate-po...
Song Li1,* and Zuojian Feng2
... with a comparison of pelage characteristics. Results indicated that the allopatric samples from Xizang were obviously different from all those previously defined in Yunnan. Therefore, we describe them as new subspecies P. a. muzongensis subsp. nov. Discussion on the relationships between the differentiation of P. albiventer and its environmental evolution in southwestern China are also provided.
...
Hai-Ji Zhang1, Di Zhang2, Dong-Min Hou1 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...s to cope with food shortage, mainly by decreasing body mass, thermogenesis and serum leptin levels.
...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...re at different growth stages such as 1st node (crop 1), at stem elongation (crop 2) and at end of tiller (crop 3). Maximum aphid infestation was recorded in all crops in the 3rd week of February when crops were at booting stage (crop 1), at flag leaf stage (crop 2) and at 2nd node stage (crop 3). Decline of aphid populat...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
...ve the poor quality roughages, exogenous fibrolytic enzyme may play important role by enhancing digestibility of fibre. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of varying level of fibrolytic enzyme in concentrate ration on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and composition, and diet digestibility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Four lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes of 3rd and 4th parity and milk production of 8±2.3 kg/day were...
Mousa Keshavarz1*, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi2
...y coasts between the average low tide and a maximum depth of 5 m. In the current study, it was monitored monthly 217 individuals from Bandar Lengeh (26˚32ʹ28̋ N, 54˚52ʹ28̋ E; water depth: 0.5 to 1 m) during March to September, 2014. Their genders were obtained by dissection. The aim of this study was to determine the sexual ratio in their population and to see if they effect the operational sex ratio (OSR). The number of males and...
P.P. Ghosh*, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...lts indicated all the management approaches under study performed significantly superior to farmers’ practice in terms of reduction in disease severity (32.8-43.6%), yield increase (20.9% - 26.8%) and benefit-cost ratio. Integrated approach was the best approach followed by prophylactic and curative soil disinfestations. Thus, for the present micro-level situation vascular bacterial wilt malady can be addressed by prophylactic application of lime at 500 ...
1Sitesh Chatterjee, 1Chirasree Gangopadhyay and 2Santosh Kumar Roy
...f nursery that can be managed better way as compared to transplanted field. In the present study, chlorantraniliprole granule was applied both in seedbed and transplanted field along with spraying of some new generation insecticides like indoxacarb, flubendiamide, spinosad and chlorantraniliprole to test their efficacy against different rice insect-pests. The study found that whorl maggot can be managed properly in seedbed a...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
... 15 – 30% grain damage during storage. An attempt was made to identify a practical and low cost solution of such damage with the active participation of village women responsible for the storage. Proven biological, chemical and botanical (vegetable oil) approaches of management...
Obaidullah1, Zafar Ali Shah1* and Sami Ullah2
...nm, respectively using ImageJ software. Lapachol, copper and silver salts along with their synthesized nanoparticles were evaluated for their antibacterial study against Staphylococcus. aureas, Escherichia. coli and Bacillus. subtilis. The results obtained for their comparative evaluation revealed that silver-Lapachol and copper-Lapachol nanoparticles have greater antibacterial efficacy against all three aforementioned strains of bacteria at 5 µg/ml, 40 ...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...ame promising biocontrol agents. A total of 7 weed plants include Commelina benghalensis, Cyperus rotundus, Crotalaria verrucosa, Digera muricata, Sida cordifolia, Ipomoea pestigridis and Trianthema portulacastrum were selected for in vitro studies. Fungal isolates namely Ascochyta cypericola, Bipolaris sp., Chaetomium globosum, Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia lunata, Curvularia tuberculata, Fusarium...
Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
...from our study set the stage of further studies to identify the constituents in ethanol extracts, responsible for hair growth promoting effects.
...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...1 log2 until 28th day of age, the Geometric mean titers (GMT) for H5 were increased from the 7th day of age using both antigens (RE-5 antigen) and (S75/Egy/2015 antigen). Generally, GMT post-challenge was increased as the chicks overcome the infections. In conclusion, our results indicate that vaccination at 5th day old with baculovirus H5+ND inactivated vaccine can interfere with MDA of H5 vaccine and has negative impact on...
Süleyman Kök*
...s (79 cattle) in the villages. According to the estimated average heterozygosity values for ex-situ breeding program and smallholders in the villages, the difference between the cattle were found meaningful (P<0.05). The observed average heterozygosity (Ho) value was calculated as 0.4077±0.1922, while the expected heter...
Mehmet Avci1, Recep Aydin1,* and Jale Metin Kiyici2
...d ration of chopped roughage (5-7 cm) and concentrate calf starter feed and the calves in control group were supplied with natural roughage and concentrate feed separately. The calves were supplied with milk at about 8% of their birth weights and weaned at 49th day. Mixed chopped and separate natural supply of roughage and concentrate feed did not created any significant differe...
Erol Akkuzu1,*, Hidayet Güzel2 and Özkan Evcin1
...amics and severity of damage in a forest. This study investigated the effects of stand composition and site index of pine forests on Ips sexdentatus (Boerner) populations. Two main objectives of this study were a) to compare the effects of two different black pine stands of site index-I (high site productivity) and site index-III (low site productivity) and b) to compare the pure and mixed pine forests concerning the abundance and body length of I. s...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Sultan Ayaz2, Sajid Umar4, Muhammad Luqman Sohail5,*, Muhammad Shafee6, Ikramullah Khan7, Mumtaz Ali Khan1, Azmat Ullah Khan8Naimat Ullah Malik1 and Abdul Razzaq9
...ng children of different age groups with highest disease prevalence in children of less than 5 years of age (21.40%) and lowest in children of 11-15 years of age (15.99%). Cryptosporidium was significantly higher (P<0.05) in study subjects having livestock animal contact and persistent diarrhea, highlighting its zoonotic potential from livestock animals to human beings in the stu...
Rafi Ullah1, Sarzamin Khan1,*, Abdul Hafeez1, Asad Sultan1, Nazir Ahmad Khan2, Naila Chand1 and Naseer Ahmad1 
... FCR and dressing percentage were similar among the all groups (P > 0.05). Albumin was higher in D1 group in comparison with other groups (P < 0.05), however, other blood parameters and carcass characteristics indicated no significant differences (P > 0.05). Cost per kg of feed gradually decline with increasing dietary level of SCM inclusion levels (P < 0.05), indicating higher economic benefit. However, the gross return per bird and profit per kg ...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Moez Ayadi1 and Shabana Naz2
... inorganic matter percentage in colostrum was found in treated group compared to the control. The body weight of lambs in treated group at 30 and 60 days was significantly (P<0.05) higher when compared with the control. In conclusion, trace mineral boluses supplementation to pregnant ewes at late gestation improved minerals status of the ewes and their newborns at parturition and consequently enhanced body weight.
...
Wenqiao Hui1, Jishun Tang1, Dejian Zhu1, Qian Ban2* and Sheng Chen1*
...on. In domestic animals, age at attainment of puberty is an event that contributes significantly to lifetime reproductive efficiency. Anhui white goat is a native Chinese breed, with the characters of early time puberty onset and high fecundity. However, the molecular mechanism of puberty onset has not been well understood. It has been demonstrated leptin act as a critical metabolic cue linking adipose and the onset of puberty. In the present study, we first a...
Muzammil Sattar
...lete all developmental stages in shortest period of time. Insects reared on different concentrations of proteins. Insects rear on different diets compared on the basis of egg to adult survival, female (%) and pupal weight (g) with low and high protein concentrations.
...
Ahmad Ali1,*, Sheikh Muhammad Azam2, Khalid Javed Iqbal1, Ghulam Mustafa1 and Mujahid Kaleem3
...re collected from zoo management. In two years study Tiger breed once and produce four cubs (female) while in nine years it breed three times; first three cubs (one male and two female), two and one cubs were produced in 2003, 2005 and 2006, respectively. Six days estrous cycle and 107 days gestation period was observed in tigress. Mortality of one cub of 32 days in August, 2013 and second cub in Jannaury, 2014 of 173 days was observed due to congenital abnorm...
Nasar Khan1,2, Fahad Ali3,7, Sulaiman Bahadar5,*, Khalil ur Rahman3, Abdul Aziz3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Daud6, Azam Hayat5 and Mujaddad ur Rehman5
... is the main etiological agent of chronic hepatitis B, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis. A total of 659 HBsAg ELISA positive patients out of 16825 patients during July to October, 2013 were screened for HBV by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Out of 659, 522 (79.21%) were found positive for HBV, of which 318 (over all 4.4%) were male, while 341 (over all 3.55%) were female. The HBV PCR positivity rate was 80.18% (n=255) in males and 78.30% (n=2...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar2,*, Tanveer Hussain2, Rashid Saif2, Sadaf Rashid3, Hanan Sarfraz4, Abbas Ali Shah3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...e demographic values for age, employment and marital status did not differ significantly among case and control groups. Exonic regions of BDNF gene were sequenced. In-silico analysis was performed to detect the possible disease causing effect of genetic variants with OCD. Sequencing of BDNF gene showed one change G>A at position c.196 (rs6265) resulting in a nonsynonymous change from valine to methionine. We found only one homozygous and heter...

Umer Wahid1, Shahid Ali2* and Nihal Ahmad Hadi3

...elected employing multistage sampling technique. An interview schedule was used for data collection during November-January, 2016. Maximum likelihood technique was used for the estimation of the Cobb-Douglas stochastic frontier production model. After running various econometrics software the output of the Frontier 4.1 was found good fit. The findings of the study showed that technical efficiency ranges from 0.83 to 0.99 with the mean technical efficiency of 0...

Naveed Muhammad, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullah Jan, Irfan Ullah, Muhammad Ibrahim and Salman Khan

Muhammad Mansoor1, Amanullah1, Zafar Islam2*,Sher Muhammad3, Muhammad Umair4, Mehmood Ayaz5, Asghar Ali Khan6, Muhammad Asif2 and Ya Sakina3
...(NUYT)- 2007 with an average yield of 1092 kg ha-1 at 12 locations across country, with highest grain yield of 3620 kg ha-1 at Agricultual Research Station ARS, Mingora, Swat, Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa. Again in NUYT-2008, Inqalab Mung outclassed among 13 candidate lines across 13 locations. It gave the highest grain yield of 1560 kg ha-1 at NIAB, Faisalabad. Provincial Seed Council (PSC), Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa, approve...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

... the citrus waste percentage in the feed of the broiler was increased, its feed intake and the body weight decreased but the citrus waste has non-significant effect on the feed conversion ratio of the broiler birds. The results also showed that citrus waste in the feed have positive effect on the antioxidant status of the broiler birds. The activity of the superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in the broiler blood was increased as the citru...
Oaj Khurshid1*, Naureen Aurangzeb1, Ayaz Khan1, Alia Naz1, Abdullah khan1, Sobia Nisa2 and Sehrish Sajawal3
...y wise as solid waste management option for the recycling and reuse of the organic remains.
...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...SC had developed the linkages of the respondents with agriculture research and water management department in the study area. Top learned skills from this approach were fertilizer application, improved agricultural technology and sowing methods. It is suggested that there is a need that FSC has to establish the linkages of the farmers with the entire line department associated with the far...
Ayesha Ilyas1, Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan2,* and Abdul Qadir1,*
... be considered in the management plans for the peach fruit fly.
...
Aneela Qureshi1, Ammara Ainee1*, Muhammad Nadeem1, Masooma Munir1,2*, Tahir Mahmood Qureshi1, Saqib Jabbar2
...ed during 30 days of storage. Results showed that with varying fiber content water activity, texture, color, moisture, fat, protein, ash, NFE and fiber content changed significantly (p<0.05). Gross energy level in cake which is desirable by consumers was reduced but high fiber cake was dark colored, low in volume and with increased hardness. Treatment (T3) containing 5.6g grapefruit albedo powder shows significantly (p<0.05) higher sensory sco...
Huseyin Sasi1* and Gulcin G. Ozay2
...res Basin) including the age, growth, length-weight relationship and reproduction. The study was conducted in upper Akcay River between June 2012 and May 2013. Monthly data showed that native fish chub were aboundantly with other native fish (Acanthobrama mirabilis) in upper Akcay River. The age distribution for both females and males of S. cephalus populationwas betweenI-VII, and the second
Farah Ashfaq* and Tasnim Farasat
...ric parameters including age, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR), diastolic and systolic blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose, serum resistin and insulin of three hundred over weight, obese males and females, 17 to 30 years and 100 comparable control subjects were included. Serum resistin and insulin, fasting glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were found significantly high in overweight and obese groups as compar...
Sogolo L. Lebelo1,* and Gerhard van der Horst2
...lipid inclusions and collagen fibers are also found in the cytoplasm of these cells. These cells are found associated with the spermatogonia type B, pachytene spermatocytes and Sertoli cells. The results from this study show that there are basic similarities in the Leydig cells of the vervet compared to other mammals, humans and nonhuman primates, however, there also seem to be species differences among the mammalian group. The association of these cells with ...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...i> is causing greater damage to Apis mellifera colonies and major economic losses (a serious threat) to beekeeping industry in Pakistan. Seven treatments including five essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), oregano (Origanium vulgare), lemon (Citrus lemon) and thyme (Thymus linearus), formic acid at three different concentrations of 25%, 50% and 100% and control were used against...
Mazher Abbas1, Irfan Mahmood1*, Arshed Bashir1, Tahir Mehmood2, Khalid Mahmood1 and Zubair Ikram1
...practice for citrus. Average age, education and experience of the citrus growers were estimated 43.92 years, 9.74 schooling years and 17.72 years respectively. The awareness and adoption of recommended citrus practices was generally good. The results of the logit model for adoption of recommended irrigation practices however postulate positive and significant impact of citrus producing experience and family income on adoptio...

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...ve Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Sixty-seven years annual time series data from 1947-48 to 2013-14 was obtained to forecast major crops and per capita food availability for 21years from 2014-15 to 2034-2035. Findings of the study pointed out increasing trends; major crops area, production, and yield except the sugarcane crop as mentioned decreasing trend in sugarcane yield. Decreasing of sugarcane yield in forecasted period is reported to lack of po...
Koksal Karadas1* and Ibrahim Hakki Kadırhanogullari2
... factors influencing average honey yield (AHY) per beehive in the year 2014. For this purpose, predictive performances of several data mining algorithms (CART, CHAID, Exhaustive CHAID and MARS) and artificial neural network algorithm (Multilayer Perceptron, MLP) were evaluated comparatively. Several factors thought as independent variables in the survey were age of beekeeper (AB), education level (EL), number of full beehive...

Aftab Wajid1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Awais2, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman3*, M. Aown Sammar Raza2, Usman Bashir2, Muhammad Naveed Arshad1, Sana Ullah4, Muhammad Irfan5 and Umair Gull1
 

...s per plant (31.00), average weight per boll (3.48 g) and ultimately lead to higher seed cotton yield (2.42 t ha-1) as compared to other N rates (50, 100, 150 kg ha-1). Significant differences were also observed in cultivars, CIM-496 produced higher seed cotton yield than other under arid climate of Multan in Cotton-Wheat Cropping system. Empirical model was developed on the basis of field observations to compute the seed cotton yield beyond the application of...
Vladimir Avdalovic1, Marijana Vucinic2, Radmila Resanovic3, Jelena Avdalovic4, Danka Maslic-Strizak5 and Milos Vucicevic3*
...roups of broilers percentage of severe FPD was high. Severe lesions were significantly (p<0.01) more frequent (80%) in broilers reared on chopped wheat straw than on pelleted straw (56%). Although the high moisture content was measured in both litter substrates and the high frequency of severe FPD was estimated in both groups of broilers, pelleted straw showed lower moisture content, occurrence and severity of FPD (2.56±0.19) comparing to chopped whe...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...s in skills regarding management of supervision and administration that is considered necessary in order to deal with farmers where a wide range of variations exists in their personalities and habits. A significant difference was reported in required and possessed competencies of preparing training schedules regarding crops followed by timely appointment and issuance of duties to junior staff for effective and efficient work. Results of the study reported that...
Adnan Yousaf1,Jia Wu1, Qaiser Shakeel2, Yasir Iftikhar3, Muhammad Irfan Ullah4, Uzma Tahira5,Mustansar Mubeen1 and Wubei Dong1,*
... and their integrated management by using derosol, cadusafos and Trichoderma harzianum in the green house at 25 ± 4ºC. Primarily, 15 chilies cultivars viz., 28-2010, C-72, Sanam, C-73, Gola Peshawari, 27-2010, Tata Puri, C-302, C-33, C-19, 5-2010, C-68, 11-2010, 18-2010 and 15-2010 were evaluated against M. incognita and S. rolfsii. Two week old chilies plants were inoculated with M. incognita, S. rolfsii s...

Wesam Hasan Mohamed Mady1*, Bing Liu2, Dong Huang2, Abdel Satar Arafa1, Mohamed Khalifa Hassan1, Mona Mehrez Aly1, Pucheng Chen2, Yongping Jiang2* and Hualan Chen2

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

...chniques and nitrogen management in crop stand and phenological occurrence is not well understood. Therefore field studies were conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan to quantify the effects of mulching techniques and nitrogen management on maize (Zea mays L) phenology and crop stand in 2013 and 2014. Treatments included mulching techniques (i.e. no-mulch, residue, transparent an...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Tasneem Hameed1, Muhammad Afzal2, Arshad Javid3, Nosheen Aslam4, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah6, Majid Hussain5, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1
...e groups of 15 fish (Average weight 5.05±0.013 g fish-1) were fed at the rate of 5% of live wet weigh and feces were collected twice daily. The results of present study showed improved growth performance of Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings in response to phytase supplementation. Maximum growth performance was observed by the fish group fed on test diet-III having 1000 FTU kg-1 level. Similarly, nutrient digestibility was also s...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...present project was envisaged by using rice husk as a substrate for processing with the objective to produce a nutritionally enriched bulk feed ingredient and to explore its potential as wheat bran replacer in total mixed rations for the ruminants. For this purpose rice husk was subjected to different processing techniques using acid, alkali, water treatment and fermentation to prepare processed moiety on pilot scale. All these processed materials were include...

Muhammad Abid1*, Tahir Yaqub2, Arslan Mehboob3 and Muhammad Zubair Shabbir4

...s belonged to the G- lineage. Amino acid analysis of NA stalk regions of these isolates illustrated no insertion, deletion and substitutions compared to A/DK/HK/Y280/97 lineage and human isolates (A/HK/1073/99 and A/HK/1074/99). Several amino acid substitutions at various regions of the NA protein were determined with unknown functions and consequences. These findings warrant future studies for analysis of whole genome seque...

Sania Shaheen1*, Hina Fatima2 and Muhammad Azeem Khan3

... rice production. On average technical efficiency of sample rice farmers is 86 percent, which indicates that rice farmers in selected areas can increase the production of rice 14 percent only by managing efficiency level, without increasing input quantities. Hence, it is possible for rice farmers to increase rice output without increasing the level of inputs by using efficient management practices. 

...
Rais Ahmed1,*, Khushi Muhammad1, Masood Rabbani1 and Muhammad Sarwar Khan2
... were collected from villages (n=256, 5 samples/village) of the nine districts. Brucella genus specific DNA (bcsp31) was detected using Real Time PCR and prevalence was 2.11%. Out of five species, only two species B. abortus and B. melitensis were detected through conventioneal multiplex PCR. Prevalence of soil borne species specific DNA of B. abortus and B. melitensis was 1.8% and 0...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...osive stomatitis, hemorrhages in lung, liver, abomasum, small and large intestine. PPRV NP was detected in sheep (n=20) and goats (n=18), anti-PPRV NP was also detected among sheep and goats (n=162) by ELISA, 3ABC-FMD enzyme immunoassay were positive (n=6) when ovine sera were tested. The study revealed that PPR-FMD viruses were circulating in the region and warrants proper control measures. 
...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...the three tehsils of the agency (i.e; Khar, Salarzai, and Nawagai). The data were collected from the sampled bee keepers using a pretested questionnaire by face to face interview in 2014 production period. The collected data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, descriptive statistics, rank orders and paired t-test. Findings revealed that bee keeping is one of the important economic activities in the area with an ave...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
...12% moisture as a percentage of fish body weight, with three replicates per treatment. Fish were fed three times per day at 09:00, 14:00, and 18:00. The experiment was carried out for 120 days. Each month, 30 fish were removed from each of the floating net cages to be measured and weighed. The biomass of fish was calculated, and the amount of feed was adjusted. The feeding rate significantly (p< 0.05) influenced the final...
Talha Nazir1,2,*, Muhammad Dildar Gogi2, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1, Waheed ul Hassan2, Abdul Hanan2 and Muhammad Jalal Arif
... sucking pests’ management strategies on transgenic crops such as Bt cotton.
...
Tiansen Li1, Meiling Huang2, Zhen Wang1,Fei Guo3,Hui Zhang1,* and Chuangfu Chen1,*
...d for survival in macrophages and mice than the parent strain 2308. With decrease in the spleen/body weight ratios of mice infected with omp10 mutants were noted, inhibition of phagosome-Lysosome fusion was dramaticly impaired, and profound increase of apoptosis rate after exposure of RAW264.7 to omp10 mutants at 12 h, 24 h and 48 h compared to RAW264.7 exposed to 2308. Results indicate that Δomp10 mutant would affect its survival an...

Muhammad Ibrahim1,2*, Syed Jawad Ahmad Shah1, Shaukat Hussain2, Musharaf Ahmad2 and Farhatullah3

 

...ccupied less than 1% acreage. Remaining wheat cultivars including Atta Habib, Auqab-2002, Bhakkar-2002, Bathoor-2008, Fakhar-e-Sarhad, Hashim-2008, Inqilab-91, Pirsabak-2004, Pirsabak-2005, Sehar-2006 and Serin-2010 occupied 94% of the acreage in the three zones. Sehar-2006 was the dominant wheat cultivar occupied 54% of the total wheat area which is already susceptible and carries an undesirable Yr9 gene. Cultivars with eff...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...maximum frequency percentage (72.3%). Results confirmed the presence of fungi and nematodes interacting each other to enhance the disease. Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom) and Trichoderma harzianum (Rifai) (alone and in combination) were used as bio-control agents against isolated pathogens at three different concentration viz., R, R/2 and R/4. Combination of bio agents (T+P) ga...

Raza Ullah1*, Qaisar Shah Safi2, Ghaffar Ali3 and Irfan Ullah

...rvesting, packaging, storage and processing. There are various middlemen (market intermediaries) involved at different stages in the marketing of citrus. This study is an attempt to examine the marketing margins of the intermediaries involve in the value chain of sweet oranges of citrus group. Three villages in Bunir district are randomly selected and a total of 120 sampled respondents are...
Kulsoom Akhter1, Tahseen Ghous1,2,Saiqa Andleeb3,*, Faiz-ul-Hassan Nasim4, Samina Ejaz5, Zain-ul-Abdin1, Bilal Ahmed Khan1 and Muhammed Naeem Ahmed1
... from rhizosphere of Tagetes minuta, growing in soil adjoining automobile workshops to investigate their bioaccumulation capacity for three selected metals Cr(VI), Ni(II) and Cd(II). The plant was selected due to its natural abundance in the climate of Kashmir and also in the area of study. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were identified as B. cereus BDBC01, B. cereus AVP12 and B. cereu...
Ibrahim A. Alhidary1,*, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Moez A. Ayadi1,3 and Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2
...y growing Naemi lambs at age of three months with an average bodyweight of 27.77 ±1.09 kg were randomly distributed to five different treatments, ten lambs each, as follow: 1. Alfalfa hay and barley grain (ABG); 2. Pelleted alfalfa hay and barley (PAB); 3. TMR1 (25.67% NDF); 4. TMR2 (30.88% NDF); and 5. TMR3 (55.93% NDF). Lambs were housed in an individual pen for 90 days. Lambs were weighed every two weeks and feed i...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

...grain yield (GY). On averages of varieties, a decrease in biological- and grain yield was estimated 261 and 89 kg ha-1, reapectively, per day in wheat in season for Peshawar when sowing was postponed from December 5. Early planting delayed days to anthesis and maturity, which otherwise extended grain development phase of the crop. Among varieties, Ghanemat-2015 showed better grain yield for a relatively longer duration i.e. December 5-15 over the others variet...
Naila Chand1,*, Shabana Naz2, Hamza Maris1, Rifat Ullhah Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1
...improved dressing percentage. The treatment groups had significantly (P<0.05) lower heterophil number and significantly (P<0.05) higher lymphocytes number than the control group. The heterophil/lymphocytes ratio and antibody titer was significantly (P<0.05) lower in the treated groups. Based on these results, it is concluded that supplementation of diets with betaine improved broiler feed intake, weight gain, FCR and increased immunity were under heat...
Muhammad Abdullah1,*, Rashid A. khan2, Muhammad Rafay3, Tanveer Hussain3, Tahira Ruby4,Fariha Rehman5, Sangam Khalil3 and Sohail Akhtar6
...ical insect pest control agent in our agricultural ecosystem. To analyze this activity present work was planned to collect the preliminary information about habitat requirements and different breeding aspects of Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). The fieldwork was performed for two years (2012, 2013) at three different stations in the surrounding area of Faisalabad. Based on results it was concluded that Cattle egrets are colonial breeders and colonies were ...
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...length and weight in average, T1=15.01±0.33cm and 15.80±0.01g, T3=14.13±0.76cm and 13.35±0.67g whereas in T2=11.80 ± 0.96cm and 10.47±1.19g lower growth were found. Specific growth rate (SGR) were obtained 1.160, 0.960 and 1.110 in T1, T2 and T3 individually differing statistically from all treatment groups. Similar situation was found in values of the c...
Tanveer Ahmad1, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood1*, Zulfiqar Ali1, Muhammad Azeem Khan2 and Shahid Zia3
...1 (dry fibre). Average yield of dry sisal fibre was 3.2% of green leaf weight and average fibre length was 1348.9 mm per leaf. Average power required to decorticate sisal leaves was 3.1 kW. Operating cost of sisal decorticator together with a combing machine was Rs. 507.9 h-1. The break-even point or payback period of this technology was 233 h. Sisal fibre needs to be wash...
Muhammad Tariq Saeed1*, Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid1, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem1, Mumtaz Akhtar Cheema2, Muhammad Shahid1, Abdul-Shakoor1, Abdul-Sattar3
... with control. On an average, days to maturity (96.42), plant height (25.84 cm), plant population at harvest (25.22), 1000-seed weight (94.97 g), seed yield (1.71 t ha-1) and biological yield (4.37 t ha-1) of both soybean varieties was significantly improved by hydration inoculation and hydro priming techniques. It was concluded that hydration inoculation and hydro priming were best techniques for better stand establishment of soybean and...
Omar S.O. Amer1,3,*, Mohamed I. Waly2,4 andSaeed A. Al-Zahrani1
...les as well as different age groups per month / year is provided. Intestinal parasitic infection is still a public health problem in Riyadh region, KSA. It is necessary to update the epidemiologic survey of the parasitic infection at regular intervals using different statistical methods to develop effective prevention and control strategies.
...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

...ioned that the extension agent was the source of awareness about FSC. About 43% of the respondents were invited by FSC for general body meeting whereas only 26% participated in the process of election. Maximum respondents were provided farm machinery by FSC i.e. cultivator (51%), rotavator (56%), mold bold plough (56%), disk plough (48%), single furrow (47%), drill (61%) and ridge maker (53%). Market was the source of seed for majority of the respondents regar...
Mohammad Umar Farooq1*, Sarfaraz Ahmad2, Ghulam Nabi1, Ijaz Ali1 and Imtiaz Ahmad1
...mass depends upon the management practices, climate and response of different species.
...
Sumit K. Satpathi1, Suprakash Pal2*, Rupsanatan Mandal2, Nonigopal Shit2 and Ashutosh Sarkar3
... of biointensive pest management modules against major insect-pests of cowpea in comparison to conventional pesticide based pest management modules. The pesticide based management modules proved better as compared to the biopesticide based modules in managing the attack of sucking pests and pod borer of cowpea. The pesticide based IPM-II module resulted in the highest per cent reduction of...
Wanchao Zhu1, Qinguo Wei1, Shuyu Xue1, Huanxin Zhang2, Tianshu Lv1 and Honghai Zhang1,
... the conservation and management of sables (Martes zibellina), we developed six microsatellite markers using a method of fast isolation by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO) from them in this study. The primers designed by Primer Premier 5.0 based on conservative regions were tested on 22 individuals. Our results demonstrated that the number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five and the mean number of alleles was 3.67. The observed and...
Zuhao Huang*, Meifang Li, Rujue Ruan and Jiawei Qin
... stellaris). The average genetic distances among the species varied from 5.39% (between Egretta sacra and Egretta garzetta) to 41.15% (between Egretta sacra and Botaurus stellaris). Five conserved sequence boxes (F to B) in the domain II of Ardeidae sequences were localized. Maximum likelihood method was used to reconstruct the phylogenetic trees based on HKY+ G model. The phylogenetic tree grouped members of every genus were gr...
Javeria1, Masroor Ellahi Babar1,2,*, Akhtar Ali2, Asif Nadeem1, Abdul Wajid1, Sajjad Ali Shah3, Sadaf Rashid4, Muhammad Wasim1 and Muhammad Abdullah1
...lection the factors like age/period, employment status and marital status were considered after informed consent. We found one single base change G>C at c.745 resulting in a nonsynonymous change p.E249Q in theCOMT gene. In-silico analysis predicted it to be damaging and disease causing. Screening of case and control group data showed no deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with p-value 0.879 and 0.32, respectively. There was no significant diffe...
Muhammad Fiaz1, Khadija Munawar2, Muhammad Mushtaq2,*, Mukhtar Ahmad3, Mushtaq Ahmad Chaudhry3, Muhammad Aslam3, Tanveer Ahmad1 and Nasrullah4
... neonatal lambs (n = 24, age = 01 week) were selected and divided equally into three groups having 08 lambs each. The experimental lambs were fed ewe milk, calf milk replacer-1 (Telilac) and calf milk replacer-2 (Creamo) through nipple feeding for optimum performance in lambs after mandatory colostrum feeding. Results depicted that average daily gain (ADG) and the body measurements were not different (P>0.05) among lambs ...
Shabana1,*, Farah Ehsan1 and Shahida Hasnain1,2
...nd LDLC had no effect on age, height, triglycerides, HDLC and leptin. In conclusion, Gly482Ser variant appears to be significantly associated with diabetes in Pakistani population. The variant appeared to exert its effect by changing serum fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol and LDLC levels.
...

Syed Tanveer Shah* and Muhammad Sajid 

...h fruit trees at berry stage were sprayed with three sources of calcium (calcium chloride, calcium nitrate and calcium sulphate) at three calcium concentrations (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0%) stored for 30 days at 10 days interval. The experimental results showed that calcium sources, concentration and storage duration significantly affected all the studied attributes. More fruit firmness (5.57 and 5.69 kg cm2), less Total soluble sol...
Umair Talib1*, Ijaz Ashraf1, Khalid Mahmood Chaudhary1, Riaz Ahmad2
...sfied with extension package of either sector. Therefore, the new strategy proposes changes in working order of both sectors in order to enhance the extension work in the Punjab.
...
Muhammad Hannan Ahmed1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Abu Bakar M. Raza1, M. Afzal1, A. Khaliq1, Yasir Iftikhar2 and Hafiz Muhammad Aatif3
...Bt cultivars. Average thrips population per leaf on various Bt and non-Bt varieties showed that the CIM-557 along with BT-703 had the highest number of thrips density while Bt variety FH-113 had the lowest thrips population per leaf. Similarly, in relation to thermal effect, high thrips population was recorded at 29-35oC but population declined at 40°Ċ. Findings are helpful for appropriate man
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
Ambreen Butt1, Uzma Malik2, Khadija Waheed3, Amna Khanum3, Samar Firdous4, Sara Ejaz5 and Fawad Randhawa2, Tania Shakoori6*
...djusting for gestational age and gravidity. ROC curve analysis was conducted to assess the suitability cobalamin as a predictive biomarker for GDM. Median cobalamin were significantly reduced in cases (108.95±92 pg/mL) as compared to controls (173±90 pg/mL) at p<0.001. Low vitamin B12 levels (β = -0.29, p=0.004) significantly predicted high fasting blood sugar levels in pregnancy even after adjusting for gestational ...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

..., LET can be used as a reagent to control the sex differentiation of carp, but also can be used to disturb gonad differentiation, and then to reveal the molecular mechanism.

...
Asad Abdullah1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Waqar Hassan2,    Samina Khalid3, Yasir Iftikhar4, Muhammad Arshad1 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa5,6
...extract (NSE) for the management of Bemesia tabaci Gennadius, (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and Amrasca biguttula Ishida, (Homopter: Cicadellidae) infesting Bt and non-Bt cotton cultivars. Foliar application of neem seed, Azadirachta indica extract was applied upon reaching economic threshold levels of B. tabaci and A. biguttula. The insect pest population was recorded 24 hours before and 24h, 72h and 168h after spra...
Muhammad Abu Bakar1, Muhammad Anjum Aqueel1, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza1, Muhammad Irfan Ullah1,*, Muhammad Arshad1, Mubasshir Sohail1,2 and Jaime Molina-Ochoa3,4
... mites. With the passage of time, mite mortality percentage increases. Overall, eucalyptus oil at 5ml dose rate gave best result and can be recommended to manage the varroa mite in apiculture.
...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...wo or three investigated agents. The relative high frequency of occurrence of the studied viruses both in single or concomitant infection emphasizes the need for continued monitoring of poultry flocks to better understand its epidemiology and understanding the impact of one virus on the pathobiology of second virus 

...
Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4
...sing type, tick control, age and sex of animal presented significant (P <0.05) association with tick infestation and burden while type of breed showed significant association with tick infestation but was non-significant with tick burden. Topography presented inverse behavior to that of breed with tick burden and tick infestation. On the other hand, geo-location was only factor exhibiting non-significant ly associated (P>0.05) association with both depen...
Masooma Munir1,2*, Aqsa Qayyum1, Saeeda Raza1, Nouman Rashid Siddiqui1, Amer Mumtaz1, Naeem Safdar1, Sahar Shible1, Sohaib Afzal3, Saiqa Bashir4
...ere used to prepare beverage at three supplementation levels i.e. 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4%. Sensory evaluation of basil seed drink revealed that 0.3% basil seeds supplemented drink was liked most in term of taste, texture and over all acceptability whereas 0.4% basil seeds supplemented drink were least liked as compared to other treatments. It was concluded that basil seed could be supplemented in different food products for the preparation of value added, healthy an...
Asim Gulzar1,*, Ather Maqsood1, Munir Ahmed1, Muhammad Tariq1, Muhammad Ali2 and Rahmatullah Qureshi3
...ternates like biocontrol agents, plant extracts etc. In the present study the extract of Citrullus colocynthis in different solvents were evaluated on second instar larvae of H. armigera under laboratory studies for toxicity, sublethal and antifeedant effect. The result showed that ethanol based extract was the most effective to control the H. armigera followed by the ethyl acetate. The sublethal concentration of ethanol based extra...
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...aid in 12 nests, the average clutch size being 2.75±0.75 (range 2-4); 3) twenty-five eggs were hatched, with the average hatching success 78.48%; 4) twenty-three fledglings flew; the average fledging rate: 75.00%; 5) the average breeding success rate was 70.14%. The results will help guide the recovery and expansion of the Chinese crested ibis pop...

Zahid Mehmood*, Alam Zeb and Muhammad Ayub 

...ium benzoate) on the storage stability of muskmelon jam. The treatments included MJ1 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + no preservatives), MJ2 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.1% sodium benzoate), MJ3 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.1% potassium sorbate), MJ4 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.01% potassium metabislulphite), MJ5 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.05% sodium benzoate + 0.05% potassium sorbate), MJ6 (Muskmelon + Sucrose + 0.05% sodium benzoate + 0.01% potassium metabisulphite), MJ7 (Muskmelo...

Hassan Hashim Ghalib, Syed Attaullah Shah*, Abbas Ullan Jan and Ghaffar Ali 

... by 2oC from current average level could reduce wheat growers’ net-return by 37 percent. Increase in rainfall by 20 percent from current level could increase net-return by 6 percent. In the Central and Southern climatic zones of KP, where average monthly temperature in wheat season is above 25oC, wheat growers’ net return per acre could be hugely affected by temperature increase due to climate change. This change...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

... as embryo physiological age, co-cultivation period, addition of L-cysteine in co-cultivation medium, heat shock to immature embryos prior to infection, resting stage and Agrobacterium strains that deliver T-DNA into plant cell from which whole plant can be regenerated. The results indicated that optimal embryo physiological age is 15 and 18 days after pollination and transient transformat...

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

...suboptimal irrigation management on small raised beds farms in the Indus Basin is considered to reduce irrigation efficiency and exacerbates waterlogging and salinity. Addressing this issue, farmer managed irrigations on commonly used Narrow Bed (NB) with furrow spacings 66 cm and newly introduced Wide Bed (WB) with furrow spacing 130 cm on sandy clay loam, were investigated using the irrigation modelling software, WinSRFR,...
Asmatullah Kaka2, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff 1, Nurhusien Yimer1,  A.M Khumran1, Akeel Ahmed Memon2, Kazhal Sarsaifi1 andMahdi Ebrahimi3
...up>oC and then packaged in 0.25ml straws and stored into liquid nitrogen for 24 hours. Successively, thawing and evaluation was performed for sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, morphology, malondialdehyde (MDA), fatty acid composition and super oxide dismutase (SOD). Sperm characteristics such as sperm motility, viability, morphology, membrane integrity, and acrosome integrity were decreased in treated groups. DHA concentration was increased ...
Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Atif Prince3, Naimat Ullah Khan1 and Mumtaz Ali Khan1
...e at 75 days prepartum stage with and without VES: respectively. At day 0 of experimental trial VES was given to animals in group C, E and G. All groups were given oil based HS vaccine at day 15 and alum based FMD trivalent vaccine at day 30 of experimental trial except Group A. Blood samples from adult cattle were collected at day 0, 15 and 30 after parturition and in cattle calves at age of 0, 14, 28 and 42. Colostrum samp...
Rehmat Ullah1*, Kalim Ullah2, Inam Ullah3, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Asif Nawaz1 
...ing year 2014. Eight villages were selected randomly. Among all the farmers, 120 farmers were evaluated through valid, reliable and pre-tested interview schedule. Data collected was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 20. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The study has revealed that field assistants (FA) provide new information (75 respondents). It was observed that FAs were availabl...
Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem, Muhammad Shahid, Abdul Shakoor*, Muhammad Safeer, Imran Khan, Ayesha Farooq, Iftkhar Ali and Usman Nazir
...at 9th leaf stage; B (F) = foliar application of 0.5% B at 9th leaf stage; Zn (S) +B (S) = soil application of Zn @ 12 kg ha-1 + B @ of 3 kg ha-1 and Zn (F) +B (F) = foliar application of1% Zn + 0.5%B at 9 leaf stage. Foliar application of Zn and B produced more plant height, cob length, girth, stem girth, shelling percent

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

... different development stages of pre-clinical and clinical trials. In this study, we explored the anti-angiogenic properties of three anti-VEGF molecules such as two fusion proteins, VEGF TrapR1R2 and VEGFR1(D1-D3)-Fc, and one DNA aptamer, RNV66, in an in vivo model of human A549 lung cancer. VEGF TrapR1R2 is a commercial anti-angiogenic fusion protein. Our earlier studies demonstrated the anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative activities of VEGFR1(D1-D3)-Fc a...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...specially at juveniles stage. This study focus on the healthy production with low cost by using sunflower meal to some extent replace fish meal. In this 3× 3 factorial and completely randomized design study 324 fish were used. The acidification levels were (0, 1.5 and 3%) whereas the phytase levels were (0, 500 and 1000 FTU). The addition of 3 % citric acid and 1000FTU phytase produced significant interaction effect on calcium and phosphorus digestibilit...

Trinh Thi Viet Ha1, Pham Duy Liem2 and Li Shuang1* 

...of the comparative advantages of Chinese and Vietnamese rice products showed that the comparative advantage of China’s rice exports is greater in Vietnamese rice markets. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) index and Relative Trade Advantage Index (RTA) were used to understand the relative competitive advantages...
Nosheen Rafiq1, Asmatullah Kakar2,*, Arshad Ghani3, Asim Iqbal2, Wali Mohammad Achakzai2, Shagufta Sadozai2, Mohammad Shafiq4 and Mohammad Alam Mengal5 
...stern by-pass, Spiny village, and Sariab region) of District Quetta from March, 2013 to March, 2014.   Around 1649 ticks were captured from six main body parts of 404 cattle. Of these 346 (65.96%) were observed to be plagued by one or more tick infestation. Compositions of tick species captured from the host were Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (33.39%), followed by Dermacenter andersoni (31.76%), Hyalomma aegyptium (26.16%), and Bo...

Attaullah Ansari* and Nasreen Memon 

...at wise variation in average population size, species richness, evenness and diversity index were also calculated. The highest and lowest degrees of population size, richness and evenness and diversity were recorded in agriculture crops and fodder crops, respectively. 

...

Shahab e Saqib1*, Himayatullah Khan2, Sanaullah Panezai3, Ubaid Ali4 and Mazhar Ali5 

...dan sub-district. Multistage sampling technique was used to select the study area. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data from farming households’ heads. Credit fungibility ratio and ANOVA were used to explore the credit fungibility and credit margin of investment among the groups of farmers. Results showed that a considerable proportion of loan was used in non-agricultural activities by all farmers in general and small farmers in particul...
Liana Mihaela Fericean1* and Mihaela Corneanu2
... who can cause direct damage to the plants by extracting the sap, and indirectly it is a vector to 16 plant viruses. The study presents data referring to the external morphological characteristics, to the biometrical measurements and to the life cycle of Aphis nasturtii. The researches have been carried out for a period of four years on the potato and for a period of two years on the orchards from Romania. At the Aphis nasturtii species the small...
Rehana Shahida1, Tasnim Farasat1, Shagufta Naz1,* and Shahjahan2
...etic subjects (n-35) and age matched healthy control (n=35), and to identify the relationship of inflammatory cytokines with insulin resistance and the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of atherosclerosis and hyperglycemia within the context of chosen pro atherogenic parameters including plasma glucose level, serum levels of insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α. Serum level of thrombomodulin was assessed as a measure of vascular dam
Talat Bilal Yasoob and Nasir Ali Tauqir* 
...and sodium. At 28 day of age percent thigh meat yield, breast meat yield and abdominal fat yield were significantly better in broilers fed experimental rations as compared to those fed control ration however non-significant (P>0.05) differences were observed in dressing percentage. But at 42 day age dressing percentage, percent thigh meat yield...

Sikandar Hayat, Khalid Usman* and Muhammad Tahir Amin 

...lign: justify;">Zero tillage is a cost effective and resource conserving technique, however, drill clogging and immobilization of nitrogen are problems in the standing stubbles of the previous crop. Row adjustment and an appropriate N fertilizer application method may be a possible solution. Field trials were carried out to explore suitable row spacing and N fertilizer application method for zero tillage wheat at Agronomic R...
Xue-yang Wang1, Shang-zhi Zhang1, Ming-hui Liu2, Dong Yu1, Yan Ma1, Dong-qiong Fei1, Hai-zhong Yu1 and Jia-ping Xu1,*
... day of the pupa stage, and highest expression levels in the molting stage. What’s more, BmARM-like protein could be detected by immunofluorescence in all analyzed tissues, including head, midgut, hemolymph, fat body, testis and ovary. More importantly, the relatively high expression level of BmARM-like mRNA were observed in BC9 (near-isogenic line) following BmNPV infection as compared to P50 (susceptible...
Prof. Dr. Saira Afzal
... review, both have advantages and disadvantages. Open peer review is performed for scientific quality after publication. It is also known as transparent peer review and public peer review. 
...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Muhammad Saeed Akhtar1, Maryam Umer1, Khalid Zamir Rasib2 and Muhammad Imran Din3
...to cause considerable damage to wood work in buildings. Efficacy of extracts of Foeniculum vulgare and Ocimum basilicum was studied against this termite. Chemical composition of plant extracts by chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed five different compounds in F. vulgare: Piperidine, 3-isopropyl, Bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one, 1,3,3-trimethyl, Benzaldehyde, 4-methoxy, Estragole, 11-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester and 9-Octadeceno...
Müge Aliye Hekimoğlu*, Cüneyt Süzer,Şahin Saka andKürşat Firat
...ere determined at five stages of melanistic and not melanistic clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) and different sexes of Swordfish (Xiphophorus helleri). Clownfish were tested with 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 ml/l phenoxyethanol and 0.5, 1 and 1.5 ml/l clove oil. Swordfish were tested with 1, 3 and 5 ml/l phenoxyethanol and 2, 4, 6 ml/l clove oil. For short-term application the safe dose for clownfish was 0.4 ml/l phenoxyethanol and 1 ml/l clove oil. For swor...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...ies at stem elongation stage and increased gradually with the growth of plants. Three aphid species were recorded i.e., Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Schizaphis graminum (R.) and Sitobion avenae (F.). Mean seasonal aphid population (no. of aphids/tiller) on wheat plants during the whole season was the highest in NW-1-8183-8 and NW-3-3341-7 and the lowest in Faisalabad-08. However, grain yield was the highest in Galaxy-13 and the lowest w...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

...purposively selected villages namely; Nasir Kaly, Shankar and Kodeenaka. From the field surveys, it was found that majority of the respondents were smallholders or tenants. After procuring and properly utilizing credit, the yield of the major crops such as wheat, maize, and sugarcane and the resultant income of the respondents exhibited significant increase, as confirmed by higher t-values. The study concludes that the socio-economic conditions of the farmers ...
Muhammad Qaisar Nawaz
...ing technique for oat forage production under salt affected conditions. Two sowing methods i.e. broad cast and drill sowing with 30 cm apart rows and four nitrogen levels (75,100,125 and 150 % of N recommended dose i.e. 150kg ha-) were tested. Recommended dose of PK fertilizer (85-60 PK kg ha-1) was used uniformly with experimental N rates. Data on plant height (132.00 cm), number of plants (91.33 m-2), number of tillers (146.0...
Carolina A. Bonin1,2, Eric A. Lewallen2,3, Andre J. van Wijnen3, Marta Jussara Cremer4 and Paulo C. Simões-Lopes5*
...data that will inform management efforts, we characterized the habitat and recorded the behaviour of a Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis) population within one of the most well-preserved estuaries off southern Brazil. Monthly surveys were conducted for one year (August 1999 - July 2000) within an area of approximately 100 km2, within the Paranaguá Bay Estuary. We employed the group follow protocol, which resulted in 260 h of direct ob...
Zhenyu Chang1, Hui Zhang1, Khalid Mehmood1,2, Mujeeb Ur Rehman1, Xiaodan Yuan1, Zhaoyang Li1, Fazul Nabi1, Xiaoxing Wu1, Xinxin Tian1, Xueting Liu1, Jingen Xu3 and Donghai Zhou1,*
...ates LPS-induced cell damage, and TFF3 mRNA expression is influenced by LPS and rhTFF3 in intestinal mucous epithelial cells in piglets.
...
Boran Karataş, Muhammed Arabaci and Şükrü Önalan*
...on stocking ratio percentages as G, K, G75K25, G66K34 and G50K50 and the study lasted 80 days. When the growth parameters in polycultures of rainbow trout and brown trout are considered, it was determined that the growth rates were not statistically different between rainbow trout monoculture and rainbow trout G75K25 and G50K50 groups, however rainbow trout in G66K34 experienced statistically significantly less growth when compared to others (p<0.05)...
Minmin Chen1, Xiaoke Zhang1, Kexiong Wang2, Zhigang Liu1, An Wan3, Daoping Yu1,*, Hong Ji3 and Fangzhen Peng1
...vation day, with the average being 60%. The average maximum number of individuals observed per day was 4 (range, 1–8). Porpoises was not observed in September 2013 and from April 2014 to September 2014. Spatial distribution dynamics analyses showed that from the six different hydrological zones of the confluence, the porpoise was more likely to prefer the flow deflection and flow stagnation zones of the confluence. The...
Ehab Bo Trabi1,2, Xianjun Yuan1, Junfeng Li1, Zhihao Dong1, Assar Ali Shah2 and Tao Shao1,2,*
...f (Morus Alba) silage was treated with glucose and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) additives. The groups were as follow: silage without additive as a control (c); glucose 1% fresh matter basis (G1); glucose 2% (G2); glucose 3% (G3); Lactobacillus Plantarum (LAB1); Pediococuss acidilactici (LAB2); Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LAB3). All the silos were incubated at 25°C. Then, 90 days later, the fermenta...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
Zahid Latif1,*, Kathrin Blasius2-4, Tufail Hussain Tahir7, Muhammad Nasim Khan1, Ghazanfar Ali5, Ansar Ahmed Abbasi6, Abdul Rauf1, Hao Hu8 and Angela M. Kaindl2,3,4
...eed union or cousin marriages. In this study, a large consanguineous family with 11 affected individuals was recruited from Azad Jammu and Kashmir which was analyzed through linkage mapping and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This family showed a homozygous c.2536G>A mutation in CRB1 gene as an underlying pathogenic variant for non-syndromic autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.
...
Mumtaz Akhtar1, Shabana Naz2,*, Muhamamad Iqbal3, Waqar Azeem4 and Mirza Azhar Beg5
...ere segregated into five age classes, i.e. I (immature), II (sub-adults), III (adults), IV (middle aged), V (old), on the basis of tooth wear, mandibular length, and condition of reproductive organs. In the winter samples, most of the animals belonged to the middle body weight classes, while in the spring sample majority of specimens belonged to the heaviest weight classes. The comparison of a...
Karim El-Sabrout* and Mohamed H. Khalil
... dead embryos and percentage) and hatch chick performance (weight, vitality). The experiment was carried out in two groups with total number of 1800 eggs (900 eggs for each group). Eggs were incubated 12 h of light (natural) then 12 h of complete darkness (G1); and 12 h of light (natural) then 12 h of LED lighting (G2). From the obtained results, there were no significant effects of complement LED lighting” after effect on hatchability percent and dead e...

Muhammad Anas1, Abdul Jabbar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2*, Raza Ullah1, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar3, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Sohail Latif5 

...and of food, feed and forage are needed. Intercropping is an eco-friendly option for sustaining and increasing the productivity of farmlands. Therefore, a field study relating to sunflower-mungbean intercropping intensities under irrigated conditions was conducted at Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the spring season, 2014 in RCB design with triplicate run. The treatments included viz. Four sunflower plants m-2 + 30 mungbea...
Sher Khan Panhwar1,2,3, Zhou Yong Dong1,4,*, Gao Tianxiang1,3, Wang Ping5, Han Zhiqiang1, Wang Zhongming1,4 and Wang Yang1,4
...on, allowing resource managers to determine management priorities for this economically and ecologically important species in the ECS.
...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
...ased with its increasing age in different growth stages. Ages and tissues are the main factors that influence the gene expression significantly.
...

Shaista Naz* and Noor Paio Khan 

...ptive statistics, percentages and rank orders. The results revealed that livestock was the second major source of household income with 19 percent share. Among the livestock types, cattle were the major one followed by goats and sheep. Livestock was found significant at household level in two aspects of income provision and of lowering household and farm budget. Livestock income was derived from the sale of milk, milk products (such as yogurt, butter and butte...

Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar1*, Amir Shakeel1, Muhammad Amir Maqbool1, Muhammad Waheed Anwar1, Zoraiz Tanveer1 and Muhammad Fahad Irfan2 

... weight (g), lint percentage (%), fiber strength (g/tex), fiber length (mm) and fiber fineness (µg/inch). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences at 1% level of significance for all traits except fiber fineness. The mean performance of F1 populations were better than parents. Maximum GCV was recorded for number of monopodial branches followed by number of sympodial branches and seed cotton yield. High broad sense heritability estimates were...
Semra Benzer1,* and Recep Benzer2
...E), mean absolute percentage error performance criteria (MAPE) were used for comparison of artificial neural network and linear regression models goodness of fit. The results of the current study show that ANNs can be a superior estimation tool compared to LWR equation. Thus, as an outcome of the present study, ANNs can be considered as a finer method especially in the growth estimation of the species in biological systems. Another outcome of this study is tha...

Haidar Ali* and Malik Muhammad Shafi 

... and Charsadda. Four villages were selected two each from the sampled districts. Analysis showed that the coefficients of household size, educational level of the sampled respondent, age of the sample small farmer, were positively related to the off-farm employment. While farm area operated was negatively but significantly related to off-farm employment. Similarly the small farm households of developed vill
Jie Wu1, Jiagui Zhu2, Ke Wang2, Dejing Cai2, Yingying Liu1, Yanzhen Bu1,* and Hongxing Niu1,*
...aid in 12 nests, the average clutch size being 2.75±0.75 (range 2-4); 3) twenty-five eggs were hatched, with the average hatching success 78.48%; 4) twenty-three fledglings flew; the average fledging rate: 75.00%; 5) the average breeding success rate was 70.14%. The results will help guide the recovery and expansion of the Chinese crested ibis pop...
Fahad Tanveer1, Adnan Afzal2, Muhammad Adeel3*, Sana Shahid4 and Maham Masood5
... through statistical package of social sciences (SPSS) 21. The results of each group showed pre-treatment pain intensity for group 1 was 7.04+1.338 that changed to 3.52+0.714 and for group 2 it was changed from 7.52+0.872 to 5.16+0.850 and 7.16+0.943 to 5.12+0.781 for group 3. The NDI score for group 1, 2 and 3 were 31.56+5.560, 25.040+7.086 and 25.560+5.477 that were changed to 13.120+2.759, 16.360+2.899 and 12.600+2.020 respectively. The one way ANOVA test c...

Riaz Alam* and Muhammad Sajid 

...ltivars through Air-Layerage was determined at Olive Model Farm, Sangbhatti Mardan-Pakistan during the year 2014. The experiment was laid out according to Randomized Complete Block Design with two factors factorial arrangement. Air layerings were practiced on July 1, 16, 31; August 15, 30 and September 14 in plants of olive cultivars Frontoio, Manzanilla, Ottobratica, Pendolino and Picual. Significant variations were recorded among olive cultivars regarding as...
Temel Gokturk1, Elif Tozlu2,* and Recep Kotan2
...s study. The studied bio agents were tested by spraying on R. simulans nymphs and adults. B. thuringiensis subsp. kenyae, B. brevis and B. sphaericus GC subgroup D were the most effective on nymphs, whereas B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstakii, P. chlororaphi, and B. brevis were the most effective on adults. Under controlled conditions, mortality rate varied between 19.58%-42.08% in nymph applications...
Falah Baiee1,3, Wahid Haron1,*, Rosnina Yusoff1, Ariff Omar,2 Nurhusien Yimer1, Salman Hammadi1, Tarig Ahmedeltayeb1, Asmatullah Kaka4
...method involving three stages of graduated electrical stimulation (Method II) in four crossbred bulls. The results showed that intensive muscle spasm, bull struggling and arc back were reduced (p ˂ 0.05), as well as the time of penile protrusion (p = 0.003) and semen emission (p = 0.084) were improved using Method II than Method I. However, the total time taken for semen collection was the same in both methods. Also, there were no significant differences ...
Ajmal Khan Kassi1,*, Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...ve approaches for the management of this pest. As the information regarding resistant cultivars is lacking, therefore, the objective of the present study was to identify resistant sources from among the available commercial okra cultivars. Okra cultivars showed significant variations from comparative susceptibility to comparative resistance. On the basis of fruit and shoot infestation caused by H. armigera,Manchali, RK-516, OH-152 and Tarnab Nargis were...
Ibrar Muhammad Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan1,*, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Tahir Usman2, Adnan Khan1, Zakir Ullah1 and Hamid Rehman1
... mature bulls having average age 3 ± 0.14 years, were selected in three different groups i.e., Sahiwal, Holstein-Friesian and crossbred (Sahiwal x Holstein-Friesian) to compare the semen quality. Semen samples were individually diluted with egg yolk extender and tested for individual motility, progressive motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosomal and DNA integrity, seminal pH and dead sperm percent
Shumaila Ashfaq1, Liaqat Ali2*, Muhammad Ashraf Zia2, Rizwan Ahmad Khan2 and Mehtash Butt3
... were recorded regarding age; mean pretreatment and post treatment VAS after 6 hours.Mean decrease in pain VAS score was 3.30 + 1.2 in group A while 7.17+ 1.3 in group B. (P value 0.001).Intravenous hydrocortisone is more effective in reducing post dural puncture headache pain severity after spinal anaesthesia for elective caesareansection when given along with conventional treatment as compared to conventional treatment alone.
...
Qunhua Han1,2, Meiwen Zhang1,*, Cong Guo2, Xunjun Zhou1, Bo Li1 and Yong Wang1
...pproximately 3 months of age with respect to growth. Vole pups were randomized into litters of 1-2 (LD, low density), 3-5 (MD, medium density), and 6-9 (HD, high density) individuals, and the body weight, body length, tail length, and hind foot length were measured and curve-fitted by using Von Bertalanffy and Logistic equations. Instantaneous growth rates and growth acceleration of Yangtze voleat different densities were calculated. Results showed that at dif...
Anan Kenthaoand Pornpimol Jearranaiprepame*
...e to identify fishery management units of C. apogon from six populations of three different river drainages: Pong, Chi, and Mun Rivers. Thirty-two truss measures and standard length were obtained using digital calliper from 291 fish individuals, and raw measured data were then subjected to allometric equation to remove size-dependent variation prior further statistical analyses. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANO...
Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan1,*, Ghazala Roohi3 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...y Miocene to Pleistocene ages of the Siwaliks of Pakistan. Enamel hypoplasia is a tooth malady which is caused by the deficiency of food/nutrients. The feeding deficiency is directly linked to the physiological or environmental stress. In this study occurrence of enamel hypoplasia in giraffids has been observed in species of all time intervals between 18.3-0.6 Ma except the time 11.2-9.0 (late Miocene) that has no giraffids with this dental defect. The compara...
Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq1, Muhammad Shahzad2, Xiaokang Wu3, Chaofeng Ma4 and Jiru Xu1,*
... and narrows the air passages. Present study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota of asthma patients and to investigate the alteration in similarity and diversity of gut microbial composition with comparison of healthy controls. Fecal samples from fifteen patients and five healthy individuals were collected. PCR-DGGE, by using universal primers focusing V3 region of 16S rRNA gene, was performed for characterization of gut microbial composition. Sequencing ...
Jarosław Pytlewski1, Ireneusz Antkowiak1 and Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska2,*
... taken from each animal: age at first insemination, age at first calving, number of semen portions attributable to successful insemination, length of pregnancy and periods of: insemination service, postpartum resting period, interpregnancy period and intercalving period. The study also determined weight of the cow and weight of the calf at calving (including gender). Statistical calculations were performed using the statisti...
Muhammad Siraj-ud-Din1,2, Riaz Aziz Minhas1, Usman Ali3,*, Mayoor Khan2, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Nuzhat Shafi1 and Basharat Ahmad1
...ill help conservation management of the species in the area. The habitat use of urial was determined on the basis of direct or indirect evidence (e.g. animal sightings, fecal pallets and hairs) in different habitats. Information on food consumption was collected by using scan sampling technique and also collected from local people, hunters and shepherds (n=78). During scan sampling, focused feeding animals were observed with the help of a telescope and spottin...
Sayyed Ghyour Abbas1, Muhammad Adeeb Babar1,*, Muhammad Akbar Khan1, Kiran Aftab2, Ayesha Riaz3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Muhammad Akhtar1
...ern Pakistan. The assemblage presents seven bovid species Pachyportax latidens, P. cf. nagrii, Selenoportax cf. vexillarius, Tragoportax punjabicus, T. cf. salmontanus, Elachistoceras khauristanensis and Gazella lydekkeri. The boselaphines are predominant at the type locality. The taxa are consistent with a Late Miocene-Early Pliocene age of the deposits. The findings expand our know...
Saleh S. Alhewairini1,* and Mahmoud M. Al-Azzazy1,2
...f new integrated pest management. After the direct application of Huwa-San TR50, N. cucumeris could also sustain its population on treated and/or dead T. urticae, under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Statistically, the difference between laboratory and greenhouse conditions was insignificant (P > 0.5, using F-test Graphpad prism 7). Up to 3000 ppm of Huwa-San TR50 reduced the population of N. cucumeris by 11.83 and 17.66% under g...
Saleh S. Alhewairini
...ad as well as serious damage produced by the red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, have forced emphasis of various research teams on finding appropriate methods for managing and controlling it. A huge fund was given for managing and controlling RPW in several countries. In this study, the potential toxicity of oxamyl to RPW was evaluated under both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, oxamyl had significant effects on ...
Rana Hanan1*, Muhammad Waqar Shafi1, Sumair Anwar2 and Numrah Nawaz1
...-hypertension affect all ages and professions, and are as common as flu infections by affecting 1 in every 5 persons. In order to determine frequency of hypertension and pre-hypertension among medical students and their association with various variable and fixed risk factors, this study was designed. The cross sectional study of 4 months was carried out on the students of Shalamar Medical and Dental College. Students were age
Xiaoting Zhang1,2, Jiaxiang Wang1,2,*, Peng Li1,2,* and Lixun Ye1,2
...thelial cells and macrophages. The ghrelin-ip cells showed cytoplasmic staining, they were cone, oval, spindle, round or irregular in shape and tended to be restricted to a single cell. These results demonstrate the presence of ghrelin-ip cells in the lung of the African ostrich and therefore it is speculated that ghrelin may have a physiological function in the lung of the African ostrich.
...
Bian Xunguang1,2, Li Jiancheng1, Xu Chu1 and Yang Li2,3,4,*
...r mechanism of sperm storage.
...
Tanzeela Riaz1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2,* and Syed Shahid Ali3
...n. Among developmental stages, the 4th instar larvae possessed higher microsomal enzyme activities than 6th instar larvae and adult beetles in all populations. The increased level of microsomal enzymes in phosphine-tolerant populations as compared to susceptible population has pointed some correlation between microsomal enzymes and phosphine tolerance.
...
Rana Fartab Shoukat1, Shoaib Freed1,*, Kanwar Waqas Ahmad1 and Ateeq-ur-Rehman2
...licidae), is most common agent for transferring a mass of pathogens i.e., West Nile Virus (WNV), avian pox virus (APV) etc. in rural and urban areas. To mitigate these problems study was conducted by using binary mixtures of entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana (isolates Bb-01, Bb-10), Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (isolate Ma-11.1, Ma-2.4)and Isaria fumosorosea (isolates If-2.3, If-02) and chemical insecticide...
Wanrong Wei and Weiguo Zhang* 
...g, hibernation, food storage, protection from predators and extreme environment, and the function of burrows varies with the degree of burrow complexity. We studied the burrow architecture (length, internal dimensions, fractal dimension of tunnel systems, number of nesting chambers and surface holes) by excavating the tunnels of 24 burrow systems of the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae). Pikas have two types of burrow systems, namely temporary and perma...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...opted to minimize its damage. Some cultivars were found resistant to the borer infestation and are recommended for cultivation.
...
Salma Javed, Saima Majeed, Nasira Kazi and Shahina Fayyaz*
...sediments of Mubarak Village in Karachi, Pakistan. The new species is characterized by a cuticle bearing 20-22 longitudinal ridges, tail conical, tapering evenly to narrow terminus 116-128 µm long. Cellular body content extending 2/3 of the tail length. Heterodorus longidens (Jairajpuri and Loof, 1968) Andrassy, 2009 is reported for the first time from Pakistan is briefly redescribed and illustrated.

 

...

SHARIF UDDIN, MD. HASIBUL HASAN, MOHAMMED MAHBUB IQBAL, MOHAMMAD AMZAD HOSSAIN

...matids and spermatozoa stages during the month of June and July.
 
...

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

...effects of different tillage systemscombined with glyphosate herbicide on soil moisture content,bulk density and porosity associated with wheat grain yield were evaluated. Seven tillage treatments were applied in the fallow periods (summer seasons) of both years before sowing of wheat crop. These tillage treatments were (i) Once Mould board plowing followed by 8 cultivations with planker (...
Tariq Mahmood*1, Syed Wasif Ahmed Shah1, Muhammad Rais1, Hira Fatima1, Faraz Akrim1 and Muhammad Sajid Nadeem2
...g their different life stages. Nest composition and location are important factors in studying utility of plant material by avifauna. The current study investigated nesting use of tree species by avifauna at Pabbi Range Forest Kharian (32.811°N and 73.865°E), District Gujrat, from September 2013 to June 2015. Data were collected from five selected sampling sites by searching and identifying nests of different bird species in various vegetation types an...
Faiza Ambreen*1 and Muhammad Javed2
...en to examine the DNA damage induced by pesticide mixture (endosulfan+chlorpyrifos) in peripheral blood erythrocytes of freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus by using Comet assay. The 96-h LC50 value of pesticide mixture was estimated for 180-old fingerlings of O. niloticusin a static system and then four sub-lethal concentrations viz. 1/3rd of LC50, 1/4th of LC50, 1/5th of...
Ghazala Saeed1, Rabia Wajid1* and Ayesha Yousaf Dar2
...re between18-25 years of age and 37.14 % (n=52) were between 26-35 years of age. The mean+SD was calculated as 25.12+4.53 years. Frequency ofvaginal delivery in patients with eclampsia was 30.71 % (n=43) while69.29 % (n=97) were delivered through cesarean section. Comparisonof maternal mortality in two groups was recorded, where out of 43 spontaneous vaginal deliveries mortality was recorded in 6.98 % (n=3). Out of 97 cesare...

Irfan1* , Arshad Javid2 , Muhammad Altaf3 , Muhammad Shahbaz3 , and Khalid Javed Iqbal4 

...profile with increase in age were analyzed in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo). Genderwise variations and effect of rearing systems i.e. free range, semi-intensive and confinements were also assessed from 1st to 6th month of age. Total sixty (n = 60) experimental birds were divided in to three groups i.e., poults having age 4-8 weeks (10

Warda Fatima1 , Shahida Hasnain1 , Saqib Mahmood2

 

...amily. For the males the age at onset was higher compared to females and the affected individuals were unmarried and unemployed. Parental consanguinity was another important determinant studied and was identified that three of four offsprings of cousin marriage were schizophrenic. It was concluded from the present study that along with inherited nature of schizophrenia importance of shared environment cannot be ruled out. Th...

Haji Muhammad1, 2, Zafar Iqbal1, Qamar Bashir2, Muhammad Amir Hanif3

...ndus River in Taunsa barrage from Punjab, Pakistan. The value of length weight relationship (LWR) equation and condition factor (K) ranged W= -0.249 TL0.79 – W= -2.803 TL3.55 and 0.07 – 1.69 respectively. The objective of this study was to determine LWR and condition factor of cat fish species of Indus River that could help in
conservation and management of ichthyofauna in the Indus Rivers, Pakistan

...

Ayesha Aihetasham1*, Khalid Zamir Rasib2, Syeda Rida Hasan1, Imran Bodlah3

...s can be used for the management of H. indicola.

...

 Maleeha Manzoor1*, Madiha Manzoor2, Qurat-ul-ain Ahmed3, Sobia Ahmed4, Shazia Manzoor5

...57±1.07), between age 19-40 years and it’s higher in 3rd trimester of their pregnancies. Additionally low educational status and poor dietary habits showed high risks of anemia among the pregnant women.

...
Telat Yanik1,* and Irfan Aslan2
... as predation, food shortage or heavy fishing may exacerbate the climatic impacts on the aquaculture biodiversity. Based upon current general consensus among researchers, a global legislation and action-plan is required. Additionally, regulatory authorities from both developed and underdeveloped countries should enforce the implementation of these legislations. Such initiatives are fundamental in conservation of aquaculture, sustainability of increasing food s...

Malak Atiq Ullah Khan* and Fida Mohammad 

...type for all traits. Average over nine environments, genotype G-79 exhibited maximum values for tillers m-2 (181 tillers); grains spike-1 (71 grains); grain yield (4862 kg ha-1) and thus appeared as leading genotype for yield and production traits. Similarly, G-79 had higher grain yield in all test environments except E-03 i.e. E-01 (4537 kg ha-1); E-02 (4840 kg ha-1); E-04 (5035 kg ha-1); E-05 (4976 kg ha-1); E-06 (4797 kg ha-1); E-07 (5024 kg ha-1); E-08 (47...

Sajid Muhammad* and Fida Mohammad 

...notypes is always on the agenda of cultivar development programs. Testing of genotypes across environments is required to determine yield stability of genotypes. The specific objective of the current study was to analyze genotype by environment interaction (GEI) of grain yield for 50 genotypes using GGE model. Germplasm was field-tested using alpha lattice design in two replications at Peshawar (E-1 and E-3), Hangu (E-2 and E-4) and Kohat (E-5) Khyber Pakhtunk...
Ayesha Aihetasham1,*, Humaira Aziz1 and Khalid Zamir Rasib2
...Pronil (Fipronil) and Mirage (Imidacloprid) were tested in soil against Heterotermes indicola. Treatment with Pronil and Mirage during 8 h caused less than 97% mortality in 8 h. LC50 values for Pronil and Mirage were 39.81 ppm and 177.32 ppm, respectively. Pronil was found more toxic than Mirage with low LC50 value however bo...
Faiza Hassan1, Mubshara Saadia1,*, Muhammad Sher1, Mian Anjum Murtaza2, Muhammad Arshad3,Asam Riaz4 and Mahmood Ahmad Khan5
....
...

Niamat Ullah Khan1*, Abdul Aziz Khakwani2, Sami Ullah2, Najeeb Ullah2, Abdur Rauf3 and Inam Ullah2

...ign: justify;">Ridge tillage system is one approach to ensure better plant population, save irrigation water, cut cultivation costs and increases cotton yield and quality on sustainable basis. Field trial was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to study the effect of tillage systems [ridge tillage (RT) and flat till

Soraya Khosravian Dehordi*, Abdolnaser Mohebbi and Kahin Shahanipour

...All doses was orally (gavage) given to rates.Protein carbonyls (PC) andthiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS),superoxide dismutase (SOD) glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) values in spleen were measured. An increase in TBARS and PC levels was obtained in rats' spleen of the Cd-group than controls and nano-Se decreased this effect close to the control. The CAT values of all groups did not differ significantly. The values of SOD and GPx wer...

Ayesha Aihetasham*, Faiza Qayyum and Muhammad Xaaceph

...t insects. They cause damage to furniture, household goods, timber and forest vegetation. Present study was designed to determine the effect of fungus isolates at six different exposure times on Coptotermes heimi (Wasmann), which is one of the major destructive termites of Pakistan. Fungal conidia were repellent to C. heimi. The workers of C. heimi were exposed to fungus for 60, 45, 30, 20, 15, 10 minutes and percentage mort...

 Mohammed Mahbub Iqbal*, Mehedi Hasan Kanon, Mohammad Amzad Hossain, Abul Hossain, Shamima Nasren, Md. Jahidul Islam, Md. Arifur Rahman

...e indigenous fish assemblage of Konoskhaihaor for 9 months from May 2014 to January 2015. The Konoskhaihaor area covers 104.50 acres of land containing 6 small to large beels. In the monsoon haor remains under water. A total of 37 fish species belong to 7 orders including prawns were found. Among the 37 species 5 were vulnerable, 7 endangered, 1 critically endangered, 3 exotic, 20 not threatened and 1 not evaluated according to IUCN, Bangladesh, 2000. The Shan...
RuiHua Zhang, YongFang Jia, TingTing Liang, QianWen Yang, QiYan Du and ZhongJie Chang*
... involved in the early stages of neuronal determination and neurogenesis in vertebrates. Tissue distribution analyses by Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that CcSoxD genes were abundant in the brain, showed sexual dimorphism, and were inconsistently expressed during embryogenesis. These results indicated that CcSoxD plays an important role in the development of the nervous system and may be involved in sexual development in carp. ...
Yakut Gevrekçi* and Çiğdem Takma
...rmed with cathegorical (cage and line) and continuous (hatch, age at sexual maturity and body weight of sexual maturity) predictors and a continuous response variable (EP). The Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients among all predictor variables were significantly changed from 0.88 to -0.65. Age of sexual maturity was found the most predictor variable that affecting EP and it was fo...
Amjad Khan1,*, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq1, Mansur ud Din Ahmad1, Jawad Nazir1, Zahida Fatima2, Asghar Khan3 and Shahid Hussain Farooqi3
...g the demographic and management risk factors associated with seroprevalence of EIV. Using ELISA kit and HI as serological methods for diagnosis, we found a 24.13% (168/696) overall seroprevalence, where the seroprevalence for H3N8 was 14.51% (101/696), for H7N7 6.03% (42/696), and 3.59% (25/696) as mixed infections, suggesting EIV current and active circulation in equine population of Pakistan. Statistical analysis suggested predicting variables including &ld...
Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed*
...were to evaluate ovaries age effect on restoration function upon transplantation in mice and rats. Eighteen adult female rats were classified to three equal groups in addition to sex young females as donor of young ovaries. Similar classification was done using eighteen female mice and sex young females. The females of mice or rats were anesthetized for ovarian transplantation using (6.2 and 13.2 mg/kg BW) and (13.3 and 26.6 mg/kg BW) diazepam and xylazine, re...
Saara Ahmad1,*, Iftikhar Ahmed2, Saida Haider3, Zehra Batool3, Fatima Ahmed4, Saiqa Tabassum3,6, Syeda Madiha3, Tahira Perveen3 and Saad Bilal Ahmed5
...

 

...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

.../i> serotype O78 or both agents simultaneously or 3 days apart. The birds were clinically observed and swabbed daily. They were killed at 4 and 14 days after single or dual inoculations and were inspected for gross lesions. Samples of the respiratory organs (trachea, lungs, and air sacs) were taken for histological analyses. All the infected subjects showed clinical signs of varying severity. Co-infected groups showed the most obvious clinical signs, associate...
Tania Ahmed Shakoori1,*, Muhammad Saqib Saeed2, Asif Hanif2, Saima Mukhtar3 and Ayesha Ghauri4 
...ted to the hospital. Average number of hospital visits for exacerbations per year, smoking history, family history of smoking related chronic lung disease in first degree relatives and presence of comorbidities were recorded from patient history and medical records. Body mass index was calculated and complete pulmonary function tests were recorded using electronic spirometer. Three multiple linear regression models were created with mid maximal expiratory flow...

Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Ather Javed Khan2, Muhammad Idrees3 and Ahmad Kamran Khan4 

...ries. Integrated pest management project was launched in Punjab and run by agriculture extension department. Farmer Field Schools were formed at each village level. Present study was designed to evaluate the role of integrated pest management for cotton production technologies by the registered growers of Hasilpur, Punjab. In order to collect this information an interview schedule was prep...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

.... A total of fifteen villages out of total 173 were selected for study, 75 farmers were interviewed, 05 from each of the 15 selected villages. A total of 15 focus group discussions were organised, one is each selected village. The key parameters addressed during survey were cropping pattern, sowing, harvesting date and yield per acre of different crops, pests and crops diseases, flowering ...

Muhammad Tariq1*, Muhammad Khawar Hussain1, Zilakat Khan Malik2 and Noor Jehan1 

...purposively selected villages of district Charsadda. Out of 382 producers 176 were located in Tebana Dhere and 206 in Sarkai village. It is find out that 47% of land area was under the cultivation of strawberry with average production of 2898 kilogram per acre. The per acre average values of land preparation, NPK fertilizer, labor, seedling, farm yard ma...
Tahira Kamal1*, Saeed-Ul-Hassan Khan2, Amir Bin Zahoor3, Khalid Naeem3, Muhammad Naeem Riaz1, Siddra Tayyab Akhtar4, Ghulam Muhammad Ali1*
...using R Neasy Minikit (Qiagen) according to instruction manual. After extraction RNAs were eluted in 60 ul elution buffer and stored at -70C. Each strain of FMD virus was serially diluted to -5dilution in order to check the efficacy of test. Reaction was completed in 1 hr and 10 min at temperatures 600C. It was also tested in hot water bath on same temperature. Results were same in both techniques. Results showed that LAMP was more sensitive for FMD...
Lowell Gustafson
...along our current pilgrimage, but he would be the first to say that is not the final word about ultimate reality.
...

Waqas Liaqat1, Mohammad Akmal1* and Jawad Ali 

...half of the national average in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province. The study aims to find outoptimum sowing time for a suitable variety (OPV or hybrid) in Peshawar. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar during summer 2016. Experiment was a randomized complete block with split plots in three replications. Factor one was sowing dates (June 18, 30, July 15, 29 and August 5) as main plot treatment. The secon...
Francisco J. Ayala
... a Creator or a planning agent external to the organisms themselves. There is no scientific evidence of any vital force or immanent energy directing the evolutionary process toward the production of specified kinds of organisms. Even if a scientific account of natural history is open to the God question, it will take a theologian to propose an answer. 
...
Shahid Mehmood1,*, Bushra Nisar Khan1, Hassan Raza1, Rida Ahmad1, Azhar Muhammad3, Zulfiqar Ali2, Farhan Abid1, Fehmeeda Bibi4 and Syed Maviz Ahmed5
...ight (8) (11.3%) and passage migrant one (1) (1.4%). More birds were observed in winter season compared to summer season. The most dominant species were house crow, Corvus splendens (n=2518), house sparrow, Passer domesticus (n=772), common myna, Acridotheres tristis (n=327), black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax (n=190) and jungle babbler, Turdoides striatus (n=186). Among 71 species, Alexandrine parakeet, Psit...
Jo Ik-Hwan1, Choi Kwang-Won1 and Muhammad Fiaz2,*
...re levels for optimum forage yield and organic Hanwoo cattle carrying capacity from 2012-13 to 2014-15. Experiment was conducted under split plot arrangement having 3 main plots (Sole Rye, Rye with hairy vetch and rye with pea) and 4 sub-plots (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N/ha). Findings showed if rye was mixed cropped with hairy vetch, dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) yield was not different (P>0.05) from control, whereas rye-vetch mixture had...
Muhammad Abubakar,1,2,* Aamer Bin Zahur,1,3 Khalid Naeem1,3, Muhammad Azeem Khan1,3 and Subhan Qureshi
...sease affected all three age groups of sheep and goats but the younger animals were more severely affected with a morbidity rate of 37.19%. The mortality and case fatality rates were also higher in young which were 46.86% and 17.39%, respectively. Yearly data of outbreaks was suggestive that a cyclic as well as seasonal pattern of disease occurred. The results of the phylogenetic tree indicated that all Pakistani PPRV strains, regardless of the gene used eithe...
Tasleem Akhtar*, Muhammad Asif Aziz, Muhammad Naeem, Muhammad Sheraz Ahmedand Imran Bodlah
...oon) crops along with managed Apis mellifera. Thirty five insect species belonging to twenty families under five orders were recorded on canola. Among the hymenopterans, abundance of managed A. mellifera was maximum (87.76%) followed by Apis florea (1.11%) and Apis dorsata (0.98%). Peak activity of the insect visitors was observed at the mid of the day i.e., 12:00 pm. The activity of man

Muhammad Luqman1,3, Raheel Saqib2*, Xu Shiwei3 and Yu Wen3 

...ignificant difference in age and educational status of male heads and their spouses. Majority of the farm families (39.3%) earn income for their livelihoods both from farming and non-farming sources. Intensity of participation of female respondents in different crops and livestock activities was comparatively high as compared to their male counterparts. It was found that average daily share of female in crops related activit...

Imran Khan*, Zahir Shah, Wiqar Ahmad, Farmanullah Khan and Muhammad Sharif 

...he effect of shallow tillage (ST, cultivator 0-20cm) and deep tillage (DT, moldboard plough 0-40cm) and different organic and inorganic fertilizers application to wheat crop on organic matter, micro-nutrient status and physical properties of soil at the NDF Farm, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2015-16. The study was planned in RCB split plot design with fertilizers; control (Farmer’s practices, FP, 60-4...

Ronaq Zaman*, Shahid Ali and Inam Ullah 

...espondents using multi-stage sampling technique through well-structure interview schedule. For the estimation of Stochastic frontier tans-log production function, maximum likelihood estimation technique was used. To ensure the abnormality of data set Chow test and Dummy variable test was employed for any possible structure break across the broiler farms. Results indicated that there were significant structural breaks across the sampled farms. Based on these fi...

Saima Akhtar Qureshi1 and Asim Anwar2*, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

...orate with international agencies to introduce sound agriculture practices like Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in Pakistan. In IPM technique natural parasites and predators are used to check pest growth instead of pesticides which reduces ecological and health damage. Pesticides are used at the last resort in IMP method so it reduces the cost of production and increases the farmers&rsquo...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...lation to the critical stages of maize crop were applied. Irrigation consisted of 93 mm water. Three organic soil conditioners viz., farmyard manure (10000 kg ha-1), wheat straw as crop residue (10000 kg ha-1) and two levels of humic acid (2 and 4 kg ha-1), alone and in combinations with gypsum (1000 kg ha-1) as inorganic soil conditioner were applied a week before sowing of maize. Design used was randomized complete block with split plot arrangement replicate...

Aqsa Waqar1, Sahir Hameed Khattak2, Sania Begum2*, Tayyaba Rehman1, Rabia1, Armghan Shehzad2, Wajya Ajmal2, Syeda Shahdana Zia2, Iqra Siddiqi2 and Ghulam Muhammad Ali2* 

... to the equator. Crop damages can reach 50 - 100%, due to infected plants and shriveled grain. These problems can be overcome by knowledge about the disease, identifying resistance lines and subsequently develop resistant varieties with an aim to shorten the disease cycle. One of the quickest ways in this direction is the designing molecular markers for non-race-specific resistance genes. Use of molecular markers is efficient tool for screening diversity of ru...

Wang Jian1, Abdur Rehman2*, Noor Khan3, Wang Zhengjia4, Ji Peng-fei5, Xie Cong6, Muhammad Niamatullah Khan Babar7 and Raheel Saqib8 

...to consume) and APC (Average propensity to consume) clearly shows that in the study area with the rise of rural households income, their consumption demand also increases. The relative co relational analysis shows, that the food consumption ranks first, household consumption has second, clothing consumption third, family equipment consumption fourth have highest close relation with the per capita income of rural households. Lastly the healthcare, transport com...

Afsheen Masood1*, Rubab Musarrat2, Shama Mazahir3 and Adeela Ashraf4  

...ched on the basis of the age and income level of the parents. Quality of Life Scale WHOQOLS and Marital Satisfaction Scale were used to collect the data from Anmol and Sundus Foundation and Fatmeed Foundation, Lahore. The results from independent sample t- test revealed that the quality of life and marital satisfaction of parents of children with leukemia was significantly lower than the parents of normal cohort. Further it was indicated by the correlation ana...

Aneeza Jamshed1* and Syed Amir Gillani2 

... selected through multistage cluster sampling. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in the time period of 6 months from April 2014 to Sep 2014. Data analysis was done with SPSS 20. After describing the important variables, average percentages were used to find out the difference between pre and post awareness performances and t score and p value was calculated. All the students (150) w...

Zehra Mohsin1*, Sarah Shahed2 and Talat Sohail

... sample of 160 nurses of age (M=33.48, SD=9.18) was selected from public hospitals of Lahore. The nurses completed a demographic information form, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Supportand Professional Quality of Life Scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Two demographic variables, age and experience had significant positive correlation with compassion fatigue, r =.252, n=160, p <.01 and r =.256...

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

... 5 randomly selected villages of District Charsadda. The study findings reveal a significant difference in the area under wheat, maize and vegetables after the flood. At the same time, the area under sugarcane and fodder had also decreased to some extent. Similarly, the use of chemical fertilizers and farm yard manure was also decreased due to decrease in the income of the households after the floods-2010 while an increase, though non-significant, was reported...

Fazal Ullah1*, Muhammad Sajid1, Syeda Leeda Gul2, Bibi Zainub1 and Maaz Khan

...er treatments on the storage life of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) cv. Sherkhana-I” was carried out at Post harvest Laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. The research was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors i.e. hot water dipping times (0, 5, 10, and 15 Minutes) and storage durations (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 Days). Hot water dipping times s...
Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...ctive against MDR. Older age of animals, higher California mastitis score, weak body condition, higher milk yield, early lactation, teat injury, higher parity number, tick infestation, self-treatment and higher use of penicillin in general ailments had positive association with MDR prevalence. The study concluded higher prevalence of MDR S. aureus in camel milk with significant association of assumed risk factors and some of antibiotics presented higher...
Kashif Prince1,*, M. Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Ijaz1, Aftab Ahmad Anjum2, Muhammad Asad Ali2, Jawaria Ali Khan1, Nisar Ahmad3,Rais Ahmed2, Aamerzish Mushtaq4, Sajid Umar4 and Yung-Fu Chang5
...mals, geographical area, age of animals, herd size, stage of animals, production level and concentrate feeding. Selenium deficiency was also evaluated as a risk factor of mastitis and repeat breeding. About 48.43% cattle and 72.39% buffaloes were found positive in selenium deficiency. Species (cattle and buffaloes) were significantly (χ2=23.042, df=1, p<0.05) associated with selenium deficiency. The highest...
Samra Imran1,* and Afifa Tanweer2
...icated that participants aged less than 18 years and those diagnosed within first year of life, had significantly healthier body dimensions. Higher family income, female gender and greater meal satisfaction was found to be associated with better biochemical indices. Most participants reported partial compliance to GFD. Compliant participants reported an increased consumption of junk food whereas, non-compliant patients, consumed significantly higher intakes of...
Wali Khan1,*, Noor-Un-Nisa2 and Muhammad Asif Nawaz3
...iduals below 15 years of age were found marginally more parasitized than above 15 years (0.3856, P<0.05). Males were more infected than females with (0.3157, P<0.05). No significant association was found among the occupational groups and parasitic infection (0.3089, P<0.05). However, shepherds were found more infected than farmers and education concerned. Due to comparative based approach in different occupational groups the present study is of partic...
Sumaira Zareen1, Syeda Sadaf Zahra2, Ayeza Mehmood3, Muhammad Asadullah4* and Aish Muhammad5

 

...oots per shoot at an average root length of 3.86 cm. After acclimatization and transplantation, 90% of the In- vitro derived plants were found healthy in ex vivo conditions.
...
Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1*, Abid Ali2, Manzoor Hussain2, Saadia3, Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Sohail Latif6
...pproaches of nutrient management can be a possible solution for these problems. So the present study was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, Groundnut Research Station Attock, Pakistan during rabi 2013-14 to check the effect of different integrated nutrients management strategies on the yield and quality of wheat. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement by using thr...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
...color from Marigold (Tagetes erecta) flower by using cheap and safe techniques and making it stable for long period of time in food products as well as in extracted form by using preservatives and antioxidants like citric acid and determining its usefulness by applying on food products. Natural edible color was extracted from T. erecta gave lemon yellow color shade which when applied on candies increased the attractiveness. The spectrophotometric...
Muhammad Naeem1, Bushra Sadia1,2,*, Faisal Saeed Awan1and Muhammad Anjum Zia3
...e (SK) is a thrombolytic agent having broad applications in treatment of various diseases like ischemia, Budd-Chiari syndrome, myocardial infarction, brain stroke and myocardial infarction. Strain improvement is an important approach for its hyper production. In this connection, wild bacterial strain Streptococcus equisimilis was mutagenized using ethidium bromide and UV radiation. The colonies (15 each) showing > ...
Ali Murad Rahoo,1,2,* Tariq Mukhtar,1,3 Shoukat Ibrahim Abro,4 Barkat Ali Bughio5 and Rehana Kanwal Rahoo6
...es as biological control agents of specific target insects is affected by their level of infectivity and reproductive capacity. Therefore, in the present study the productivity of five entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema feltiae, S. kraussei, S. carpocapsae, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and H. indica) were compared in Galleria mellonella larvae. The production of infective juveniles (IJ) in G. mellonella was significantly affec...

Rahila Nizami1, Muhammad Zahid Latif2*, Intzar Hussain3 and Khalid Rashid

...linical directors and managers. This research was conducted to study the leadership styles among the medical professionals. For this purpose, a cross sectional and non-probability convenient sampling was conducted involving 59 medical professionals of Azra Naheed Medical College, Lahore. The assessment of leadership-style (T-P leadership rating scale) was applied. The age of subjects was 37.42±11.91 years; 29(49.15%) ...

Sadaf Ghulam Rasul1*, Uzma Yaqub2, Maida Manzoor1 and Hafsa Mubasshar

...etrozole for the pain management of endometriosis in females. A total of 140 females fulfilling inclusion criteria were registered and an non-probability purposive technique of sampling was used. Diagnostic laparoscopy was conducted to make a diagnosis of endometriosis. Females were divided into two groups. Females in group A received treatment with Letrozole tablets (2.5 mg/day) and in group B received Danazol tablets (600 mg/day) for 3 months. Pelvic pain wa...

Nukhbat-Ullah Awan1*, Muhammad Sohail2, Zeeshan Sarwar3, Muhammad Mustahsen Bashir4, Muhammad Abbas Khokhar5 and Asad Aizaz Chatha

...ed. All patients were managed in ICU and early tracheostomy was performed in addition to standardized medical treatment. A total of 86% males with age 32±8.3 years presented the study participants. Results demonstrated thatmost common mode of trauma was road traffic accident, and majority (54%) of patients were never vaccinated. Incubation period noted was 7±1 days. Tracheostomy was performed in 16±3 hou...

Ayesha Saeed*, Mobina Naqvi and Ahsan Javed 

...ersion 22. Mean maternal age was 28.100+4.824 years, mean education was 12.400+2.138 years, mean BMI was 29.420+5.075 and mean household income was PKR 25641+16251.543. With these characteristics, the mean birth weight of2.814+0.551 kg was recorded. Four percent (n=2) had very low food security and 34% (n=17) women had low food security. Importantly, food unsecured women had a 5.439 times increased risk of delivering a low birth weight neonate (RR=5.439, CI=1....

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

... were primigravida. Mean age in study group was 15 to 24 years. We observed mild anemia in 46% of woman, moderate anemia in 41% and severe anemia in 13% in young primigravida. Preterm delivery was noted in 25% of the females and low birth weight babies were noted by 33% in teenage and young primigravida. Statistically significant relationship was found between maternal age, education and s...

Zahid Akram, Saif Ullah Ajmal, Ghulam Shabbir, Muhammad Munir and Nasir Mahmood Cheema

INHERITANCE MECHANISM OF SOME YIELD COMPONENTS IN BREAD WHEAT
...on. The estimates of average degree of dominance for spike length (1.139), 1000 grain weight (1.421), number of spikelets spike-1 (2.293), number of grains spike-1 (1.631) and grain yield plant-1 (1.111) evidenced the prevalence of non additive gene action controlling these traits. The present results, therefore, revealed that selection for these traits in early generation may not be useful and it has to be delayed till segregating generations.
...

Parvez Khaliq*, Muhammad Azim Malik** and M. Aslam Gill***

EFFECT OF CROPPING SYSTEMS, TILLAGE PRACTICES AND FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON WHEAT STAND ESTABLISHMENT UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
... (cropping systems x tillage practices x fertilizer treatments) under rainfed condition, during 2000-01 and 2000-02. On the basis of wheat emergence (m-2) and emergence rate index, wheat stand establishment was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the fallow-wheat cropping system compared to maize-wheat, mungbean-wheat, and cowpea-wheat system. Tillage practices (shallow and deep) and fertilizer treatments {recommended dose o...

Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Khalid Naseem, Muhammad Amjad, Amer Mumtaz and Saeeda Raza*

...oken/shrunken grains, damaged grains, moisture, ash, protein (N x 5.7), wet and dry gluten, falling number, and minerals (copper, manganese, iron, zinc). It was observed that wheat samples varied considerably within each region and also between regions. Attock region samples had highest test weight (80.50 kg hl -1), protein (11.80 %) and lowest nonedible foreign matter (0.45%) and broken/shrunken grains (0.88 %). Highest wet and dry gluten (27.44 % and 9.29 %)...

Saeeda Raza, Muhammad Naeem Safdar, Amer Mumtaz, Nouman Siddiqui, Khalid Nasim and Muhammad Amjad*

... during three months storage in double polyethylene bags at ambient temperature (20-25 ºC).

...

Naheed Akhtar, Azra Nasim*, Ata ul Mohsin**, Muhammad Ashfaque, Shaheena Yasmin, Ghulam Jilani, Afzala Tashfeen, Waseem Ahmed Gilani, Irshad Begum* and Muhammad Munir***

...7 were resistant with damage rating of 2- 3. Twelve wheat lines/varieties, 99B4012, 99B2278, V-9021, V-002493, Wafaq 2001, PR-84, TW0135, CT-00062, 7-03, PR-86, V-02192 and Chakwal 97 were found moderately resistant. Three wheat lines/varieties namely RWM-9313, V-00125 and Diamond were moderately susceptible (MS) with damage rating of 6. No wheat line was found as susceptible during these studies. Results of antixenosis test...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

...ds; however, these advantages are curbed by the high prices charged for genetically modified illegal cotton seeds in the country. National Biosafety Guidelines of 2005, must be followed to approve all genetically modified crop varieties including cotton. This will encourage the introduction of this advanced technology through legal means with its complete package of benefits. After approva...

Mohammad Aslam*

...e independence. The shortage in domestic production is met through imports for which valuable foreign exchange has to be earmarked. On the other hand, Pakistan has been a sizeable net exporter of rice. An effort has been made in the present paper to probe the possibility of attaining food autarky through a partial substitution of wheat with rice in the consumption plan of consumers. The study reveals that rice is a substitute food commodity for wheat and may b...

Golam Moula* and Sayedur Rahman**

...ance. The overall percentage of seed germination (mean ± SD) was 41.48 ± 5.63. However, further trial with the germinated seedlings is necessary to explore its viable potentiality at the field level.

...

Sidra Majeed, Shahid Ahmad*, Asif Ali Bhatti** and Ghazanfar Abbas***

...is revealed that the average net return was Rs. 6744 ha-1 with minimum loss of Rs. 7674 ha-1 during 2000-01 to a gain of Rs. 20822 ha-1 during 2004-05. The analysis of cost of production indicated that the increase was largely in the cost of tillage and harvesting due to increase in the price of diesel fuel and renting cost of farm machinery. The average net return from barani wheat using ...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

... frost/cold spells, shortage of irrigation water over normal supplies, imbalanced use of fertilizers particularly of DAP fertilizer below the recommended doses, higher prices of inputs such as seed, fertilizer, diesel, electricity and less wheat prices during 2006-07 and late announcement of the minimum guaranteed wheat price for 2007-08 were the main reasons of lower wheat production in 2007-08. To enhance the wheat yield, farmers were of the view that the ti...

 Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Munir* and Muhammad Aslam**

...ation of 3H-ABA at all stages after treatment. The basal levels of ABA in phloem sap were lower in NODI- 3 than in Williams-82. Inoculation further accentuated this difference. The major changes in ABA level in phloem sap and leaves occurred between 48 to 96 h after inoculation.

...

 Aneela Afzal, Tanvir Ali, Munir Ahmad, Humera Amin and Samina Saki*

...njab, Pakistan. A multistage random sampling technique was used to collect the data from 480 respondents from three tehsils of the district. The results show that a vast majority of women were illiterate, having annual family income less than one lac, living in joint family system and having small land farms. A large proportion of the respondents reported that they remained engaged in cleaning of seeds, sowing, harvesting, w...

 R. Hussain* and A. N. Naqvi**

...ements indicated the average height 70.41±0.837 cm vs. 57.91±0.342 cm, heart girth 83.58±0.628 cm vs. 70.42±0.702 cm and body length 78.18±0.355 cm vs. 70.10±2.160 cm in males vs. females of Gojali goat. The data on growth traits indicated the average birth weight, weaning weight and adult weight as 1.53±0.070, 7.04±0.17 and 41.38±0.39 kg in males against 1.28&pl...

 Badaruddin Khokhar*, Imtiaz Hussain** and Zafar Khokhar*

...ion at critical growth stages could improve wheat yield significantly. A study was conducted during 2000–2002 to determine effect of different irrigation levels on growth and yield of different wheat genotypes in the province of Sindh. The trial was laid out in split block design at Wheat Research Institute, Sindh, Sakrand, in which four irrigation treatments I3 (irrigation at crown root, booting and soft dough stage),...

 Mazher Abbas*, Muhammad Waqas Akram**, Ikram Saeed*** and Arshed Bashir*

...ium and small farms. Average gross revenue by small, medium and large farmers was Rs. 35913.10, Rs. 39635.54 and Rs. 39868.80 acre-1 respectively. Average of net income by small, medium and large farmers was Rs. 21194.59, Rs. 20608.26 and Rs. 19956.50 respectively. Benefit cost ratio for small, medium and large farmers was 2.44:1.00, 2.08:1.00 and 2.00:1.00 respectively. The study revealed that canola production in Central P...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

...owth parameters. The average yield of Okra during trial showed a significantly greater response in VW+VC compared with the control by 64.27 %. The fruits have a greater percentage of fats and protein content in VW+VC when compared with those grown with chemical fertilizers by 23.86% and 19.86%, respectively. The combination treatment [VW+VC] also have a significant influence on the biochemical characteristics of the soil wit...

 Abid Hussain*, Imdad Hussain Mirza and Muhammad Azeem Khan**

...s. Proper feeding and management is of fundamental importance to the success of any goats’ enterprise. In Pothowar region of Punjab, household and sedentary system of goat production is practiced. The availability of feed varies according to the season. Goats in the region are under nourished and producing less than potential. This study was conducted to find out the feed supplementation practices of goats in the Pothowar region. Data for this study was ...

 Nadeem Akmal, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Waqar Akhtar*

...eetal with fodder and forage in the area, majority of the farmers (73%) considered it more suitable. There was a price difference of Rs. 1277 for male kids and Rs. 697 for female kids of the same age than the kids from local buck crosses. The farmers believed that the price difference was not only due to the higher weight but a better look and better structure of the Beetal goat. Farming community showed keen interest in usi...

 Ahmed Aziz Kurd, Amanullah, Saifullah Khan, Basharat Hussain Shah and Munir Ahmed Khetran*

.... Highest rooting percentage (60%) was obtained in the cuttings treated with 3000 ppm. The maximum average number of roots per cutting (4.443) and average root length (5.687 cm) were recorded with 4000 ppm IBA treatment. Percentage of rooted cuttings decreased with increased IBA concentration, whereas, number of roots and root length increased with incre...

Tariq Mahmood, M. Sudheer Tariq, Khalid Mahmood Khokar, Hidayatullah and Syed Ijaz Hussain*

...ity of plants due to foliage eating by red pumpkin beetle was observed in control wh