Souvik Ghosh, Nobumichi Kobayashi

British Journal of Virology
...rotaviruses (RVA) are a major cause of severe viral diarrhea in infants and children. Although studies on the genetic diversity of the antigenically important RVA VP7- and VP4- protein encoding genes are important for vaccine development or judging the efficacy of existing RVA vaccines, they do not always provide conclusive information on the overall and complex genetic makeup of RVAs, as the remaining 9 RVA gene segments are also susceptible to the forces gov...

Johanna Lindahl 1, 2

British Journal of Virology
...in rice fields, and the majority of cases subsequently occur in rural areas. This review lists the risks of emergence of diseases due to the on-going urbanization, with especial focus on vector-borne diseases, particularly Japanese encephalitis. It is concluded, that although the mechanisms required for an extensive human to human transmission is not present for Japanese encephalitis virus, there is evidence of urban virus transmission. Thus, considering incre...

Shahid Ali, Munir Khan

...ucation was found to be major determinant of technical efficiency/inefficiency. The esti- mated coefficient of farmers’ education was negative and statistically significant, implies that techni- cal inefficiency decreases with the increase in farmers’ education. The use of more labour and tractor plough hours would increase wheat production in the country.The analysis revealed that the technical efficiency increases with the increase in the level o...

Varadaraja V. Raman

...o been terrorism by the majority on the minority in communities and nations: for example, Jews in Nazi Germany, Kurds in Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, and Blacks in South Africa. In recent years a new kind of terrorism has been emerging in which individuals or groups attack and murder innocent civilians in another country.

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Muhammad Zahid1*, Muhammad Salman2, Shah Alam Khan2, Alamzeb1, Inamullah Khan1

 

...ani (Oben.) is the major insect-pest of stone fruit orchards. Survey of three districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa revealed the highest mean infestation in plum orchards of district Peshawar (89.60%), followed by Nowshera (75.79%) and Swat (45.42%). In peach orchards, highest mean infestation was recorded in Peshawar (88.33%), followed by Nowshera (72.77%) and Swat (53.72%). The mean infestation of 70.86% was recorded in apricot orchards in Peshawar, followed ...

Hu Zenglei1 and Xiufan Liu1, 2*

 

...rus (NDV) is one of the major determinants for the clinicopathological manifestations in infected hosts. Recent studies showed that the host innate immune responses to infection play important role in the pathologenesis of NDV, and correlate with the severity of the clinical disease. Virulent strains of different genotypes induce distinct pathological manifestations in chicken organs, especially in lymphoid tissues. Genotype VIId of NDV, which is currently end...

Nisar Ahmad1*, Inayatullah Jan2, Saif Ullah1 and Sidra Pervez1

 

...ify; ">Agriculture is a major sector of Pakistan’s economy as it has a significant contribution to GDP, employment generation, and export earnings in the economy of Pakistan. Due to modernization in agriculture sector over the last few decades, credit needs of the farmers have increased rapidly. Credit is considered an important factor for raising the productivity and income of the farmers. The current study attempts to analyse the impact of credit on wh...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...e virus (HP-PRRSV) is a major concern for the swine industry and causes high degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can cause aberrant immune responses in the host, resulting in acute lung injury and immune dysfunction. Studies of the innate immune responses to HP-PRRSV infection are...

Hai-Bo Wang, Qiu-Hua Mo, Ze Yang*

...tly there have been two major progresses in the field, in which RT-NASBA technique was applied for the detection of diarrhoea related viruses. This mini review overviewed the basic principle of RT-NASBA and discussed the significance of these new findings.

...

Muhammad Shah Zaman1, Ghulam Muhammad Ali2, Aish Muhammad1, Khalid Farooq2, Iqbal Hussain1*

...>Salinity is one of the major abiotic constraints that severely affect the productivity of agricultural crops in arid and semiarid regions. In vitro screening of eight potato varieties (Asterix, Cardinal, Challenger, Desiree, Hermis, Kroda, Sh-5 and Sante) was investigated for salt tolerance at 0.0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mM NaCl supplemented with MS medium. Kroda emerged as the most salt tolerant variety with the highest plant height (6.5 cm), number of node...

Hina Fatima1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2

... the selected district. Majority of the farmers typically utilize the last year’s crop seeds to economize the cost but this comes at another cost of loss of potential yield, which could be obtained through the use of modern varieties of seeds. Also considering the ecological conditions of the area is must before the adoption of any variety of seed, otherwise suboptimal output will be produced. Governmental check and regulation is also needed, dealers oft...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...ify;">The chickpea is a major legume crop of Pakistan cultivated under rice-chickpea cropping system. Integrated nutrient management is important for higher crop yields and sustainable agriculture. A field experiment was conducted to study the residual effect of integrated nutrient management on growth and yield of chickpea crop. The treatments included control (no organic or inorganic fertilizer), NPK (36-72-0 kg ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1), Farmyard Manure...

Shahid Iqbal Awan1*, Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad2, Muhammad Amjad Ali3, Muhammad Shahzad Ahmed1, Aurangzeb Rao1

...in yield per plant were major contributors towards variability. Grain yield per plant was closely linked to relative water content, cell membrane stability and specific flag leaf area. Eight clusters were formed through cluster analysis, and greater genetic distance was detected among the members of cluster 6 and cluster 8 and cluster 7 and 8. Members of these two clusters can be utilised in transgressive breeding.

...

Luke Galen

...xt-align: justify;">The majority of social science research on religiosity and associated variables has tended to focus on putative beneficial aspects, implying that the absence of religious belief is accompanied by liabilities. However, a closer examination of the literature reveals that the mechanisms of most beneficial associations with religiosity are attributable to factors other than beliefs, chiefly, social engagement and embeddeness in supportive group...

Joseph Langston1*, Joseph Hammer2, Ryan T. Cragun3

...gion was indicated by a majority of nonbelievers, though more respondents opted for accommodation (60%) than confrontation (25%). Most respondents indicated that their willingness to attack or ridicule religion was not absolute, but rather context dependent.

...

Rabnawaz1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Tahir Sarwar2, Mohammad Jamal Khan3

... farm level for all the major crops. However, there is a great potential for increasing CWP under civil system by rationalizing the water allowance.

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Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...hocyanins which are the major components of olive fruits degrades significantly during four weeks of treatment process. Results showed that during brine treatment, fermentation take place which significantly convert the oleourepean into simple sugar and decreased during treatment process. Lye solution penetrates inside the msesocarp and than endocarp during four weeks of treatment process. The lye treated olive fruits were treated afterward...

Opeyemi Eyitayo Ayinde1*, Kayode Ayinde2, Tofunmi Emmanuel Ilori1, Raphael Olanrewaju Babatunde1

E-mail | opeyemi@unilorin.edu.ng

...licies on the prices of major staple food in Nigeria. Secondary data were sourced from various organizations and used for this study. These data were transformed from their nominal value to real value and analysed using descriptive statistics, unit root test, ordinary least square model, Cochrane-Orcutt, least absolute deviation estimators and simultaneous equation model. The study further established that the prices of staple foods we...

Mohammad Taghi Karimi

...ppear that there are no major differences between full time and part time orthotic use in this deformity.

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Rehmat Ullah1*, Muhammad Zafarullah Khan1 and Kalim Ullah2

...orticultural practices. Major constraints identified were less machinery utilization duration, complication in machinery booking process, costly rental prices, out-dated machinery, preference of progressive farmers, no timely availability of Inputs, unviability of crop specific machinery. It was recommended that MFSC may take initiative to compel private companies to sponsor schemes for low cost inputs. MFSC may take initiative for funds on account of pragmati...

John G. Bruno

...tions in the event of a major pandemic or infectious disease doomsday scenario. 

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Behzad Hussain1, 2, Abdullah Iqbal2, Muhammad Abubakar2*

...a. Haemorrhages are the major signs of this fatal disease. No treatment of CCHF is available currently but Ribavirin antiviral drug is used to cure this disease. There is currently no commercially available vaccine for this disease. It is recommended that the disease can be controlled by adopting preventive measures such as avoiding of tick bites and contact with blood of the suspected animal. 

...

Moustafa Kardjadj1, Pam Dachung Luka2

... goats that serves as a major constraint in the development of the small ruminant’s production within an infected area. The virus is endemic across much of the developing world and has spread into the developed European borders. The small ruminants industry within an infected state or region is often disproportionately affected with its attending impact on poverty in what are already the poorest areas of the globe. PPR is considered to be a transboundary...

Amitha Reena Gomes1, Belamaranahally Muniveerappa Veeregowda2, Sonnahallipura Munivenkatappa Byregowda1, Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan3*

...aramyxoviridae is a major threat to small ruminant farming. Global announcement of PPR eradication by 2030 has opened lot of research gaps for the development of vaccines and diagnostics for differentiating infected and vaccinated animals. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, recombinant protein based vaccines and/or diagnostics are being tested in various heterologous systems across the globe for development of vaccines and/or diagnostic antigen...

 Aqila Shaheen

...ssa, Pirsabak, Guliana, Rajar, Balkassar, Rawalpindi, Chakwal and Satwal) in tehsil Gujar Khan of Rawalpindi district. Amongst the soil characteristics of selected fields, pH ranged from 7.36-7.94 for surface soil (0-15 cm) and 7.49-7.94 for subsoil (30-45 cm), EC1:1 was 0.22-0.38 dSm-1  in surface soil and 0.21-0.28 dSm-1    in subsoil, CaCO3 was 1.0-9.22% in top soil and 0.28-9.67% in the subsoil and soil organic matter (OM) was 0.89-1.25% in ...

 Gul Naz and Mohammad Akmal

...ticum aestivum L.) is a major staple food crop of Pakistan. It is grown on the maximum cropped area every year. The suitable variety identification for agro-climate and its optimum N-fertilizer demand with application are need of the day to overcome on N-leaching from the soil and to ensure future food security. Present study was, therefore, conducted in two seasons (2011-12 and 2012-13) at the Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pa...

 Mukhtiar Ahmed, Jana Pickova, Taufiq Ahmad, Muhammad Liaquat, Abid Farid, Muhammad Jahangir

...sp;Lipid oxidation is a major cause of deterioration in the quality of food and food products. Oxidation can occur in both triglycerides and phospholipids of food because lipids are divided into two main classes; polar lipids (phospholipids) and neutral lipids (triglycerides). Lipid oxidation has been long been recognized as a major problem in the storage of fatty acids in foods. Oxidation occurs by several molecular mechani...

Jannatul Noor, Md. Ahaduzzaman, Mir Md. Afzal Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir Hossain, Sardar Abdur Rahim and Md. Samun Sarker

...of mammals that enforce major economic threats to the livestock industry throughout the world. The present cross sectional study was conducted to assess the prevalence of tick in goat’s population of three different areas (Kaptai, Kattoli and Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University) of Chittagong, Bangladesh. A total of 60 goats were examined for tick infestation in three places using random positive sampling technique. Among the breed, Blac...

Muhammad Ibrahim, Jawaria Ali Khan, Muhammad Sarwar Khan, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Avais, Ali Husnain, Naimatullah Khan, Muhammad Kamran Ameen and Abdullah Iqbal

...xt-align: justify;">The major purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of some allopathic and herbal ingredients for treatment of subclinical mastitis and to test out how these ingredients can be used for enhancement of milk quality as well as their effects on the haematological values. Total 30 cows were selected for this study kept in different dairy farms in the premises of Lahore. Out of these 30 cows, 24 had subclinical mastitis and 6 were healt...

Muhammad Aslam

...yields and gaps of five major crops; wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane. The review discusses major constraints, identifies future prospects and makes policy recommendations for enhanced agricultural productivity in Pakistan. The review revealed that in Pakistan, on average current yield of wheat, cotton, rice, maize and sugarcane is 2.26, 1.87, 2.88, 1.77 and 48.06 tons per hectare, respectively against 6.80, 4.30, 5....

Ghani Akbar, Muhammad Munir Ahmad, Muhammad Asif, Iqbal Hassan, Qurban Hussain3 and Greg Hamilton

...e water productivity of major crops. Addressing these issues, a long term experiment (2000 to 2009) under wheat-maize (9 seasons each) cropping pattern was conducted on raised beds (with furrow spacing of 65 cm (Narrow Bed-NB), 130 cm (Medium Bed- MB) and 180 cm (Wide Bed-WB)), with controlled traffic regime emplaced, in comparison with traditional intensive cultivated flat basin (FB) for evaluating impacts on soil, crop and water productivity. The results sho...

Haidar Ali, Malik Muhammad Shafi and Himayatullah Khan

...es (i.e. Dawood Zai and Rajjar) perform more off-farm employment than the small farm households (Owners, Owner-cum-tenants and tenants) of underdeveloped villages (i.e. Garhi Baghbanan and Mufti Abad). This could be associated to the developed means of transport and communications, better education facilities, market facilities as well as availability of off-farm jobs locally. The study recommends that with the decrease in the size of holdings unemployment in ...

Shagufta Jabeen1, Muhammad Saqlain Raja1, Sadia Saeed1, Muhammad Mobeen Zafar1, Rizwana Abdul Ghani1, Abid Mahmood1, Muhammad Fiaz2, Pakeeza Arzoo Shiaq1, Shahid Mahmood Baig3, S.M. Saqlan Naqvi1 and Ghazala Kaukab Raja1

...and, if left untreated, major medical, social, and economic problems arise. Drug addiction is among major health issues faced by the World including Pakistan with an alarming annual increase in heroin addicts. The study was designed to identify the socio-demographic risk factors contributing to increasing susceptibility to heroin addiction in Pakistani populations. In this epidemiological study subjects were interviewed thro...

Zaheer Ahmad Qureshi and Khuram Nawaz Sadozai

...Coefficient values. The major finding of this study divulge that the Gini Coefficient value through income approach of rural region of KP province is 0.35 which illustrates that there is 35% of income inequality in rural region of KP. While, the Gini Coefficient value through expenditure approach was observed as 0.30. These results confirm the expected statistical discrepancies between income and expenditure approach. The results were further elaborated throug...

Muhammad Zahid1, Muhammad Hamid Bashir1*, Bilal Saeed Khan1 and Muhammad Shahid2

...;">Insect pests are the major yield decreasing factors in our agro-ecosystem. Among many pest management approaches, biological control is considered as the main strategy to address these issues including sucking pests. Different biocontrol agents are being used for the management of these sucking insect pests. Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been proved as an efficient acarine predator of sucking insect pests of different crops. This predator has...

Muhammad Basit1, Shafqat Saeed2, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem3, Rana Zulfiqar4

 

...nd N. inconspicuous are major pests of sunflower which should be controlled by exploiting of spiders and lady beetles.

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Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Noor Khan4, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6

...fish (Johnius goma). In majority of processing units, traditional methods were applied causing quality problem. Finally, it was concluded that quality of fish meal and production in our region is suitable for fish feed formulation. But the processing technique should be improved to match international standard, and to avoid declining in production of fish meal strategic management of fisheries resources will be required.

...

Mostafa A. Abdel-Maksoud1,2, Fathy A. Abdel-Ghaffar2, Azza El-Amir2, Gamal Badr3 and Saleh Al-Quraishy1*

...: justify;">Spleen is a major immune organ that plays an important role during malaria infection. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that affects many body organs including spleen. However, the effect of Plasmodium chabaudi infection on the spleen of the murine lupus model BWF1with the comparison between live and gamma irradiated parasite was not studied before. A total of 30 female BWF1 mice were randomly divided into three groups as ...

Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed

...tera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of fruits causing severe losses to the fruit production and quality in Pakistan. Its management has largely relied upon the indiscriminate and injudicious use of conventional insecticides resulting in problem of insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, fruit contamination and health hazards. The major goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a bio-insecticide, ...

Zafar Waheed, Khalid Usman, Iftikhar Ali

...as it competes with the major crop for resources and exhibits auto-toxicity when grown in association with wheat crop.

...

Abdul Aziz Khan1,*, Waseem Ahmad Khan2, Waseem Ahmad Khan3 and Najam-ul-Huda Khan4

... small mammals trapped. Majority of the Mus booduga specimens were adults (56.06%) while the juvenile/sub-adults were 43.94% of the total specimens trapped. The highest trap success of Mus booduga of 74% was achieved at Namal Lake, followed by Khabeki (38.67%), Uchali (30.67%), Kallar Kahar (16%) and the lowest at Jahlar Lake (12%). The results of the present study indicated that distribution of Mus booduga was abundant in thorn-scrub habitat around five lakes...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

...hylococci are among the major mastitis causing organisms. Consumers of milk and milk products from mastitic animals are at high risk of foodborne infections. Escalating antibiotic resistance strived us to explore the alternate option to control mastitis. In ongoing era, bacteriophages are an alternate possible effective remedy. Therefore, in this study the infection ability of three lytic phages SA, SANF and SA2 was determined against ten isolates of Staphyloc...

Oluwasogo David Olorunfemi, Oluwasegun Adetokunbo Adekunle, Felix Olayinka Oladipo, Temitope Oluwaseun Oladele and Oladimeji Idowu Oladele

...mean age of 42.5 years, majority (73.1%) were males, married (74.4%) and had one level of formal education or the other (82.5%). Chi-square analysis revealed a significant relationship between the respondents’ training needs on value addition initiatives and their age, educational level, years of experience and fish farm income. The value addition initiatives use profile of the fish farmers was still very low among the respondents and training was highly...

Neelum Andaleeb and Munir Khan

... that feed cost was the major component of total cost followed by labor cost. Average milk produced by buffalo and cow was 180 and 135 liters per month, respectively. Average total costs of milk production of buffalo and cow were Rs.12835 and Rs.10070 per month respectively whereas the average net income per liter from the buffalo and cow milk was Rs. 29 and Rs. 5 thus benefit-cost ratios for buffalo and cow is1:1.43 and 1:1.07, respectively, which show buffal...

Fida Mohammad, O.S. Abdalla, Sheraz Ahmed, Fakharuddin and S. Rajaram

...odel (SHMM) exposed the major role of grains spike-1 and harvest index in production of grain yield. Though the rate and distribution of rainfall during the cropping season were the main contributing factors in the varied performance across years, however, the grain yield of synthetic derived wheat lines across different environments was not significantly disturbed within each year and hence, are suitable for areas of prolonged drought. Some lines of synthetic...

Muhammad Aslam Shahid, Muhammad Iqbal and Muhammad Niamatullah

...ix dactylifera L.) is a major fruit crop of Pakistan, after citrus and mangos. Artificial pollination is a one of most important cultural practice for improving yield of Date palm due to diocious nature of palm tree. Pollen sources play important role in fruit setting .The growers pollinate the date by using low potency pollen source and get low yield. Present studies were conducted with the aim to explore best pollen sources for maximum fruit set and yield. I...

Naushad Khan1*, Shahnaz Akhtar1, Munir Khan1, Shaista Naz2, Javeria Tanveer1 and Muhammad Kaleem3

...vity in the study area. Majority of the credit beneficiaries were small scale farmers who obtained medium term credit followed by short term credit type. Thus, higher amount of credit was disbursed under the category of medium term followed by short term. The average yield, cost and return for the maize crop showed significant results due to the proper utilization of the credit by the farmers. The major constraints to farmer...
S. Bushra1,*, M. Tariq1, M. Naeem1, M. Ashfaq1, I. Bodlah1 and M. Ali2
...ustify;">Aphids are the major pests of plant crops in temperate areas of the world. They are monophagous as well as polyphagous and damage wheat, oilseeds, vegetables and fruit crops. This study was carried out to observe the effect of plant extracts and semiochemicals on physiology and performance of endoparasitoid of aphids, Diaeretiella rapae. Seven different treatments of semiochemicals and plant extract were applied on aphid pests, Sitobion aven...
Lingtong Ye1, Chao Cao1,2, Bin Tang1,2, Tuo Yao1, Ruixuan Wang1 and Jiangyong Wang1*
...omium, the shape of the major spines on chaetiger 5, and the shape of the pygidium. The COI gene sequence demonstrated that the intraspecific distance of P. websteri was 0.33%, whereas the interspecific distance of P. websteri ranged from 18.88% (with P. brevipalpa) to 24.79% (with Boccardia proboscidea). The intraspecific genetic distances of polydorids examined in the present study ranged from 0.33% to 1.67%, whereas the interspec...
Farkhanda Manzoor1, Iram Amin2,*, Muhammad Shahid2,Samia Afzal2,Hania Ramzan1, Tahir Rehman Samiullah2 and Muhammad Idrees3
Jehangir Khan1,2*, Inamullah Khan3, Ijaz Ali2, Aqib Iqbal2 and Muhammad Salman4
...at dengue is one of the major public health threats in Pakistan causing severe outbreaks since 2005, the molecular epidemiology in mosquito (dengue vectors) is limited. Here, we investigated the vertical transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in the Aedes mosquitoes and its (DENV) transmission through other factors mainly tyres trade. DENV was detected in Aedes aegypti (57%) and Aedes albopictus (43%) adults (n=1050) and larvae (n=550). The s...
Atta ur Rehman Khan1,2*, Nazir Javed2, Shahbaz Talib Sahi2, Tariq Mukhtar1, Sajid Aleem Khan2 and Waqas Ashraf3
... knot nematodes are the major problem for vegetables including eggplant. Chemical control of nematodes is hazardous to health and causes environmental pollution by contaminating underground water. The bio-protectant potential of mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae) and neemex® (Azadirachtin) against invasion and development of Meloidogyne incognita was tested in eggplant roots in greenhouse pot trials. Neemex (5 g, 10 g and 15 g) and G. mos...

 Ali Zurwan1,*, Muhammad Moaeen-ud-Din2, Ghulam Bilal2, Zia-ur-Rehman1,2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khan1

...udwick amd Petersen and Gajbhiye and Tripathi. Statistical model included fixed effects of period and season of calving and parity and random factors of animal. Indices values for Wood, Johnson and Hansen, Mahadevan, Ludwick and Petersen and Gajbhiye and Tripathi were 138.66, 75.68, 243.65, 85.84 and 275.41, respectively. Moreover, our results indicated that all indices were significantly affected by period and season of cal...
Rashid Ahmed Khan* and Muhammed Naveed
...ocera are among the major pests of fruits worldwide. Among the many species of fruit flies, Bacterocera zonata is a serious pest of fruits causing severe losses to the fruit production and quality, in Pakistan. In the present experiment the population of B. zonata was monitored using methyl eugenol traps during the year, 2015. Occurrence and population dynamics of the fruit fly were compared with meteorological factors, such as temperature, r...
Mingqin Shao1*, Bin Chen1, Peng Cui2, Binbin Zeng1 and Jianhong Jiang1
...98% of all groups had a majority of females. A large difference in sex ratios was observed among different months. The actual ratio of [(adult + sub-adult male): (adult + sub-adult female)] was 1:1.44 (n = 22) in February. Future studies are necessary, and the main goal should be focused on sex ratio, mortality and sex ratio at birth.
...

 Eman M. Farghaly1, Ahmed Samy1,2*, Heba Roshdy

...ntibiotic resistance of major bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia Coli, Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella and Pasteurella spp. in Egyptian quail farms. Such information is important for drug choice and success of treatment as well as spotting the light on emerging antimicrobial resistance that represent major concern for public health. A total one hundred swabs and 500 organ samples were collected from apparently healthy ...
Muhammad Shahid1, Iram Amin1,*, Samia Afzal1, Zareen Fatima1, Sadia Zahid1, Usman Ashraf1 and Muhammad Idrees2
...patients from different major health centers of Pakistan were registered in present study of which 214 were females and 489 were male. Overall weighted prevalence of PCR positivity was 38% (268). Of the total 268 PCR positive subjects, 0.74%, 56.71%, 15.67% were positive for serotype 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Only 72 suspected patients had concurrent infection with serotype 2 and 3. Higher incidence of RNA positivity by PCR was found in males (71%) as compared ...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan

...howed that overwhelming majority of the respondents i.e., 88% were M.Sc degree holders. They have had an average work experience of 16 years. Significant differences were observed among the competencies of AEOs with their participation in training programs and their higher educational qualification. The differences were considered as training needs and the AEOs need in-service training to enhance their ability in agricultural mechanization. A significantly hig...
Tianzhu Chao, Huiqiang Cai, Yuxun Zhou, Kai Li* and Junhua Xiao
...China. There were three major well-differentiated clades within M. m. castaneus, which were designated as CAS1, CAS2 and CAS3 and confirmed previous internal sublineage differentiation of this subspecies. Of the three clades, only CAS1 was detected in all the samples from mainland China. M. m. musculus exhibited no broadly distributed clade, which might be explained by frequent human-assisted movements. Our study offers a newly detailed perspecti...
Yi-qiang Ouyang1, Zhen-xin Liang1, Shi-wen Huang2, Ying Zhang3, Shao-shi Luo1, Jin-ning Liang1, Jia-fu Li1, Yu He4 and Song-chao Guo1,*
...ew can recapitulate the major features of AD pathogenesis. To provide the basis for further studies with this new animal model, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze changes in the hippocampal transcriptome induced by injection of the three AD agents. These results open the door to new small-animal studies of AD that complement and extend studies in rodents and primates.
...
Muhammad Tahirand Memoona Shehzadi*
...s L.) is one of the major oilseed crops grown worldwide for the production of edible oils. In order to increase the oil production there is dire need to grow more sunflower by using the economical and environment friendly techniques. Present study was proposed to evaluate theresponse of spring and autumn sunflower to chemical and bio-fertilizers for yield and quality traits during 2014 at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. The treatments comp...
Said Rawan1, Farzana bibi1, Nadeem Khan1*, Abdul Mateen Khattak1, Zahir shah3, Asif Iqbal2, Madeeha Alamzeb2, Saeed Ul Haq1, Abid Kamal3, Fawad Ali Shah2, Ahmad Naeem1 and Wajid Ali3
...fe of guava (PsidiumguajavaL.) varieties as affected by storage intervals at room temperature” was conducted at post harvest laboratory, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, during the year 2015. The research work was conducted in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and two factors i.e. guava varieties (Safeda and Karela) and storage intervals (0, 3, 6, and 9 days). The data was recorded onfirmne...

Neerja Agrawal, Mukesh Srivastava, Akhilesh Tripathi and Amrendra Singh

Survey and monitoring of pests, parasites and predators of pulse crops in central and eastern Uttar Pradesh
...ccivora was recorded as major pest and H. armigera and cut worm Agrotis ipsilon as minor pests. 20 insect pests and a total number of 16 parasites and predators were observed in these crops during the period of study. The bio-agents recorded belonged to Order Dictyoptera, Neuroptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera.

...

K.N. Ahmed, S.H.A. Pramanik, M. Khatun A. Nargis M. R. Hasan

Efficacy of plant extracts in the suppression of insect pests and their effect on the yield of sunflower crop under different climatic conditions
...elds of Lalmonirhat and Rajshahi Oilseed cultivation Centres, respectively.

...

M. D. Maji, N.K.Das, S. Chatterjee, A. Ghosh and A.K. Bajpai

Forecasting models of bacterial leaf spot disease of mulberry for Birbhum district of West Bengal
... found to be one of the major foliar diseases in mulberry at farmers field in Birbhum district.BLS incidence appeared in May and continued up to November. The correlation coefficient between disease severity and meteorological parameters revealed that BLS disease severity showed significant positive correlation with max & min temperatures, min relative humidity, rainfall and number of rainy days. Step down multiple regression analysis revealed that the for...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...in crops. There are two major methods of inoculum production of Trichoderma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is grown on various cereal grains, agricultural wastes and byproducts. The solid state production is highly labour intensive and fit for cottage industry. These products are used mainly for direct soil application in nurseries/main fields to suppress the soil-borne inoculum. In liquid s...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...torius L.), pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.), and groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were found effective as trap crops for their ability to germinate the seed of A. pedunculata. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) was identified as a catch crop for its ability to support further growth and development of A. pedunculata up to flowering.

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K.N. Ahmed and M.R. Hasan

Sudden outbreak of mealy bug and armoured scale causing severe damage to economic crops in Bangladesh
...nt ornamental plants in Rajshahi and Dhaka, Bangladesh. It is a polyphagous pest damaging coffee, sweet potato, jute, groundnut, tomato, citrus, cotton, guava etc. causing enormous damage to them. The female lays about 300-400 eggs which hatch in few hours. The life cycle is completed in about 40 days. The small and big black ants tend F. virgata and they keep other insects including hymenopteran parasites away from the mealy bug. The cottony cushion scale, Ic...

Bijan Kumar Das

Incidence of Aleurocanthus spp. (Aleyrodidae: Hemiptera) on betelvine (Piper betle L.) and their interaction with host plants
...odidae: Hemiptera) is a major pest causing severe damage to the foliage in the conservatories (borojas) of West Bengal. The seasonal incidence of A. rugosa in boroja was recorded during 2003-2004. A. rugosa adults were active in the boroja throughout the year with two peaks, one in pre-monsoon and another in post-monsoon i.e., period prior initiation of winter season. During the faunastic survey in betelvine, a new species of Aleurocanthus (description under p...

M. S. A. Mamun and M. Ahmed

Integrated pest management in tea: prospects and future strategies in Bangladesh
... in the made tea as the major problems. Current trends in eco-friendly insect pest management practices emphasize the host plant resistance, preparation and application methods of new botanicals and microbial pesticide formulations, evaluation of field bio-efficacy and conservation of biological agents, cultural control measures, genetic techniques and sex pheromones technology. In tea husbandry, cultural control measures such as plucking, pruning, shade regul...

A. Regupathy and R. Ayyasamy

Initiatives of papain industry by private-public-farmer link-ages in classical biocontrol program for papaya mealybug in Tamil Nadu
...Willink) in 2006 caused major concern in papain production. The need for repeated application of insecticides and dearth of labour for application of insecticides made it difficult for the farmers to maintain the crop and forced many farmers to even abandon papaya crop cultivation altogether. Considering the drastic reduction in the wet latex supply, SPFP has taken up series of initiatives which are summarized in this paper. Initially, a survey made in more th...

Goutam Samui and Shantanu Jha

Branch gall of mango (Oligotrophus mangiferae Keiffer) its bioecology and management
...rious proportion in the major mango growing districts of West Bengal, India. The present study had been taken up regarding the biology, population dynamics and management of this pest. Branch gall is a univoltine species. Emergence of adults from gall could be found from 2nd week of February, which continued up to 2nd week of March. Incubation, larval and pupal period lasted for 3-5 days, 315 days and 30-45 days, respectively. Eggs were laid singly throughout ...

M.A. Pendse, P.P. Karwande and M.N. Limaye

Past, present and future of nematophagous fungi as bio-agent to control plant parasitic nematodes
...gous fungi (NF) are the major antagonists of nematodes. They include nematode trapping fungi as well as endoparasitic fungi. For more than a century scientists are studying different facets of biology of NF including their potential as a bioagents to control nematodes. Their inconsistent success in control of nematodes in field trials, however, is enigmatic. This paper takes a review of the researches done by various workers on the diversity, morphology ecolog...

S. Patra, V.W. Dhote, SK F. Alam, B.C. Das, M.L. Chatterjee and A. Samanta

Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage under new alluvial zone of West Bengal
...>Population dynamics of major insect pests and their natural enemies on cabbage were studied at Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (BCKV), Kalyani, West Bengal(India) during rabi season of 2011-12 and 2012-13. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications. Cabbage (cv Rareball) seedlings were transplanted in the plot of 9 m2 area with 45cm x 45cm spacing. Observation was recorded at weekly interval from randomly selected five pla...

A. K. Ganguly and Uma Rao

Decades of researches in biochemical and molecular nematology at IARI
...ar genetic diversity in major root knot and cyst nematode species of India to assist the breeding program for developing resistant varieties and other purposes like regulatory and nematode diagnostics. Attempts have also been to made to understand the molecular signaling events during compatible plant nematode interactions by identifying the genes during the transition from preparasitic to parasitic stage in ear cockle nematode and molya disease of wheat. Curr...

S. Pal, H. Banerjee and N. N. Mandal 

Efficacy of low dose of herbicides against weeds in transplanted kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.)
...sults revealed that the major weed flora associated with the transplanted rice during kharif season was mainly comprised of Echinochloa colona (30 %), Cyperus difformis (20 %), Monochoria vaginalis (30 %) and Ludwigia parviflora (20 %). Penoxsulam 24 SC at 0.0225 kg a.i. ha-1 applied at 8-12 days after transplanting was most effective to check all types of weed population and their growth. This treatment also gave the maximum grain yield (3.53 tha-1) and straw...

Dhananjoy Mandal

Eco-friendly management of mealybug and wilt in pineapple
...opra, Islampur, Uttar Dinajpur, West Bengal, for eco-friendly pest management of mealy bug, Dysmicoccus brevipes Cockerell in pineapple, the treatments were: T1 [Farmers’ practice: phorate 10 G @ 20 kgha-1 during planting + monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.03% at 100 DAP + endosulfan 35% EC @ 0.02% during 150-180 DAP]; T2 [Treating planting materials (basal portion) with monocrotophos 36% EC @ 0.02% + phorate 10 G @ 15 kg ha-1at 100 DAP + Neem oil 1500 ppm spray...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
... management of a single major soil borne pathogen or pest across vast cultivated area but not for the peasant farming or the pest complex ridden unaided agriculture as in India. PA is not about an abstract of characterization. The specific values indicating variations in population at exact grids and helping the individual farmer in decision-making in pest management at varied pesticide doses depending on varied soil pest population intensity and spatial distr...

Partha Pratim Ghosh and 2N. C. Mandal 

Some disease management practices for bacterial wilt of potato
... experiment. One of the major advantages of TPS whole tuber planting includes the lack of incipient infection of bacterial wilt pathogen in seed tuber. Therefore, it is always desirable to obtain planting tuber from reliable source. So, integration between whole tuber planting or seed piece treatment units supervised management may offer better protection from the dreaded disease. Dynamic nature of disease management offers the scope for future modification.

V. N. Jalgaonkar, M. S. Gawankar, V. W. Bendale and P. D. Patil

Efficacy of some insecticides against cashew tea mosquito bug Helopeltis antonii Sign
...y">Cashew is one of the major significant sources of foreign currency for our country and it is also one of the important crops of Konkan region of Maharashtra State. Nearly 60 different pests have been reported on cashew. Among them the Tea Mosquito Bug, Helopeltis antonii Sign. is the most serious one, which is responsible for considerable yield losses in cashew. A field trial was conducted during 2005 at Cashew Research Farm, Regional Fruit Research station...
Hai-Ji Zhang1, Di Zhang2, Dong-Min Hou1 and Wan-Long Zhu1,*
...ons of mammals were the major strategies in response to the changing food resources. In order to investigate the physiological responses to fasting and refeeding in Apodemus chevrieri, body mass and body fat mass, resting metabolic rate (RMR), organs morphology, serum leptin levels and food intake were measured in the present study. The results showed that food deprivation decreased body mass and body fat mass. After refeeding, body mass can not be retu...
Burhan Azam1, Muhammad Naeem Tahir2,*, Faisal Shahzad2, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Abbas4, Madiha Gohar5 and Saima1
... been identified as the major hurdles in the development of livestock sector in Pakistan. To improve the poor quality roughages, exogenous fibrolytic enzyme may play important role by enhancing digestibility of fibre. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of varying level of fibrolytic enzyme in concentrate ration on dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and composition, and diet digestibility in Nili Ravi buffaloes. Four lactating Nili-Ravi buf...
P.P. Ghosh*, A. Chakraborty, S.K. Bhattacharya, C. Ghosh, B. Mahato and M.K. Bhattacharjya
...: Chrysomelidae) is the major stored grain pest of blackgram under homestead condition resulting 15 – 30% grain damage during storage. An attempt was made to identify a practical and low cost solution of such damage with the active participation of village women responsible for the storage. Proven biological, chemical and botanical (vegetable oil) approaches of management were tested against traditional practice and replicated among 10 different househol...
Nasar Khan1,2, Fahad Ali3,7, Sulaiman Bahadar5,*, Khalil ur Rahman3, Abdul Aziz3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Daud6, Azam Hayat5 and Mujaddad ur Rehman5
...al (HBV) infection is a major health problem globally and more prevalent in Pakistan, which is the main etiological agent of chronic hepatitis B, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis. A total of 659 HBsAg ELISA positive patients out of 16825 patients during July to October, 2013 were screened for HBV by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Out of 659, 522 (79.21%) were found positive for HBV, of which 318 (over all 4.4%) were male, while 341 (over all ...
Muhammad Ashfaq,1 Shamim Akhtar,2 Saleem Akhtar2,* and Mariyam Masood2
...dae) is an invasive and major pest on cotton. Aenasius bambawalei (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an effective parasitoid of mealybug and has been the backbone of the biological control program of cotton mealybug in Pakistan, but its multiplication for inundative releases has been impacted by a hyperparasitoid, Promuscidea unfasciativentris Girault (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: Eriaporinae). Traditionally the detection of hyperparasitoid is done by hos...

Shahid Iqbal Khattak1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Khalid Naveed2 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan1

... season of 2013-14. The major aims of the study were to test the effect and economics of soil vs. foliar applied nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen use efficiency on wheat variety Hashim-08. The experimental trial was conducted following RCB design with three replications. Fertilizer applications (foliar and soil) were assigned to main plots, while nitrogen levels 0, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 120 kg ha-1 were kept in sub plots. Results revealed that foliar application ...

Khurram Shahzad and Mohammad Akmal*

...riticum aestivum L.) is major food crop of Pakistan. The soil status of Pakistan is relatively poor in N and organic matter contents. Because of changing rainfall patterns due to changes in the weather conditions and/or climatic change responses observed in the world, the split application of N is beneficial to the crops in terms to avoid N-mobility in the soil and improve its use efficiency for crops. This study, therefore, aimed to identify split applicarion...

Shah Saud Ahmad and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*

...ent study revealed that majority (85%) respondents had joint families system. Almost (60%) respondents had landholdings up to five acres and majority (77%) respondents were involved on full time basis in agriculture whereas 80% of the respondents reported agriculture as their major source of income. FSC was the major source of agricultural information fo...
Noor Islam1, Muhammad Amjad2, Ehsan ul Haq3, Elizabeth Stephen1 and Falak Naz4
...lifera colonies and major economic losses (a serious threat) to beekeeping industry in Pakistan. Seven treatments including five essential oils of basil (Ocimum basilicum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), oregano (Origanium vulgare), lemon (Citrus lemon) and thyme (Thymus linearus), formic acid at three different concentrations of 25%, 50% and 100% and control were used against T. clareae in naturally infested ho...

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...y attempted to forecast major crops area, production, yield and per capita food availability using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Sixty-seven years annual time series data from 1947-48 to 2013-14 was obtained to forecast major crops and per capita food availability for 21years from 2014-15 to 2034-2035. Findings of the study pointed out increasing trends; major cro...
A. Hamid1,*, M. Ilyas2 and S. Kalsoom3
...and ß-glucan from major food grains used locally on plasma cholesterol level of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Insoluble dietary fiber (lignin and cellulose) was extracted from wheat and maize, while ß glucan was extracted from barley and sorghum. Male rats (n = 32), weighing 200-220 g were induced with hypercholesterolemia and were equally divided into 5 groups to study the effect of purified diet-AIN-93 G, wheat bran feed (WBF) , maiz...

Ahmed Zein Elabdeen Mahmoud1, Muaz Magzob Abdellatif2* and Mohamed Abdelsalam Abdalla3

...rrhea and lameness. The major gross lesions were erosive stomatitis, hemorrhages in lung, liver, abomasum, small and large intestine. PPRV NP was detected in sheep (n=20) and goats (n=18), anti-PPRV NP was also detected among sheep and goats (n=162) by ELISA, 3ABC-FMD enzyme immunoassay were positive (n=6) when ovine sera were tested. The study revealed that PPR-FMD viruses were circulating in the region and warrants proper control measures. 
...

Wali Khan1, Naushad Khan2 and Shaista Naz2*

...es and opportunities in Bajaur Agency of Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan. For this, through purposive sampling technique a sample size of 80 bee keepers was selected from the three tehsils of the agency (i.e; Khar, Salarzai, and Nawagai). The data were collected from the sampled bee keepers using a pretested questionnaire by face to face interview in 2014 production period. The collected data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, descri...
Muhammad Arslan Khan1,*, Sajid Aleem Khan1, Imran-ul-haq1 and Rashad Waseem Khan2
...ic disease prevalent in major cotton producing areas of Pakistan. Complex nature of disease due to root rot fungi and root-knot nematode cause huge losses to cotton. Experiments were conducted to assess the role of fungi and root knot nematodes in root rot disease complex of cotton and to optimize their control. For this purpose fifteen cotton growing areas in Southern Punjab were surveyed in year 2013-14. Data were recorded on disease prevalence, incidence, f...

Raza Ullah1*, Qaisar Shah Safi2, Ghaffar Ali3 and Irfan Ullah

... findings revealed that majority of the farmers sold their orchards to the pre-harvest contractors. The most widely used marketing channel was producers selling their orchard to pre-harvest contractor who then harvest the orchard, pack the produce and transport it to the market where the produce is handed to wholesalers. Wholesalers then channel the produce to retailer from where the ultimately consumers buy the product. It was also observed that considerable ...

Muhammad Zafarullah Khan*, Shah Saud Ahmad and Asif Nawaz 

... the source of seed for majority of the respondents regarding cauliflower (43%), bitter gourd (32%), bottle gourd (13%), potato (34%) and squash (29%). Similarly, majority of the respondents obtained urea (73%), SSP (54%), DAP (60%) and Nitro-Phos (55%) from the FSC whereas 91%, 99% and 96% respondents obtained Micron, Supper Silica and Gypsum from the concerned dealers. It is concluded that there was a gap in invitation of ...
Sumit K. Satpathi1, Suprakash Pal2*, Rupsanatan Mandal2, Nonigopal Shit2 and Ashutosh Sarkar3
...agement modules against major insect-pests of cowpea in comparison to conventional pesticide based pest management modules. The pesticide based management modules proved better as compared to the biopesticide based modules in managing the attack of sucking pests and pod borer of cowpea. The pesticide based IPM-II module resulted in the highest per cent reduction of pod borer population (91.17%) and the highest pod yield (9.85 t/ha). The IPM and biopesticide ba...
Shantanu Jha1, A. Rama Devi1, Ngalaton Kasar1 and Abhishek Mukherjee2

Mian Ahmad Raza*, Ghulam Hassan and Naqib Ullah Khan 

...sion line indicated the major role of over-dominance in the inheritance of plant height, spikelets spike-1while for grains spike-1 the positive intercept of regression line indicated predominance of partial dominance in inheritance.F1 cross combination FS × JNB were observed as good specific combiners for spike length, while hybrids FS × SRN and BST × S2K were revealed as good specific combiners for spikelets spike-1 and grains spike-1, respe...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...ms. Drought stress is a major restraint for crop production in arid and semi arid states such as Pakistan. In this study experiments were conducted against the responses of strawberry plant to both pre-harvest application of salicylic acid and drought treatments. The design of the experiment was a factorial randomized complete block design (RCBD) with five water regimes (150ml, 175ml, 200ml, 225ml, 250ml) and five levels of SA at (0.0mML-1, 0.5mML

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Wasiullah1 and Wiqar Ahmad

... in improvement of some major plant nutrients and soil organic matter content (SOM) under saline soil and yield of rice crop at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC) Islamabad during summer 2016. Pots were induced with salinity of 7.0 dS m-1 and arranged in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. Six treatments consisted of a control (no strains) and 5 different strains of cyanobacteria i.e Oscillatory-MMF-1 (Oscillatoria princeps), ...

Ghani Akbar1, Steven Raine2, Allen David McHugh3, Greg Hamilton4 and Qurban Hussain5 

...B and WB, respectively. Majority (67%) of WB irrigations monitored were under irrigated while large number (50%) of NB irrigation were over irrigated. Simulation modelling showed that achievement of above 90% Potential Application Efficiency (PAE) is possible by improving operation (inflow rate and time to irrigation cut-off) and field design (field length and width/number of furrows per set). This work raised the prospects of improved irrigation efficiency of...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
... aestivum L.), is a major cereal and staple food crop which plays the vital role in the economy of Pakistan. This wheat crop suffers a heavy toll in yield due to aphid attack, which affects plant vitality and grain production. Planting resistant/tolerant varieties against pests is the main way to overcome these field losses. Present study is an effort to screen different wheat varieties/lines against aphids under field conditions. Wheat varieties, Galaxy-1...

Inayatullah Jan*, Sajid Khan, Noor Paio Khan and Muhammad Ashfaq 

...veys, it was found that majority of the respondents were smallholders or tenants. After procuring and properly utilizing credit, the yield of the major crops such as wheat, maize, and sugarcane and the resultant income of the respondents exhibited significant increase, as confirmed by higher t-values. The study concludes that the socio-economic conditions of the farmers can be improved if credit programme is extended which c...
Mumtaz Akhtar1, Shabana Naz2,*, Muhamamad Iqbal3, Waqar Azeem4 and Mirza Azhar Beg5
...le in the spring sample majority of specimens belonged to the heaviest weight classes. The comparison of age to body weight resulted in considerable overlap. Age Class I animals never exceeded 70g weight limit. Majority of Age Class II animals weighed less than 86g. Most of the Age Class III animals weighed more than 100g. As compared to Age Class III, small proportion of Age Class IV weighed 100g or less, and Age Class V an...
Saba Khalid*, Muhammad Saddique Awan, Riaz Aziz Minhas, Nasra Ashraf, Khawaja Basharat Ahmed, Nuzhat Shafi and Sajid Abassi
...g human population were major threats to the avian fauna of Rawalakot.
...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
...and rabbit, it also has major influence in the natural defense of the animal body. In this paper, by comparative study on BPI gene expression in various tissues between Rongchang pig and Landrace, we confirmed the expression of pig BPI gene in various tissues to determine the difference expression of antibacterial related gene among indigenous breed (Rongchang pig) and artificially cultivated breed (Landrace), The Rongchang pig (0 day old, 28 day old, 120 day ...

Shaista Naz* and Noor Paio Khan 

...ivestock was the second major source of household income with 19 percent share. Among the livestock types, cattle were the major one followed by goats and sheep. Livestock was found significant at household level in two aspects of income provision and of lowering household and farm budget. Livestock income was derived from the sale of milk, milk products (such as yogurt, butter and butter oil), other products (like farm yard...

Muhammad Asad1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ramzan Ansar2, Ijaz Ahmad3*, Muhammad Suhaib4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

... Weeds infestation is a major cause of low wheat yield. Synthetic herbicides are mostly used to control weeds. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the Chemical control of broad-leaved weeds in wheat at the Koont Research Farm, PMAS-Arid Agricultural University, Rawalpindi, during rabbi season, 2014. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications, with a plot size of 06 x 04 m2. Four different herbici...
Anan Kenthaoand Pornpimol Jearranaiprepame*
...fish samples into three major groups following to their collecting drainages. Furthermore, 96.29 and 90.56% of fish samples were correctly classified into their respect populations with original and cross-validated tests, respectively. The reliable morphometric variations in the present study suggest that management unit of C. apogon should define relied on the isolation of river drainage. Moreover, the study also indicates the involvement of environmen...
Saswati Roy1, Rakesh Pashi2, S. Dey3 and Shantanu Jha
... be classified into two major categories: agricultural fields and non-agricultural areas. Observations on birds were taken twice a week, at early morning, starting from just after the sunrise around 7a.m and till before sunset up to 5.30 pm. Data were collected by using the line transect method. Total 74 number of bird species were recorded which belonged to 18 orders. Out of 74 bird species 23 species (31.08%) were recorded as insectivorous, 16 species (21.62...
Wen-Feng Li, Xiao-Yan Wang, Ying-Kun Huang*, Rong-Yue Zhang, Jiong Yin, Zhi-Ming Luoand Hong-Li Shan
...t was confirmed that in majority of sugarcane fields in Yunnan, China, T. schistaceana and C. sacchariphagus cause severe reduction of sugarcane and sugar yield.
...
Muhammad Nabeel,1,* Humayun Javed1 and Tariq Mukhtar2
...dentified as one of the major limiting factors to maize production throughout the world. As the information regarding its distribution is lacking therefore, its incidence and prevalence was determined in seven major maize growing districts of Punjab during 2016. The maximum overall incidence of maize borer (12%) was recorded in Khanewal district followed by Multan (6%) while it was the minimum (1%) in district Okara. On the ...
Salma Javed, Saima Majeed, Nasira Kazi and Shahina Fayyaz*
...dorus longidens (Jairajpuri and Loof, 1968) Andrassy, 2009 is reported for the first time from Pakistan is briefly redescribed and illustrated.

 

...

Safdar Ali1*, Ghulam Abbas Shah1, Muhammad Naveed Tahir1, Shahid Mehmood2, Asim Gulzar3 , Ijaz Ahmad4 and Bashir Ahmad Khan5 

...re conservation are two major problems of rainfed agriculture. Thus, to address these issues, a two year field study was carried out at Agronomic Research Area of University Research Farm of PMAS-Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi during 2012-14.The effects of different tillage systemscombined with glyphosate herbicide on soil moisture content,bulk density and porosity associated with wheat grain yield were evaluated. Seven tillage treatments were applied ...

Naeem Iftikhar1, Qamar Zaman Qamar2, Usman Ali3, Muhammad Siddique Awan4, Syeda Shaista Bibi4, Riaz Aziz Minhas4*

...ting were identified as major threats to the survival of this species in AJK. This study recommended the immediate formulation and implementation of Cheer pheasant conservation action plan along with declaration of its potential habitats as protected area to ensure the further survival of this important species.

...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...-align: justify;"> Major aroma used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries is chemically synthesized vanillin. The current research was carried out to explore local bacterial isolates for vanillin production using waste residues of rice bran oil. After the screening of different bacterial isolates, a novel strain Enterobacter hormaechei showed significant production of vanillin when inoculated in waste residues of rice bran based media. E. horm...

Malak Atiq Ullah Khan* and Fida Mohammad 

...enerally, GEI explained major portion of total variation and thus had larger effect than G and E on the expression of phenotype for all traits. Average over nine environments, genotype G-79 exhibited maximum values for tillers m-2 (181 tillers); grains spike-1 (71 grains); grain yield (4862 kg ha-1) and thus appeared as leading genotype for yield and production traits. Similarly, G-79 had higher grain yield in all test environments except E-03 i.e. E-01 (4537 ...
Ikramul Haq1, Aneela Zameer Durrani*1, Muhammad Sarwar Khan1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Imtiaz Ahmad3, Amjad Khan2 and Mehboob Ali1
... that bacteria were the major cause of foal diarrhea in Punjab, Pakistan. 
...
Zahid Farooq1, Sufi Muhammad Akram2, Muhammad Saleem Khan3,* and Muhammad Wajid4
...ecies. Indian cobra (Naja naja)(8.83%; N = 46), Glossy-bellied racer(Coluber ventromaculatus)(7.87%; N = 41) and Common krait (Bungarus caeruleus)(7.49%; N = 39) were higher in prevalence. Northern wolf snake (Lycodon striatus striatus), Sind long-nose sand snake (Lytorhynchus paradoxus)and Afghan awl-head snake(L. ridgewayi)(0.38%; N = 2) were the least abundant. Snakes were ...

Ayesha Aihetasham*, Faiza Qayyum and Muhammad Xaaceph

...n), which is one of the major destructive termites of Pakistan. Fungal conidia were repellent to C. heimi. The workers of C. heimi were exposed to fungus for 60, 45, 30, 20, 15, 10 minutes and percentage mortality and consumptions were noted during eight days period. Results showed that workers of C. heimi responded effectively to different exposure time. Percentage mortality in 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60 minutes exposure was 46.7%, 55.6%, 67.5%, 76%, 85.3%, 100%,...

 Addishiwot Fekdu, Afework Bekele and Demeke Datiko*

...ing in the area was the major problem encountered affecting the rodent population. As a result, proper conservation measures have to be implemented to solve the problems and safeguard the endemic wildlife in the Park.

...
Yunjun Yan, Zhenming Lü, Tianming Wang, Yongjiu Chen, Jingwen Yang, Baoying Guo, Lihua Jiang, Changwen Wu and Liqin Liu*
...sfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a major long noncoding region (LNCR) of the mitochondrion’s own protein synthesizing system. Seven of thirteen proteins, eight tRNAs are encoded by the plus strand, while the other proteins and tRNAs, as well as two rRNAs are encoded by the minus strand. Two (ND4 and ND4L) of the 13 protein coding genes of O. dollfusi began with the unorthodox translation initiation codon ATA and all others use the standard ATG. Ten pr...
Qamar-un-Nisa1, Muhammad Younus2,*, Muti-ur-Rehman1, Azhar Maqbool3 and Sajid Umar4

 

...ses are responsible for major economic losses at poultry farms especially during during co-infections of respiratory pathogens. However, impact of co-infections is not well known, especially in broilers. The current study was aimed to assess the probable synergism of E. coli (O78) and velogenic Newcastle disease virus in the broiler model. Three-week-old commercial broilers were inoculated with either vNDV, E. coli serotype O78 or both agents sim...

Muhammad Jamal Nasir*, Anwar Saeed Khan and Said Alam 

... The study reveals that majority of the respondents are well aware of climate change and its effects on cropping calendar, crop variety, crop yield, crop diseases as well as an earlier blossoming of fruit trees. The respondents in all the fifteen villages unanimously agreed that sowing and harvesting dates of crops are 10-20 days earlier than it used to be 20 year ago (1992-2012). Similar change was reported in the time of fruit tree blossoming because of the ...

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...und in tomato fields of major tomato growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Northwest Pakistan. Based on agroclimate, KP was divided into five zones as Northern KP, Southern KP, Eastern KP, Western KP and Central KP. A total of 100 collected weed samples were analyzed in laboratory for the presence of bacteria. The samples were crushed homogenized in 0.85% TBE buffer and platted on YDC (Yeast extract-Dextrose-CaCO3) for bacterial growth. For identi...

Muhammad Luqman1,3, Raheel Saqib2*, Xu Shiwei3 and Yu Wen3 

...eads and their spouses. Majority of the farm families (39.3%) earn income for their livelihoods both from farming and non-farming sources. Intensity of participation of female respondents in different crops and livestock activities was comparatively high as compared to their male counterparts. It was found that average daily share of female in crops related activities was 42% and in livestock activities was 53%. Inspite of their participation in crops and live...

Muhammad Yahya Noori1*, Saharish Rizwan2, Zaheer Ali3 and Shaheen Sharafat4 

...tside the close family. Majority of patients were unaware of the presence of a known contact in their vicinity. There was no association between knowledge about exposure and patients’ gender. The study shows that efforts of active case finding should be employed to find the hidden cases of Tuberculosis in the society to stop the spread by those patients, who are unaware of their disease. 

...

Shahid Iqbal1*, Amir Nawaz Khan2, Mushtaq Ahmad Jadoon3 and Intikhab Alam3 

...nsion and research with major emphasis on cash and off-seasoned crops after resolving land demarcation issue and revival of water channels along with introduction of micro credit schemes. 

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Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Avais1, Riaz Hussain2, Kashif Prince1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Mamoona Chaudhry 3, Sehrish Firyal4, Amjad Islam Aqib1, Naimat Ullah Khan5 , Mian Saeed Sarwar5, Hazrat Ali5, Shahid Hussain Farooqi1, Ikramul Haq1 and Muhammad Sajid Hasni3
...177) of Pakistan having major population of camel were screened for subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test using convenient sampling technique. Biochemical examination was performed to isolate S. aureus that further were tested Penicillin, Glycopeptide, and Cephalosporin classes of antibiotics for confirmation of MDR isolates using disk diffusion method. MDR were tested in vitro for response against various antibiotics. A questionnai...
Yanjie Guo1, Weini Wu1, Hongmei Wang2, Xiao Guo2 and Yongping Xu2,*
...ic ganglion (IMG) are a major source of sympathetic nerves, which dominate the immune response of the female reproductive system. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important Th1 cytokine and plays an important role in pregnancy. To explore whether or not Th1 cytokines influence the physiological state of the female reproductive system by sympathetic nerve pathways, we used immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, Western blot and in situ hybridization to detect the expression...

Nukhbat-Ullah Awan1*, Muhammad Sohail2, Zeeshan Sarwar3, Muhammad Mustahsen Bashir4, Muhammad Abbas Khokhar5 and Asad Aizaz Chatha

...d traffic accident, and majority (54%) of patients were never vaccinated. Incubation period noted was 7±1 days. Tracheostomy was performed in 16±3 hours of admission and tracheostomy decannulation was performed in 23±3 days. Patients were discharged in 27±3 days.Weconcludethat early control of airway with tracheostomy in grade II tetanus patients helped in better patient management with early recovery and decreased hospital stay wit...

Ayesha Saeed*, Mobina Naqvi and Ahsan Javed 

...ood insecurity is among major causes of under-nutrition and has been associated with low birth weights. This study aimed to assess the effect of maternal food insecurity on birth weight of neonates in Lahore, Pakistan.Ina prospective cohort conducted at Shalamar Hospital Lahore; from April to August 2016, written informed consents were obtained from 103 eligible pregnant women. Data on demography was collected through a structured questionnaire and exposure wa...

Abida Sajid* and Aqsam Sajid 

...oung girls. Anemia is a major public health problem. Around 58.27 million women worldwide are anemic during pregnancy 95% of whom live in countries that are developing. To know the frequency of anemia, and obstetric outcome in terms of preterm delivery, low birth weight and rate of caesarean section in young Primigravida. It was a cross sectional study, conducted in the department of Gynae & Obstetric unit 5 King Edward Medical University Lahore during a p...

Raania Ahsan* and Zafar Altaf**

...akistan which will have major impact on food security efforts in the country. The findings of literature review revealed that Bt technology significantly reduces pesticide application and increases yields; however, these advantages are curbed by the high prices charged for genetically modified illegal cotton seeds in the country. National Biosafety Guidelines of 2005, must be followed to approve all genetically modified crop varieties including cotton. This wi...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

...actices to identify the major factors of yield decline, a national level field survey was conducted during June 2008 by Social Sciences Division, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council through its satellite institutes in the provinces. Total 238 wheat growers were purposively selected from different cropping zones of the Punjab province as sample of the national survey. The survey results reveal that decline in wheat area, the incidence of frost/cold spells, s...

 Muhammad Asim, Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Munir* and Muhammad Aslam**

...ed this difference. The major changes in ABA level in phloem sap and leaves occurred between 48 to 96 h after inoculation.

...

 Aneela Afzal, Tanvir Ali, Munir Ahmad, Humera Amin and Samina Saki*

...esults show that a vast majority of women were illiterate, having annual family income less than one lac, living in joint family system and having small land farms. A large proportion of the respondents reported that they remained engaged in cleaning of seeds, sowing, harvesting, weeding, etc. for corn, rice, wheat, sugarcane, and vegetables’ production. It is concluded that women’s participation in crop production extracted more vital role than th...

Hassnain Shah, Hina Riaz, Nadeem Akmal , Muhammad Sharif* and Abdul Majid**

...nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in the country. Feed accounts for almost 70% of total cost of production of milk or meat. The trend for concentrate feeding to livestock is changing from the conventional concentrate feeding to a formulated compound feed. Considering the importance of livestock in the livelihood of the people, scarcity of green fodder three feed producing units were provided under Community Action for Live...

Aslam Memon, A. M. Khushk* and Umer Farooq**

...tan during 2007-08. The major study findings showed that nearly one-fifth of total farm area was allocated to sugarcane crop by sample farmers with more than 70% and 76% of total sugarcane areas were devoted to recommended varieties during 2006-07 and 2007-08, respectively. More than 25 sugarcane varieties were cultivated by sample farmers in Pakistan. Majority of the farmers planted only one variety. Among recommended varie...

 Abid Hussain*, Imdad Hussain Mirza and Muhammad Azeem Khan**

...ber leaves, sorghum and bajra fodders in summer. Groundnut and wheat straws were main dry fodder. Wheat grains, oil seed cakes, wheat bran (choker), grams and left over dry breads were the concentrates fed to goats. On the whole about 30% metabolizable energy requirements of non-milking goats and 34% of does were fulfilled by supplementation. Goats were supplemented maximum during January-March, June, November and December and grazed for greater periods in sum...

 Nadeem Akmal, Hassnain Shah*, Muhammad Azam Niazi** and Waqar Akhtar*

...and forage in the area, majority of the farmers (73%) considered it more suitable. There was a price difference of Rs. 1277 for male kids and Rs. 697 for female kids of the same age than the kids from local buck crosses. The farmers believed that the price difference was not only due to the higher weight but a better look and better structure of the Beetal goat. Farming community showed keen interest in using this intervention on a regular basis.

...

 Shazia Erum*, Muhammad Naeemullah, Shahid Masood** and Muhammad Irfan Khan*

...imum genotypes into two major clusters on the basis of total seed protein and phenotypic characters, except Siam Queen and Lime basil stand alone, respectively. Euclidian distance for morphological traits ranged from 3.60 to 7.26. Conversely on the basis of total seed proteins genetic distances ranged from 0.11 to 1.00. Due to greater genetic diversity in Ocimum germplasm and its suitability for commercial cultivation even in the area under small holdings, the...

 Muhammad Azeem Khan*, Abid Hussain, Irfan Mehmood and Sonila Hassan **

...in patterns, area under major crops at Kohat and productivity of major crop at Attock decreased. Bivariate correlations between mean seasonal rainfall, area and production of major crops were moderately positive and statistically significant (except for wheat crop at Attock). This means that an increase in rainfall contribute positively towards area under maj

 Rubina Bano, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif and Waqar Akhtar*

...duction. Feed makes the major share and accounts for 49.34%. Broiler production in the study area is profitable with a profitability index of 0.24, capital turnover of 1.32 with a rate of return on fixed cost 424% and on variable cost 135%. The issues and problems in broiler farming are also narrated.

...

 Muhammad Afzal, Sarfraz Ahmad , Abdul Salam Baloch* and Qazi Bashir Ahmad**

...oducers should consider major marketing demand events like Eid-ul-Azha, Ramadan, etc. as the exceptional occasion to put up their animals for sale. The price per kg on live weight was higher by 39% and 24% in Eid-ul-Azha and Ramadan seasons, respectively as compared to normal season. Live weight has considered a very important variable in determining the price of an animal. Installation of separate weighing machine for small and large animals should be placed ...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Sehrish Bilal1, Madeeha Khalid1, Muhammad Tahir Nazir1 and A.R. Shakoori2

 

... A. mellifera (a major plant pollinator and friendly insect) as compared to T. castaneum.
...
Haixia Liu, Yuwei Ye, Yang Li, Xiaolin Liu, Dongmei Xiong* and Lixin Wang
...ation. In contrast, the majority of diversity (88.98%) occurred among individual within a population. Results from Nei’s genetic distance indicated that the YX and TB populations were grouped in one cluster, which was clustered with the ZZ population, the LX population was grouped in a separated cluster. Low genetic diversity and strong genetic differentiation have been found in this study. The baseline population genetic information supplied in this stu...

Muhammad Amjed Iqbal1*, Azhar Abbas1, Raza Ullah1, Umar Ijaz Ahmed2, Ali Sher3 and Shoaib Akhtar4 

...;">Non-farm income is a major source of income along with farming for agricultural households. The present study is aimed at investigating the significance of non-farm income in farm household’s poverty and income inequality. Data were collected from 480 cotton growing respondents from six districts of Punjab province of Pakistan and Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index along with Gini coefficient were estimated to assess the impacts of non-fa...
Umair Riaz*1, Zafar Abbas1, Qamar uz Zaman2, Muhammad Mubashir1, Mahwish Jabeen2, Syed Ali Zulqadar1, Zeenat Javeed1, Saeed-ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Ashraf1 and Muhammad Javid Qamar1
... in southwest areas the majority of water samples were found to be fit for irrigation while in northwest area majority of the water samples fall under unfit range. The SO4 ranges from 89 to 1435 mg L-1. The highest value of SO4 was observed in the samples collected from Chak 13/BC, Chak 23/BC, Chak 12/BC and Cantt Area. The highest cotton and wheat yield on average basis was recorded in union...

  Farhat Ullah Khan, Nowshad Khan and Zaibunnisa Abdullah*

Corresponding author: farhatkhan7@gmail.com (This is part of Ph.D. work of senior author)

IMPACT OFKINNOW (MANDARIN) YIELD LOSSES ON SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FARMING COMMUNITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...nomic conditions of the majority respondents of the project area. Chi-square test also shows negative link of the kinnow fruits and socio-economic uplift of the farming community in the project area. Serious attention on scientific basis to yield losses through awareness and training of extension workers, can give economic benefits to communities of study area. The immediate benefit of this study will go to kinnow growers of Tehsil Sargodha and ultimately the ...

 Gulzar S. Sanghera and Wassem Hussain*

HETEROSIS IN RELATION TO COMBINING ABILITY PER SE PERFORMANCE IN TEMPERATE RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.)
...gnificant heterosis for majority of other traits. The average proportion of restorers, partial restorers, partial maintainers and maintainers were 16:22:33:27, respectively. The best cross combination for grain yield was SKAU7A x K-08-61-2 and for early maturity SKAU11A x SR-2 over check variety SR-1 only. Cross combinations SKAU 7A x K-08-61- 2, SKAU 7A x SR-2, SKAU 11A x K-08-60-2, SKAU 11A x K-08-59-3 and SKAU 11A x SKAU-389 were the good specific combinati...

 Saima Rani and Irum Raza*

COMPARISON OF TREND ANALYSIS AND DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING METHODS FOR PRICE ESTIMATION OF MAJOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
... the trend of prices of major pulses such as gram, mash, masoor and mung during 1975-76 and 2009-10. Double exponential smoothing method was found to be pertinent for price estimation of major pulses in Pakistan because of smaller values of accuracy measures. Six-year's forecasts of prices of gram, mash, masoor and mung in Pakistan in 2010-11 were Rs.31.80, Rs.84.09, Rs.72.06, and Rs.47.69 per kg respectively along with 95% ...

 Muhammad Zubair Anwar, M. Azeem Khan, Ikram Saeed, Akhtar Ali*, Shafique Zahid and Abdul Majid**

SMALL FARMERS PERCEPTIONS REGARDING IMPROVED FODDER AND FORAGE VARIETIES: RESULTS OF PARTICIPATORY ON FARM RESEARCH
...ain yield and similarly majority of the farmers (68%) pointed out 50% increase in dry stalk yield. Majority of the respondents (83%) appreciated the newly introduced plant species while about 17% have shown their interest in fruit trees.

...

 A.A. Mengal* , M. U. Mallah, Z. A. Mirani* and B. N. Siddiqui**

AN ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICES IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN
...teaching method used. A majority of the farmers received farm visits and field st demonstrations by private extension field staff, which were ranked 1 and nd 2 , respectively, as preferred methods of extension. Most of the farmers agreed that public extension field staff provide information regarding application of irrigation and private extension field staff provided advice for the use of plant protection measures. Significant differences were observed betwee...

 Ayesha Tahir* and Zafar Altaf**

DETERMINANTS OF INCOME FROM VEGETABLES PRODUCTION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NORMAL AND OFF-SEASON VEGETABLES IN ABBOTTABAD
...of Abbottabad district. Majority of the sampled farmers were growing tomato and cucumber. There was not much fluctuation in the income among the farmers in normal season but the income from off-season vegetable production was almost double. Most of the farmers were not highly educated but many of them had their own land or land rented or shared in with other farmers so they were growing vegetables both in normal season and in off- season. 

...

 Amir Khatam*, Sher Muhammad, and Ijaz Ashraf**

ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL CONTACT METHODS IN DISSEMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES
.... The results show that majority of the farmer respondents is aware of the farm visits (66.43%), demonstrations being conducted (62.50%) and home visits made by the extension staff (60.71%) as extension methods for dissemination of agricultural technologies among the farming community, whereas only 31.78% and 22.85% of the farmer respondents are aware of the office call and telephone calls, respectively, for diffusion of information regarding latest agricultur...

 Sajida Taj*, Akhter Ali*, Nadeem Akmal*, Shujaat Yaqoob** and Mubarik Ali***

RAISED BED TECHNOLOGY FOR WHEAT CROP IN IRRIGATED AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ing day by day and is a major challenge now a days. Therefore, water saving becomes the utmost need of the hour. The national research system is now putting their focus and efforts to manage the precious water through various modern/latest water saving models to draw some solid method of irrigation with less wastage. Raised bed planting method is also one of the modern methods of planting crop with significant water saving. The study was planned and conducted ...

 Abid Hussain*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Sonila Hassan**

ECONOMICS OF COW MILK PRODUCTION IN SINDH AND AZAD JAMMU & KASHMIR
...nd out the economics of major breeds of cow in selected areas of Sindh and Azad Jammu and Kashmir. It is based on primary data of 130 livestock farmers, selected through simple random sampling technique. Shares of different feed resources in total feeding cost have been determined and cost-benefit analysis of milk production by ecological zones was also conducted. Wide variations in share of feed sources in total feeding cost per annum, milk productivity and p...

 Ali Ahsan Bajwa*, Ehsanullah*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Wahaj Nafees*, Mohsin Tanveer* and Hafiz Salman Saeed*

IMPACT OF FERTILIZER USE ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW
...d management. Weeds are major constraint in the productivity of agro-ecosystems. Fertilizer use can influence weed emergence, weed persistence, weed dormancy, weed dynamics, weed growth and weed dispersion attributes. The rate, timing, type and method of fertilizer application affect biological trends of weeds. In conservation tillage systems, the interaction between fertilizers and weeds is very complex, and there are reports of positive as well as negative c...

 Asghar Ali*, Muhammad Tahir**, Shahid Riaz Malik* and Muhammad Hanif Munawwar*

EVALUATION OF PRE AND POST-EMERGENCE HERBICIDES FOR WEED MANAGEMENT IN LENTIL (LENS CULINARIS MEDIK.)
...n lentil are one of the major constraints in obtaining maximum yield. The manual weed control is simply not feasible because it is time consuming and costly. The chemical weed control is the effective method of weed management. A field study was conducted to evaluate pre and post-emergence herbicides for weed control in lentil. The experiment comprised eight treatments including three herbicides, manual weeding and check (no weeding). The yield was higher in m...

 Rehmat Ullah*, Kalim Ullah** and Mohammad Zafarullah Khan*

EXTENSION SERVICES AND TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION OF DATE PALM (PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA L.) IN DISTRICT DERA ISMAIL KHAN
...was investigated in the major date producing areas (Dakki, Mian Wada, Mathra Abad, Jhok Ghamywali, Habib Abad, Bilot Sharif, Himat, Jhok Moazam, Matwala Shah, Chura and Jhok Malkanri) of the district Dera Ismail Khan by personal interview method from a sample of 51 respondents selected from these villages. Agriculture was the major profession of the farmers (80.3%). It was found that 62.7% of the respondents were never visit...

 Syeda Nasreen*, Mehwish Ishaque**, Muhammad Ayub Khan*, Saleem-ud-din* and Syeda Musarrat Gilani*

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR SEED PROTEINS, OIL CONTENT AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION IN SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L.)
...ines x testers were the major contributors in inheritance of all characters studied.

...

 Sajid Ali*, Quratulain Altaf** and Umar Farooq* 

ACREAGE RESPONSE OF FLUE CURED VIRGINIA TOBACCO IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...der maize crop in three major FCV producing districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa i.e., Swabi, Mardan, and Charsadda. Data used in the study cover time series data for 1971-2011. The newly developed Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model for cointegration was used to estimate the short-run and long-run elasticities. The study found a long-run price elasticity of 0.33, thereby revealing that FCV acreage response to its own price is relatively inelastic. The sho...

 Frasat Saeed*, Jehanzeb Farooq*, Abid Mahmood**, Tassawar Hussain***, Muhammad Riaz* and Saghir Ahmad****

GENETIC DIVERSITY IN UPLAND COTTON FOR COTTON LEAF CURL VIRUS DISEASE, EARLINESS AND FIBER QUALITY
...ng last two decades the major factor limiting cotton production is cotton leaf curl virus disease (CLCuD). For estimation of genetic diversity regarding CLCuD tolerance, fiber quality and some yield contributing traits, 101 cotton genotypes imported from USA were evaluated. Different statistical procedures like cluster, principle components (PC) and correlation analysis were employed to identify the suitable genotypes that can be further exploited in breeding ...

 Samiullah*, Mehmood Shah*, Kalim Ullah**, Rehmat Ullah*** and Ibrarullah****

PROFITABILITY OF WHEAT PRODUCTION IN DERA ISMAIL KHAN
...at random which are the major wheat producing villages in the said district. A total of 50 respondents were probed by personal interview method from the sampled villages. Cost and return (gross return) data from the respondents were analyzed. Farm budgeting technique for estimating cost, gross return and profitability was applied. The analysis of data revealed that the average cost per acre was Rs. 24716.32. Similarly average production of wheat (output) was e...

 Munir Ahmad*, Asif Ali Mirani**, Hafiz Sultan Mahmood**, Tanveer Ahmad** and Muhammad Azhar Saeed**

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF CROSS-FLOW RICE DRYERS
...at. which is one of the major causes of reducing head rice recovery during the milling operation. Recently, cross-flow rice dryers have been adopted in the rice milling industry of the country. The heat source of these cross-flow dryers can be a gas or rice husk. This study focussed on the performance evaluation of cross-flow rice dryers with both gas and rice husk heat sources. The experimental results indicated that drying air temperature of the gas-fired an...

 Nusrat Habib*, Saima Rani*, Sabeen Siddiqui*, Shah Zaman** and Muhammad Zubair Anwar*

IMPACT OF MAJOR FARM INPUTS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGARCANE: A CASE STUDY IN TEHSIL KOT ADDU, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... find out the affect of major farm inputs on the productivity of sugarcane in Tehsil Kot Addu (Punjab). The data was collected from 70 sugarcane growers during 2013 harvesting. The costs of land preparation, DAP, urea, irrigation, FYM, seed and labor for harvesting were the significant factors which affect on the proceeds of sugarcane growers. The results revealed that costs of land preparation, DAP and urea were highly significant at 1% level with positive co...

 Muhammad Sharif*, Muhammad Azam Niazi* and Abdul Jabbar**

SEAFOOD EXPORTS: CHALLENGES AND WAY FORWARD
...t prices of seafood are major challenges faced by fisheries sector of Pakistan. Sustainable conservation of marine resources, promotion of shrimp culture, enhancement of the fish processing for export, provision of adequate facilities at fish markets and formulation of sustainable fishing policies are ways forward for the sustainable development of seafood resources development in the country.

...

 Sajid Ali* and Abdul Jabbar**

GROWTH AND VARIABILITY IN AREA PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF SELECTED FRUIT CROPS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...h area under fruit as a major contributor during period-I. Period-II witnessed either low or negative growth in fruit production except peach. Variability in fruit production was higher in period-II as compared to period-I. Main contributor to fluctuations in fruit production during period-I was variability in area under fruit, whereas, both area and yield variability were mainly responsible for variability in fruit production during period-II.

...

 Mazher Abbas*, Irfan Mehmood*, Arshed Bashir*, Muhammad Ather Mehmood* and Sonila Hassan* 

WOMEN COTTON PICKERS PERCEPTIONS ABOUT HEALTH HAZARDS DUE TO PESTICIDE USE IN IRRIGATED PUNJAB
...tion of children (21%). Majority of the respondents (97.33%) reported that the mode of payments of cotton picking was in cash and the most of the respondents (83.70%) reported that they got wages in time. Only few respondents (8.70%) were aware of health hazards due to pesticides and only 10% women wear protective clothes during cotton picking. Majority of the respondents (76%) wash their clothes after cotton picking whereas...

 Anum Fatima*, Saleem Abid* and Sobia Naheed* 

TRENDS IN WHOLESALE PRICES OF ONION AND POTATO IN MAJOR MARKETS OF PAKISTAN: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS
...onion and potato in the major markets (Lahore, Hyderabad, Peshawar and Quetta) of Pakistan. Time series data about annual average wholesale prices of onion and potato were collected from 1981-82 to 2011-2012. Major findings of the study revealed that wholesale prices of onion and potato were increased with time. Results revealed that wholesale prices of onion in major markets namely Lahore...

 Rashed Saeed*, Shoaib-ur-Rehman**, Muhammad Qasim*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood*** and Irfan Mehmood*

ECONOMICS OF PERI-URBAN RADISH PRODUCTION AND MARKETING IN FAISALABAD
...stan. It was found that majority of farmers were not following recommendations of the agriculture department regarding seed rate, fertilizers, and irrigations. Majority of respondents (94.2%) reported the local Meno as the best yielding variety. Imported and 40 day varieties were not popular as only 5.8% farmers were cultivating these varieties in the study area. On the basis of survey data, benefit cost and total factor pro...

 Khalid Mahmood Aujla* and Abid Hussain*

ECONOMICS OF MILK PRODUCTION OF MAJOR DAIRY BUFFALO BREEDS BY AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES IN PAKISTAN
...d returns received from major dairy buffalo breeds (Nili-Ravi and Kundhi) in various agro-ecological zones of Pakistan. For this purpose, 219 buffalo farmers were randomly selected from mixed and rice-wheat cropping zones of Punjab and Sindh provinces, mixed cropping zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, coastal zone of Sindh and mountainousAJK. Of these, 155 and 64 were Nili-Ravi and...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Sonila Hassan*, Arshed Bashir*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood** and Irfan Mehmood*

ANALYZING PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF SELECTED FOOD AND LEGUME CROPS FOR FOOD SECURITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... production of selected major food commodities and to project these parameters on the basis of estimated growth co-efficient. Time-series data for area, yield and production were collected for wheat, sugarcane, rice, mung and gram since 1980-81. The semi-log trend function was employed to find out the growth rate of selected commodities. The findings of the study showed the positive growth rates of area, production and yield of all selected food grain and legu...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Umme Rubab* and Abass Ullah Jan* 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER ANALYSIS OF MAIZE FARMERS IN AZAD JAMMU AND KASHMIR, PAKISTAN
...likelihood estimates of major inputs showed that seed, tractor hours, FYM and labor days have contributed significantly to increase the maize yield. However, the DAP and urea have shown no effect on maize yield. The mean technical efficiency was estimated at 83%, implying that the farmers can still enhance their technical efficiency by 11% within the given inputs and technology. The results have demonstrated that maize crop is lucrative crop in the study area ...

 Khurram Nawaz Saddozai*, Muhammad Nasrullah* and Noor P. Khan** 

STOCHASTIC FRONTIER PRODUCTION ANALYSIS OF TOBACCO GROWERS IN DISTRICT MARDAN, PAKISTAN
...20 tobacco growers. The major findings of stochastic production frontier analysis indicate that all variables were statistically significant and have portrayed positive contribution to tobacco production except fertilizer which was found significant but has revealed inverse relation with tobacco production. The mean technical efficiency was estimated at 0.85 depicting that tobacco growers can further amplify efficiency by 15% with given level of inputs. The in...

 Umar Ijaz Ahmed*, Liu Ying**, Muhammad Khalid Bashir***,
Muhammad Amjed Iqbal*, Muhammad Rizwan*, Muhammad Mazhar
Iqbal****, Muhammad Rafi Qamar***** and Aftab Nazeer******

SPATIAL PRICE TRANSMISSION IN PAKISTAN: THE CASE OF WHEAT AND RICE MARKETS
...rice transmission among major wheat and rice markets of Pakistan using their monthly retail prices. For analysis Vector Error Correction Model and Co-integration approach were employed. Results showed that wheat and rice market prices are integrated. Some markets have positive or negative transmission shocks on each other due to the different geographical locations and transport infrastructure. All the wheat markets are adjusted to price changes in the long ru...

 Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Tariq Hassan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saleem Abid*, Irum Raza* and Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*

ASSESSMENT OF THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING COURSE UNDER WATERSHED PROJECT AT FATEHJANG FIELD STATION, PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...eness of professionals. Majority of the participants were strongly and merely agreed upon the training practicality, technologies adoption probability and its advantages at farmer's field. Overall, most of the training participants were satisfied with the knowledge sharing presentations about the specific technologies discussed during the training.

...

 S. Talat Gilani*, Shahid Hameed* and Hussain Shah* 

OCCURANCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF POTY VIRUSES INFECTING GARLIC IN PAKISTAN
...c (Allium sativum) from major garlic growing areas of Pakistan. The yellow stripes, mosaic and chlorotic spot symptoms of the disease resemble the viral infection in garlic reported to occur worldwide. Altogether 690 samples were collected from 29 locations of Punjab and 40 locations of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa to determine the prevalence of Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus (OYDV) and Leek Yellow Stripe Virus (LYSV). Serological testing DAS-ELISA technique was used to test ...

Sumia Bint Zaman*, Waqas Farooq*, Sidra Majeed*, Hasnain Shah*, and Abdul Majid**

ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURE SERVICE PROVIDERS' TRAINING ON WATER CONSERVATION TECHNOLOGIES IN POTHWAR REGION
...r satisfactory level as majority of the participants were strongly agreed (73%) and agreed (23%) that trainings were participatory and skill development oriented and as 96% agreed or strongly agreed that these were helpful in starting the business as assessment of agriculture service providers (ASPs). It can be concluded that the necessary condition has been fulfilled for water conservation. However, for assessing the impact of these skills towards water conse...

 Ghulam Sadiq Afridi*, Abdul Saboor**, Zahoor-ul-Haq***, Sultan Ali
Tariq**** and Muhammad Ishaq*****

EXPLORING POTENTIAL AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PAKISTAN'S COTTON EXPORT
...to labour force. It has major share in export but unfortunately unable to meet international standards. This study aims to analyze the pattern of Pakistan cotton export, and to explore sector's export potential and opportunities. This new research endeavor with well-tested analytical tools enabled the trade experts and policy makers to explore the answer of lackness for diversification in export, HS-2- digits aggregated data for cotton sub-sectors have been us...

 Sidra Majeed*, Mubbashira Nazir*, Sumia Bint Zaman * and Waqas Farooq*

POTENTIAL OF SUGAR BEET PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN: A REVIEW
.... Cane and beet are two major sources of sugar production in Pakistan. Sugarcane production in the country could meet only 75% demand of existing sugar mills. Present study looks into the prospects of sugar beet production especially in water scarce areas to bridge the demand gap and scrutinize the issues and constraints in commercial production of sugar beet. Trends were analyzed using existing published statistics. Water requirement of sugarcane is almost th...

  Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Hassnain Shah*, Saqib Shakeel Abbasi and Abid Hussain*

FARMERS PERCEPTION TOWARDS THE APPLICATION OF BIOZOTE IN SELECTED DEMONSTRATED RICE FIELDS AT HAFIZABAD AND SHEIKHUPURA DISTRICTS
...rviews at their fields. Majority of the host farmers found that plots with biozote had better germination and also found it a good technology for improving rice yield. Non-availability of biozote at local level, less farmers' awareness and low education level of farmers were identified as major issues in adoption of this technology in the study areas.

...

 Mubbashira Nazir*, Saira Batool*, Sultan Ali Tariq**, Abid Hussain** and Ya Sakina**

INTERDECADAL GROWTH VARIABILITY AND DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF FRUIT CROPS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
... in providing essential major and micro nutrients in the diets of people in Pakistan. The study examines the trends and variation of area, production and yield of fruit crops in Punjab province from 1971 to 2014. The growth trend of fruits' production in the province showed positive behavior for major fruits (citrus, mango and guava) in almost all the decades, except for mango in 1970s and guava in 2000s. The decline in prod...

 Nusrat Habib*

RELATIVE PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF SUNFLOWER IN DISTRICT SWABI AND MARDAN
...tobacco to find out the major factors which caused the decreasing trend of sunflower in the area. Primary data of 100 respondents was collected and analyzed in SPSS (Special Package for Social Scientists) software. Estimated results revealed that there was a key difference among target three crops profitability such as revenue per crop day of tobacco, sugarcane and sunflower were rupees 285.61, rupees 158 .93 and rupees 82.64 respectively. On the whole tobacco...

 Syed Haider Abbas*, Ayesha Tahir**, Muhammad Asim***, Muhammad Sohail* and Riaz-ud-Din*

PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFITABILITY OF WHEAT PAK-13 AT DIFFERENT SEEDING DENSITIES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...p>...

 Nasarullah*, Raiz uddin*, Fakhar Uddin* and Muhammad Jamal*

INTERPRETING WHEAT GENOTYPES FOR GRAIN YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT REGIMES OF KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
...three advance line from Tajikistan, one from China and two locally grown cultivars. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes, locations and genotype by environment interactions for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height (cm), spike length (cm), spikelets spike , 1000-grain weight and grain yield. Flag leaf area (cm displayed non-significant differences across environments and its interaction with genotypes. Mean values...
Wazha Mugabe1,3,Gaolebale Segolame Mpapho1, John Kamau1, Wameotsile Mahabile2, Shalaulani James Nsoso1, Kealeboga Dipheko1 and Assar Ali Shah3,*
...st (47%) share, and the majority (46%) of them had a daily yield of 1-2 L/day followed by those yielding <1L/day (40%). A significantly (P<0.05) high (62%) proportion of farmers adopted a 3-4 months lactation period while longer lactation periods (>4 months) were the least adopted at 4%. A significantly (P<0.05) high proportion (58%) of the farmers were not informed on mastitis nor its management. From the 38 farmers informed on the diseases only, ...
Youbao Zhong1, Xianlai Zhang1, Xiaofen Hu1 and Yong Li1, 2,*
... small intestine is the major site of animal digestion and absorption; however, little is known about the morphological characteristics of the hedgehog’s small intestine. This study was conducted to investigate the microstructure of the hedgehog’s small intestine and mast cell distribution by conventional HE and modified toluidine blue staining, respectively. Despite its similarity to the general mammal small intestine microstructure, the present r...

Hina Zubair1, Saima Perveen2, Saeed Alam3, Akkad Rafiq4* and Sara Ejaz 

...s study showed that the majority of the individuals are comfortable with the use of intrauterine contraception devices; however need of the hour is to introduce awareness compaigns to educate general public for better use of contraception especially male partner as it is less invasive compared to female partner. 

...

Anza Zahid*, Muhammad Ali Ayub, Mujtaba Saeed, Nasir Pasha, Abdul Jabbar Dar, Huzaifa Javed, Aimen Shakeel, Amna Nasir, Ana Akbar, Zainab Tarrar and Ayesha Humayun 

...of age. Among 79 males, majority (45.6%) were employees, whereas 91.8% were housewives among females’ participants,. Out of 177 diabetic patients, 42 patients (23.7%) were non-compliant and 135 patients (62.5%) were found to be compliant. The normal glucose level was observed in 120/177 (67.8%) of participants. Interestingly, 97.2% subjects revealed agood attitude as the main trait of a practitioner whereas 2.8% claimed good practice and competency. Conv...

Mohammad Nazeer* and Safdar Hussain Shah 

...ulation wise one of the major livestock specie of Pakistan. This study was conducted to analyze morphological traits of four indigenous goat breeds of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan. The breeds selected for this study were namely Damani, Surguli, Kaghani and Gaddi. Data was collected from two districts to the south (Dera Ismail Khan and Kohat) and two districts to the north (Kaghan and Naran) of KP province. Total number of 120 goat specimen (30 ...
Naimat Ullah Khan1,2, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Aneela Zameer Durrani1Nisar Ahmad3, Ayesha Hassan1, Muhammad Kashif Prince1, Muhammad Luqman Sohail4,*, Mian Saeed Sarwar2, Hazrat Ali2, Tahir Usman2, Asadullah Khan2, Siffat Ullah Khan3 and Shahid Zaman5
...s considered one of the major gastrointestinal pathogens in young ruminants and has been associated with diarrhea. The current study was conducted in three selected districts (Bannu, Lakki Marwat and Kohat) of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) to determine the prevalence and risk factors responsible for the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in lambs and has been known to cause human infection. Three hundred and sixty fecal samples (n=360) were collected thr...

Jesse M. Smith

...etplace, I identify the major themes and evolving narrative of this American religion in relation to secular historical and cultural conditions. The data suggest the rhetorical strategies revealed in Mormon leaders’ discourse on the secular is a part of the way it negotiates relationships within its organization and to the public, and is important to its success in contemporary American society. This case study will be useful to future research in drawin...
Alaeldein M. Abudabos*, Abdullah N. Al-Owaimer, Elsayed O.S. Hussein and Mutahar H. Ali
... vitamin C 100 has no a major impact on cumulative performance or plasma mineral status.
...
Grace C. Onyishi, Ifeanyi Oscar N. Aguzie, Christopher D. Nwani*, R.N.N. Obiezue and I.C. Okoye
...
Human malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study explored the dynamics of malaria infection relative to Anopheles mosquito abundance, relative humidity and temperature in Nsukka, Nigeria. Hospital records from three hospitals in Nsukka town: Bishop Shanahan Hospital, University of Nigeria Medical Centre and Sadiq Hospital were examined for malaria prevalence and intensity from January to July 2015. ...
Ahmad Farooq1, Usman Waheed2,3, Hasan Abbas Zaheer2,3, Abdul Rauf4, Abida Arshad5, and Muhammad Arshad1,*
...ering from thalassaemia major, the severe form of the disorder. The patients of β-thalassaemia are dependent upon lifelong blood transfusion. Multiple transfusions expose them to many blood borne diseases, most commonly hepatitis B and C. The aim of current study was to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among thalassaemia major patients. The study was conducted from June – December 2016, at the Th...

Najeeb Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Niamat Ullah Khan2*, Muhammad Safdar Baloch1 and Ejaz Ahmad Khan

.... Drought stress is the major ecological factor that negatively impacts cotton yield and quality. A field experiment was conducted in 2016 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of four moisture regimes on yield and fiber characteristics of two cotton genotypes. The experiment was laid out in split-plot within a randomized complete block design with three replications. Four irrigation intervals namely I1 (10 days interva...
Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan1,*, Waseem Akram2, Sumi Lee3, Shakir Manzoor1, Syed Rajab Ayub1, Khalil Ur Rehman1, Shinawar Waseem Ali1, Muhammad Bilal Chattha1 and Sumaira Maqsood1

Muhammad Waqar Yasin*, Mobushir Riaz Khan and Muhammad Amin 

... the production of five major crops viz. wheat (triticum), maize (zea mayes), cotton (gossypium), sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and gram (Cicer arietinum). Firstly, changes in mean temperature and rainfall from 1951 to 2015 were assessed at district level. Secondly, the changes in crop performance were computed through remote sensing and crop reporting data obtained from the agriculture department, Government of Punjab, Pakistan. Lastly, changes in crop pe...

Urooba Pervaiz1, Abdus Salam1, Dawood Jan2, Ayesha Khan1 and Mahmood Iqbal

...owner cultivator (49%), majority (81%) have total tomato cultivated area between 1-3 acres. Training was given to all the farmers, results of t-test showed that after getting training; tomato yield, income, total cost of seed, weeding, and pesticides were increased, while seed rate gm per acre was decreased. It is concluded that all the respondents adopted HYVs. Major constrains in the adoption of extension recommendations w...

Abdur Rehman1*, Wang Jian2, Noor Khan3 and Raheel Saqib

...rice volatility risk of major agricultural crops. The main purpose of this article is to compute and determine exactly the sizes and degrees of major crops market risk. The market risk analysis of major crops such as coarse grain rice, wheat, corn, cotton and soybean are determined using the VaR (Value at Risk) model. The practical consequences indicated that the normal distribution model ...

Safdar Ali1*, Obaidullah Shafique1, Tariq Mahmood2, Muhammad Amir Hanif1, Ijaz Ahmed3 and Bashir Ahmad Khan

...agriculture. One of the major contribution of nanotechnology in the field of agriculture is the formulation of nano based pesticides and fertilizers for increased crop production. Precise farming techniques can promote crop production without damaging soil and water, reducing losses due to leaching of nitrogen and enhancing long lasting incorporation of nutrients by micro-organisms present in the soil. Another major breakthr...

Saleem Ashraf1*, Ashiq Hussain Sangi1Zakaria Yousaf Hassan3 and Muhammad Luqman2

...="text-align: justify;">Major objective of this study was an overtime analysis of secondary data to calculate compound growth and forecast area, production and average yield in the Punjab Pakistan For this purpose, data collected from government reports for the period of 1990-2017 was criticaly examined. Empirical results indicated that area under cultivation showed negative compound growth rate while production and average yield showed positive compound growt...

Ghufran ul Haq1*, Muhammad Arif2, Asad Ali2 and Mian Inayatullah3 

...ate of the virus in the major tomato growing areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). For this purpose, surveys were conducted in the hilly areas of Mohmand Agency and Malakand Agency and plains of Shabqadar, Charsadda and Peshawar during 2011, 2012 and 2013, to determine the incidence of TYLCV and the population of its vector. Triple antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) was successful in detecting TYLCV in naturally and whiteflies inoculat...
Mohammed Al Bratty1, Hassan A. Alhazmi1, Somaya Jadoh Ogdi1, Jana Ahmad Otaif1, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab2, Mohammad Firoz Alam3 andSadique Akhtar Javed1,*
...idered to be one of the major routes of metal exposure to human population. In the present study, concentration levels of seven heavy metals were measured in different body parts of Baladi chicken from Jazan region, Saudi Arabia using Inductively Coupled-Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). The concentrations of heavy metals in various chicken parts were recorded to be in the range of nd-0.01, 0.07-0.18, 1.08-3.95, 9.61-119.0, nd-0.16, 0.13-1.10, an...

Rehman-Ud-din* and Naeem-Ur-Rehman Khattak 

...pletely non-mechanised. Majority of the farmers in each type of farmers do not have their own farming machines/animals. Per acre productivity of mechanised farmers is a little bit greater than the non-mechanised farmers. The outstanding feature of farm mechanisation is the time-saving factor that enables mechanised farmers to spend their spare time on other aspects of life like education, business, other professions and social activities. 

...

Samiullah*, Mohammad Aslam Khan and Atta-ur-Rahman  

... Beside urbanization, a major contributor to fragmentation is the law of inheritance, which divides the land among successors. In the absence of specific policies on land consolidation or development control, it is hard to see any expected change in landholding and farm fragmentation and continued invasion of farmland by urban uses. 

...
Nausheen Irshad1,*, Imran Yousaf1, Tariq Mahmood2 and Muhammad Saeed Awan1
...t requirement, food and major threats are yet to be identified and addressed.
...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Irshad Khan Abbasi2, Muhammad Tariq2, Jawad Ali3, Melad Karim4 and Rizwan Ahmad1 

...thus for Pakistan whose major water requirements are met from snow/glacier melt from the River Indus. 

...

Fatma Abdallah1*, Ola Hassnain2, Elsayed Attar3, Haytham Ali3,5, Mohamed Megahed1 and Venugopal Nair

...reened positive for the major MDV-encoded oncogene Meq which was subjected for alignment and phylogenetic analysis. The eight studied consensus amino acid sequences of Meq proteins possess several amino acid mutations associated with the MDV virulence and a unique distortion in the Proline repeats (Proline-to-Alanine) at position 176 in the Egyptian MDV strains. The Phylogenetic analysis grouped the eight analysed sequences with the previously investigated Meq...
Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain and Tariq Mahmood*
...s, associated with four major crops (wheat, groundnut, millet and maize) in the Pothwar Plateau. In all four crops, maximum number of rodent burrows was recorded at maturity stages of the crops. The maturity stage of wheat crop coincided with spring breeding season while the maturity stages of millet/maize and groundnut matched with monsoon/autumn breeding peak of the rodents in the study area. The burrow density recorded inside the wheat crop at various stage...
Muhammad Anwar-ul-Haq1, Amer Jamal Hashmat1, Ejazul Islam1, Muhammad Afzal1, Abid Mahmood2, Muhammad Ibrahim2,*, Muhammad Nawaz3,*, Shahid Nadeem4 and Qaiser Mahmood Khan1
...cale (70 L). One of the major problems encountered in the textile industry is the production of large volumes of highly colored wastewater. The scope of this new electrochemical treatment is a significant advance to the existing technologies. There were four different treatments employed as; T1: wastewater, T2: wastewater with 0.1% electrolyte, T3: diluted wastewater (50% tap water), and T4: diluted wastewater (50% tap water) with 0.1% electrolyte. The color a...
Zihong Chen1, Ling Xu2, Xiaona Yang2, Yaguan Zhang3* and Yuming Yang4
...clade to Metarhizium majus, Metarhizium guizhouense, Metarhizium lepidiotae and Metarhizium indigoticum, but conclusively separated from these allied species with high support value. Morphological character differentiated M. baoshanense from its relatives on that its conidial size was obviously smaller than M. majus and M. indigoticum, a little shorter than M. guizhouense
Wael S. El-Tohamy1,*, Russell R. Hopcroft2 and Nagwa E.M. Abdel Aziz3
...nktonic larvae were the major component representing 39.4% of the total zooplankton abundance. Copepods and their larval stages contributed 36.2%. Rotifers ranked the third important group (12.6%). Protozoa contributed 10.6% of the total community. According to the Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA), the variations in the species data were significantly (P< 0.05) related to salinity, temperature, phosphate concentration and phytoplankton biomass. The m...
Qaisar Jamal1, Muhammad Idrees1, Saif Ullah2, Muhammad Adnan1, Farrah Zaidi1, Qaiser Zaman1,3 and Syed Basit Rasheed1,*
...us, Bungarus caeruleus, Naja oxiana, Typhlops porrectus, Echis carinatus). Altitudinal distribution of reptiles shows that maximum diversity (26 species) has been observed at an altitude range of 550-1000 meters which decreased gradually reaching to occurrence of only four species at 2500-2900 meters above sea level. District Dir lower, primarily sub-tropical, was found more diverse regarding squamate species than the mountainous, temperate Upper Dir.
Masood Nizam Tabassum1*, Muhammad Ather Khan2, Saira Afzal3, Amir Gilani4, Abdul Wahab Gureja5, ShafaqTabassum6
...world, TB is one of the major killer infectious diseases, which place it in one of the top 5 causes of death for females aged 15 to 44. The death rate due to this isease has declined by 47% from 1990 to 2015.
Objective: This study was conductedto determine the demographic parameters of patients of Tuberculosis at public sector health facilities Lahore, Pakistan.
Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in outpatient ...
Taimoor Akram Khan1*, Anam Farooq2, Amna Farooq3, Muhammad Nasir1, Gohar Khan4 and Ali Akram Khan1
...ere follow-up patients. Majority of patients 735 (31.2%) presented with symptoms of respiratory system. Certain systems were more involved in females than males like musculoskeletal system (257 v/s 113), respiratory system (377 v/s 358) and especially the genitourinary system (50 v/s 5).
Conclusions: Addressing and treating the diseases presenting at this basic level (BHU) can prove to be very useful in reducing patient load at the level of ...
Munir Ahmad1, Aisha Hameed2*, Saba Khaliq3, Hamid Saeed Malik4 and Shahida Mohsin5
...in children and forms a major fraction of childhood malignancies in the developed countries. Numerous chromosomal aberrations have been observed in ALL including translocations which result in the production of fusion genes (BCR-ABL, TEL-AML1, and MLL-AF4). These chromosomal rearrangements have great prognostic and therapeutic significance. Amongst these, TEL-AML1 fusion gene represents a subgroup of ALL cases, which are associated with many clinically ...
Nuzhat Huma1, Fozia Ghaffar1, Saima Rafiq2,*, Imran Pasha1, Aysha Sameen1, Imran Hayat2 and Imtiaz Hussain2
...-Lg was found to be the major protein in sheep and buffalo milks, while in goat it was the second predominant protein and it was absent in the camel milk. The concentration of immunoglobin was found higher in camel and goat milks as compared to other species. Moreover, the strength and mobility of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was different in all milk species.
...
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1, Muhammad Shakir Khan1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Imtiaz Ali Shah1,Sheeraz Ghani1, Amjad Ali2, Zubina Hameed1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3 and Tariq Ali1,3,*
Riaz Aziz Minhas1,*, Muhammad Nasim Khan1, Muhammad Siddique Awan1, Basharat Ahmad1, Syda Shaista Bibi1, Mohsin Hanif1 and Afsar Mian2

 

Syed Aun Muhammad1, Muhammad Soaib Said2, Shams Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Dawood2, Muneer Ahmed Qazi3 and Nighat Fatima2,*
...teria are today’s major worldwide health concern because of production hydrolytic enzyme New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1). The enzyme NDM-1 is responsible for bacterial resistance against almost all the β-lactam antibiotics. Therefore, NDM-1 inhibitors can play an important role against these emerging highly resistant microorganisms. The existing beta lactamase inhibitors are considered ineffective against these superbugs and there is an u...

Dilshad Ahmad1*, Muhammad Irfan Chani1 and Muhammad Afzal2 

... credit utilization are major constraints in lowering overall agriculture output. Adequate farmer’s friendly policies and proper legislative measures are necessary for the smooth flow of increasing agriculture output and overcoming financial constraints. 

...

Irfan Ali Sabir1, Saeed Ahmad1*, Muhammad Nafees2, Ahmad Sattar Khan1, Maryam3 and Ishtiaq Ahmad

...lity are considered the major limiting factors in export. Therefore, some high yielding good quality exotic mango cultivars were acclimatized in the country and a comprehensive research studies were executed to investigate the yield potential, fruit physico-chemical characters and sensorial aspects. Diverse seventeen commercial and noncommercial indigenous and exotic mango varieties were selected to collect and analyze fruit morphological data under randomized...

Muhammad Amir Maqbool1*, Muhammad Aslam1, Waseem Akbar2, Muhammad Waheed Anwar3 and Ehtisham Shakeel Khokhar

...="text-align: justify;">Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), barrel medic (Medicago truncatula L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) were targeted in current studies. Amino acid sequences of major intrinsic proteins of chickpea, barrel medic and maize were retrieved from NCBI database followed by BLASTP. Pairwise and multiple alignment of sequences was done by using ClustalX software, and phylogenetic tree...
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Abdul Wasay2, Tariq Ali1,*, Muhammad Iqbal1, Khisrao Kalim1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3, Muhammad Mobashar2, Nazir Ahmad2, Abid Iqbal2 and Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1
...ity (ECM) is one of the major constraints in livestock production system of Pakistan. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of different weaning ages on the growth performance of cattle calves to reduce ECM. Nine calves (Achai crossed Jersey) were randomly distributed into three weaning age groups viz., A = 90, B = 70, and C = 110 days. In group A, calves were fed with whole milk at 10% of live body weight (LBW) for 4-7 days after...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
...nas aeruginosa is a major barrier to successful treatment of infection. Additional and novel measures to control this pathogen are needed, along with contemporary information about antibiotic resistances that are present in isolates from different environments. In the present study 72 samples from blood, 43 from sputum, and 19 were obtained from tracheal aspirates patients suffering from chronic and acute lung infections admitted to a local hospital in Lah...

Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus1*, Olabode Mayowa Peter2, Muhammad Adamu Abbas3 and Mohammed Dauda Goni

...lococcus aureus posed a major veterinary and public challenge worldwide. S. aureus being a highly versatile pathogen can quickly acquire resistance genes. The development of resistance in bacteria predates the era of antibiotic use. However, resistance developments in S. aureus have been reported since the early 1940-ties, when penicillin resistant S. aureus was first reported. Ever since, this pathogen has gain global notoriety as the most common cause of nos...

Iqbal Javed1*, Amar Razzaq2, Mudassar Yasin3, Muhammad Ali Imran4, Haroon Javaid5, Iftikhar Nabi6, Anum Sardar1 and Shahbaz Ahmad

...ary data were used. The major sources of the data used in the study were international trade center, Economics survey of Pakistan, statistical yearbook of Pakistan and Agricultural Price Institution, Islamabad, Pakistan. Nominal protection coefficient (NPC), revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and Revealed Symmetric Comparative Advantage (RSCA) were estimated for the export of mutton to all existing international markets. According to the finding of the curre...
Muhammad Khan1,*, Amara Maryam2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1 and Yongming Li3,*
...Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), a major component of cigarette smoke, has been found to be a potent human carcinogen. Recently, it has been shown to induce lung cancer metastasis. In the present study, we found for the first time that Baohuoside I (BHS-1), a natural flavonol glycoside inhibits BaP-induced A549 lung cancer metastasis by modulating the expressions of p-STAT3, COX-2, MMP-2, MMP-9, E-cadherin and N-cadherin. Moreover, we found that chronic BaP exposure prom...

Anish Shrestha* and Samata Baral 

...farming practices. But, majority of farmers (57.88%) are still unaware about climate change and how to deal with it. Among total respondent, only 15% of them stated that their source of awareness about climate change was extension worker, which indicates very minimal interaction between farmers and extension worker. Most significant impacts of the climate change were increased disease pest infestation, loss of appetite and decreased milk production. Vulnerabil...

Yasir Ali1*, Muhammad Aslam Khan1, Muhammad Atiq1 and Muhammad Hussain2

...rf wheat varieties with major gene resistance could not continue for longer period due to emergence of new rust races. However, genotypes such as Inqilab-91, Bluebird, Kenya Plume and Hope developed in early part of green revolution retained their resistance for longer period due to presence of non-specific rust resistance genes. Until now, 187 rust resistance genes (80 leaf rust, 49 stripe rust, 58 stem rust) have been described from different wheat and durum...

Muhammad Asam Riaz1, Javeria Choudhary1, Muhammad Zeeshan Majeed1*, Muhammad Afzal1, Sohail Ahmed2 and Muhammad Sajjad Khalil

...and amylases may play a major role in mitigating fitness-cost associated with insecticide resistance.  

...
Ĺžehriban Çek Yalnız 1,* and Erdal Yilmaz2
...ms that apoptosis has a major role in the elimination of POF and atretic oocytes in the ovaries of C. gariepinus.
...
Ammara Afzal1, Tazmeen Fatima1, Maham Tabassum1, Muhammad Nadeem2*, Muhammad Irfan3, Quratulain Syed2
...ust as substrate. Three major processes convert lignocelluloses to bioethanol i.e. pretreatment of biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis of raw material and fermentation. The sawdust was pretreated with 2.5% NaOH and further processed for SHF and SSF. Maximum saccharification was observed by T. viride (10.17%) followed by T. harzianum (9.19%) and T. koninji (6.91%) at 35ËšC for 48h. Among both strategies, SSF combination of T. viride and

Fan Shuli1*, Ameer Hussain Jarwar1,3, Xiaoyan Wang2, Long Wang1 and Qifeng Ma

...vegetable oil and makes major contribute in the national oil industry. According to an estimate per capita usage of edible oil in the country is 15 kg, this is even higher than the consumption in countries with same economic status of economical evolution. Overall requirements for this purpose in 2028–30 is estimated at approximately 5.30 million/tons from which domestic share could be only 1.99 million/tons. Generally, the genetically modified cotton (B...
Qudrat Ullah1,*, Huma Jamil1, Zafar Iqbal Qureshi1, Muhammad Saqib2 and Heinrich Neubauer3
...burnetii, acts as a major trade barricade and adversely affects the productive and reproductive capabilities of animals. This study was planned to investigate the sero-prevalence of Coxiellosis and its relationship with some important risk factors in small ruminants kept at nine government livestock farms of Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 1000 blood samples (500 each from goats and sheep) were collected from animals kept at the respective livestock farms. An...

Bushra Qadir1, Muhammad Asim2 and Mohammad Akmal1* 

...tand establishment is a major issue. Treatments of the experiments were four alfalfa varieties (i.e. UCD, Dura, Vernal and Cuf 101) whose seed were treated with overnight in bio-extracts solution made of perennial tree leaves. The study compares early growth performance of alfalfa varieties for forage biomass production. The seed was soaked overnight (14 h) in extracts made from dry powdered leaves of Bakayn (Azadir achtaindica), Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) and ...

Abid Hussain1*, Muhammad Azeem Khan2, Muhammad Anjum Ali Buttar3, Umar Farooq4, Muhmmad Islam5 and Zahid Ullah Khan1 

...culture profitable is a major challenge and all out efforts have been made by successive government in Pakistan to pass benefits to the farmers by reducing input prices through reduction in GST, providing cash subsidy and supplying inexpensive feed gas for fertilizer industry. Currently, cash subsidy on urea is costing Rs. 12 billion to national exchequer and total tax relief (all products inclusive) costing around Rs. 40 billion to the national exchequer, res...

Muhammad Luqman1, Raheel Saqib2*, Mujahid Karim1, Khalid Nawab2, Abdur Rehman3 and Muhammad Yaseen1 

...ing interview schedule. Majority (76.2%) of the respondents were young (26 to 40 years). A significant majority (76.3%) were illiterate and only 23.8% were literate (Having more than five years of schooling). Farming was the major income source for majority (69.4%) of respondents. Small farming is very common as more than 60.0% of the respondents had onl...
Yuan Li1, Liyan Zhang2, Karhoe Loh3, Ji Feng1, Xinqing Zheng1, Puqing Song1 and Longshan Lin1,*
...s was moderate, and two major haplotype lineages were detected that were differentiated approximately 0.3 million years ago. These two haplotype lineages differed significantly in frequency distribution of Chinese and Malaysian populations, showing an imperfect geographical pedigree structure. Results of AMOVA also showed that the genetic differentiation was mainly among populations. According to the distribution of the haplotypes, an ancestral haplotype exist...

Shaista Naz1*, Noor Paio Khan1, Naveed Afsar2 and Ashfaq Ahmad Shah3

...ock activities, and the major faced constraints in livestock management in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of the country. For this, a sample size of 117 women respondents was selected through multistage sampling technique and data were collected from the selected respondents using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire through face to face interview. The collected data were subjected to analysis using descriptive statistics, frequencies, percentages, and rank...

Aneel Salman1, Muhammad Iftikhar ul Husnain1, Inayatullah Jan2*, Muhammad Ashfaq2, Mudassar Rashid1 and Usman Shakoor1 

...rategies. We found that majority of the farmers do not consider climate change as a potential threat to agriculture; therefore, they do not make any intentional efforts to change their farming practices. However, a few adaptation measures like use of different crop varieties, tree planting, and drip irrigation methods are prevalent in the research area. The major hurdles that farmers perceived in adaptation are limited acces...

Amjad Ali1, Abbas Ullah Jan1, Lal Almas2, Noor Piao Khan1 and Khurran Nawaz Saddozai

...efficiency has been the major concern for agricultural researchers and policy makers in Pakistan. In current study allocative efficiency of sugarcane growers in district Charsadda was worked out with frontier model. Randomly 118 sugarcane growers were interviewed during crop season 2014-2015. For survey data a pre-tested structured questioner set according to objectives of the study was used. Coefficients of parameters were calculated by maximum likelihood est...

Ambrin Rajput* 

...lse crops which plays a major part in fulfilling the nutritional requirements of human. Limited research has been done on chickpea concern with potassium (K) fertilizer application. A field study was carried out to determine the effect of K on chickpea using cultivar Benazir having three fertilizer treatments; 0:0:0, 30:75:0 and 30:75:30 kg ha-1 of N:P:K replicated thrice with randomized complete block design respectively. The experimental soil was clay loam i...

Waqas Ali* and Mudasser Habib 

... and Asia 1 are causing majority of the outbreaks in the Pakistan during recent years. Moreover, only one residue of VP1 region was under positive selection pressure for serotype A (position 141) located in known critical antigenic region but as a whole protein was under negative selection pressure for serotype O, A and Asia 1. Therefore, under mass vaccination campaigns and drastic environmental conditions strains under negative selection has the ability to m...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
...oprotein levels are the major risk factors involved in the development of cardio vascular diseases. Lovastatin is formed as secondary metabolic intermediate initiated by anion moiety (acetate) through polyketide chain reactions. The current work was put away to investigate the potency of Pleurotus strains for statin formation by cultivating them on lignocellulosic substrates (wheat straw, rice straw, banana stalk) in SSF for 8 days. Among Pleurotus <...
Fehmeeda Fatima, Asif Nadeem* and Maryam Javed
...lated to be 0.00210 and Tajima’s D neutrality test for neutral mutation indicated a negative value. Moreover, the results of homology analysis showed maximum similarity with sequences of goat and sheep sequences (partial) and were found to be 99.93% and 99.35%, respectively which was further confirmed by constructing phylogenetic tree which indicated that Sindh ibex, domestic goat, and sheep share a common ancestor.
...
Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi2*, Zillay Mariam1, Nadeem Sheikh1,2*
...on purpose represents a major health risk not only to humans but also to local flora and fauna. The purpose of current research work was to analyze the toxicity of leachate in Wistar rats. Wistar rats of about 250g were selected and divided into three groups namely Control, Group 1 and Group 2. Group 1 was given 4ml/kg leachate while Group 2 received 4ml/kg of 1:10 diluted leachate intra-peritoneally. After 24 hours of the injection, animals were euthanized an...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela ZameerDurrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, KhushiMuhammad1,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal2

 

...ase was 55.5%, while in Rajanpur topography of the land is mixed comprising of riverine, plateau, mountainous and semi-hilly areas showed 52.2% prevalence. When immunity status was taken into account it was found that vaccinated animals showed very low prevalence, i.e. 4.39% as compared to non-vaccinated animals having 66.53%. Another risk factor age suggested that younger animals were more affected (60.17%) as compared to older ones (29.41%). It was al...
Mouslim Bara1,2,* and Luciano N. Segura3
... widely recognized as a major predictor of bird abundance and richness along large-scale environmental gradients, but mechanisms by which climate influences the bird abundance are still unknown. We analyzed seasonal variations on the bird community structure of Rallidae and Anatidae families in the northeastern Algerian Garaet Hadj Tahar for three consecutive years (September 2012 to August 2015). We studied the effect of air temperature and water depth on bir...

Shoaib Nawaz1, Muhammad Razaq1, Zahid Mahmood Sarwar1*, Muhammad Sajjad1*, Syeda Aneeza Ubaid1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2 and Usman Haider

...king pest jassid become major problem on okra in tropical and subtropical regions and cause heavy losses. Neonicotinoid insecticide, like nitenpyram was used on calendar basis and ETL basis. Data was recorded on weekly basis. In first week jassid population in control and ETL treatments was equal with non-significant difference between them while in calendar treatment population was significantly low. ETL and calendar base treatments give maximum yield because...

Muhammad Latif2, Muneer Abbas1*, Faisal Hafeez2 and Dilbar Hussain2 

...lla/Earias insulana are major devastating pests of our summer vegetables especially brinjal and okra. Six insecticides viz. spinetoram 120 SC, spinosad 240 SC, bifenthrin 10 EC, cypermethrin 10 EC, chlorantraniliprol 20 SC and flubendiamide 480 SC were applied on brinjal and okra against these pests with five replications. Data was recorded after 24 hrs. 72 hrs. 7 and 10 days after spray application. Results indicated that all the insecticides gave significant...
Ghazunfar Rashid1, Muhammad Avais1, Syed Saleem Ahmad1, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq2, Rais Ahmed3,*, Mahboob Ali1, Muhammad Naveed-ul-Haque4, Mehtab Ahmad5Mumtaz Ali Khan1 and Naimat Ullah Khan6
...Pennisetum glaucum (Bajra), Zea mays (Makai), Avena sativa (Jai), Brassica rapa (Shaljam) and Brassica Campestris (Sarson) were estimated twice a day i.e. early morning and afternoon. The fodder samples were collected from different villages of Okara, Pattoki and Ravi areas of the Province Punjab. Nitrate contents of different parts of the fodder plants were estimated qualitatively through the Diphenylamine Filed Test (DF...
Muhammad Mohsin1, Dai Guilin1,*, Chen Zhuo1, Yin Hengbin1 and Muhammad Noman2
...conomic implications of major commercially hunted fish species. In this study maximum sustainable yield (MSY) of Carangoides fishery from Sindh, Pakistan is estimated by using catch and effort data. For data analysis, two specialized fishery software CEDA (catch and effort data analysis) and ASPIC (a stock production model incorporating covariates) were employed. Three surplus production models (SPMs) viz., Fox Model (FM), Schaefer Model (SM) and Pella-...
Saba Irshad*, Aruba Muhammad, Ammara Muazzam, Farah Sarfraz Anmol and Rehman Shahzad
...reen β-Thalassemia Major patients for Xmn1 Polymorphism, accountable for increased Fetal Hemoglobin, an important ameliorating factor in minimizing disease severity. PCR-RFLP was employed for securitizing Xmn1 polymorphism among thalassemia (Major) patients. Out of total 206 screened patients, sole Xmn1 homozygous (+/+) and heterozygous (-/+) case was reported with a band size of 418 bp, 230 bp and 641 bp, 418 bp, 230 b...

Zubina Hameed1, Muhammad Azim Malik1, Safdar Ali1*, Muhammad Ansar1, Farina Shaheen1, Ijaz Ahmad2 and Khisrao Kalim3 

...justify;">Weeds are the major problem of rainfed wheat of Pothwar Region of Pakistan. Due to subsistence kind of farming and dependence on rainfall, people are reluctant to do expenses on chemical control of weeds in wheat. Similarly, due to lack of awareness, they use wheat weeds as animal fodder and the hand weeding affects crop stand and its tillering which ultimately reduces the wheat yield of the pothwar region. So, chemical control of weeds was hypothesi...

 Hamda Azmat1, Waqas Ali2, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain2, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Zara Saeed1,Syed Shafiq Hussain Bukhari4

Chromium contamination in water, sediment and its bioaccumulation in Indian major carps in River Chenab, Pakistan

Riffat Mehboob1*, Sami Ullah Mumtaz2, Zoya Manzoor3, Sajid Abaidullah2, Fridoon Jawad Ahmad1

Deranged biochemical and hematological profile of septicemia patients in Mayo hospital, Lahore
...Bilirubin was normal in majority of patients while total protein was in normal range in 97.02% patients and the trend of albumin was towards low (44.55%).In Renal function tests, urea was elevated in 71.29% and creatinine in 51.48% patients and in electrolytes Na+ was low in 41.58% patients K+ were normal in majority of patients. Hematological parameters such as WBCs were high in 84.16%, hemoglobin was low in 78.12% and plat...

 Abir Ishtiaq, Muhammad Naeem*

Length-weight relationships and condition factor for farmed Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822) from southern Punjab, Pakistan
...y commercial freshwater major carp, thaila (Catla catla) from farming system. Mean±S.E. total
length (TL) and body weight (W) of studied samples have been calculated as 39.29±0.23 cm and 827.43±14.55 g,
respectively. For LWRs, specimens of C.catla were collected from fish ponds and grouped into three categories on
the basis of the feed offered to them which contained 15%, 20% and 25% crude protein (CP). The regression<...

 Waqas Ali, Arshad Javid, Ali Hussain, Syed Mohsin Bukhari

Public attitude towards amphibian and reptiles in district Kasur, Punjab, Pakistan
.../> Bungarus caeruleus, Naja naja, Ptyas mucosus, Eryx johnii, Varanus bengalensis
and Uromastyx hardwickii. Out of 200 respondents, more than 80% considered
amphibians and reptiles as useless animals, 71% as symbol of bad omen, 73%
believed that herpetiles are used in traditional medicine and 3% considered that
they are also used as food. Different superstitions are also linked with amphibians

Khush Bukhat Zahid1*, Ghaffar Ali2, Samina Sabir1 and Mohammad Fayaz2 

...ultural productivity of major crops, including rice, wheat and maize, in specific districts of Pakistan. This is done by observing year-to-year fluctuations in rainfall and temperature in relation to agricultural productivity for the period 1981-2009. For estimation purposes, the production function technique is used to evaluate the relationship between climate and yield variability. The results show that higher amount of rainfall has a negative and significan...

Umair Talib1, Ijaz Ashraf2, Robert Agunga1 and Saleem Ashraf3* 

...s constituting the vast majority of the agricultural population there is an urgent need for extension to come to their aid. Climate smart agricultural practices should be integrated in extension training and practice in Pakistan. 

...
Ajmal Khan* and Rehan Ullah
... Quarter Hospital Khar, Bajaur Agency. In this study, a total number of 9720 suspected individuals were examined; among which 1273 (13.1%) were found to be positive for malaria infection with different Plasmodium species in their blood smears. Male population accounts for higher prevalence rate (14.59%) than female (11.24%). The infection was more prevalent in November (21.4%), December (21.1%) and October (18%) and was lowest in the month of April (6.7...

Muhammad Shahzad Khattak1*, Amjad Khan1, Mahmood Alam Khan1, Waqas Ahmad2, Shafiq ur Rehman3, Mohammad Sharif4 and Sajjad Ahmad1 

...ing stream flow data of major rivers of Pakistan were investigated. Stream flow drought indices (SDI) were used to determine the severity of droughts for the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab and Kabul River at Tarbela, Mangla, Marala and Warsak hydrological stations for the period 1962-2011. A drought spell starting from 1999 and ending in 2002 was observed for all stations and is considered to be the worst drought in the history of Pakistan. Analysis of historical strea...

Mujib ur Rahman1, Munir Khan2*, Himayatullah Khan2, Malik Muhammad Shafi2 and Haidar Ali2  

...llages namely Utmanzai, Rajjar and Matta-Mughal-Khel were randomly selected. A comparative analysis of chadar and suit cloth was done regarding sale in Charsadda market and other cities of the country. In Charsadda market, 3/4 producing units sold their products, while 1/4 of the producers were involved in marketing of these products to other cities of the country. Profit per month of Chadar and Suit cloth in the local market was found Rs. 7,800/- and Rs 6,552...

Amara Amjad Hashmi1,2,*, Maqbool Hussain Sial3, Waqar Akram4 and Maaida Hussain Hashmi5,6

...s, results suggest that major portion of a household’s diet is consisting of staple food (wheat), (53%) and increased to (57%) from 2005 to 2014. We use the Heckman Approach to find out determinants of food insecurity. Results suggest that female headship plays a significant positive role in caloric intake, among the other variable head education, households’ member with basic education and higher education, live stock ownership, consumption of liv...
Muhammad Saqib Shahzad1, Amina Arif1,*,Saeeda Kalsoom2, Javed Iqbal3, Shahnam Shafique2, Muhammad Shahid Nadeem4 and Rafique Ahmed5
...ients, SVR was found in majority (80.2%). However, among NRVR equal percentage of SVR and NSVR was found. An inverse association of SVR was found against the patient age and viral load in the plasma. The plasma values of ALT have shown no specific relation with SVR and NSVR. Genotype 3a was the most prevalent (69.7%) followed by 3b (13.6%), mixed genotypes (10.5%), 1b (3.2%), 1a (3.1%) among the investigated patients. We found highest SVR against genotype 3a (...

Salman Ali*, Inamullah, Muhammad Arif, Mehran Ali, Muhammad Owais Iqbal, Fazal Munsif and Arsalan Khan 

... a crop. Potassium is a major plant nutrient required in large quantity by crops and has a significant role in increasing crop growth and yield by reducing the adverse effects of drought stress. Although a large quantity of potassium can be found in soil but is mostly in an unavailable form. A field experiment was, therefore established at Agronomy Research Farm the University of Agriculture Peshawar-KP to evaluate the response of maize toward different K leve...

Muhammad Rameez Khan1, Muhammad Imtiaz2, Farhatullah3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Sajid Ali1* 

...at diseases remains the major constraint to wheat production across Pakistan, including rusts and powdery mildews. Although significant attention is given to rust diseases, powdery mildew is a less considered diseases so far, mainly due to lack of information on the prevalence across Pakistan. Surveillance for powdery mildew status assessment was conducted across Pakistan during three wheat crop seasons i.e., 2015-2016 to 2017-2018. A total of 437 fields (from...

Shumaila Nazeer1, Iqbal Javed1*, Allah Bakhsh2, Mudassar Yasin2, Haroon Javaid3 and Kaniz Fatima1 

... quantify impact of the major determinants on export of mandarin (Kinnow) to UAE and USA. According to data properties and suitability, multiple regression analysis technique is used for UAE and binary logistic regression technique was used for USA market. According to the finding, gross export margin for USA market is Rs. 30644 per ton and percent export margin is 70 percent while Net export margin is found as Rs. 14076.074 per ton. While in case of UAE marke...
Tamoor Azeem1,*, M. Yasin Tipu1, Asim Aslam1, Sajjad Ahmed2, Salman Ahmed Abid1, Abdullah Iqbal3, Naeem Akhtar4, Muhammad Saleem4, Aamerzish Mushtaq4 and Sajid Umar4
...ropical countries. Four major haemoparasites in camels are Trypanosoma, Dipetalonema, Babesia, and Anaplasma. The current study was executed to investigate haematobiochemical alterations in camels during haemoparasitism. Blood samples were collected from 200 camels of either sex and different ages from district Attock. Samples were processed for haematobiochemical analysis and thin smear stained with Field stain according to standar...

Shamsher Ali1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Zahir Shah2, Naveedullah3 and Abdul Jalal1 

...ture ecosystem creating major threats to crop productivity and, hence, affecting socio economic condition of the farming community. Growing of salt tolerant crop genotypes of species on salt affected lands is an effective tool for getting desirable productivity. A two-factor experiment using complete randomized design with three replications in pots having silt loam soil was carried out on April 03, 2016 to examine three maize genotypes (Iqbal, Jalal, and Azam...

Muhammad Waqas Imam Malik1, Khalid Usman1*, Tahir Amin1, Muhammad Riaz2, Zafar Iqbal3 and Fiaz Hussain

...otton, which has been a major export contributor of Pakistan. In this scenario, drought-tolerant cotton cultivars with zero tillage could be the best option. This research aims to quantify the impact of limited water on lint yield and quality of cotton genotypes. An experiment was managed in a split plot, randomized complete block design, replicated thrice at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan. The experiment was conducted in 2016 using trea...
Hamidullah1,*, Arshad Javid2, Basit Rasheed1,Jehan Zeb3, Abidullah1 and Muhammad Iftikhar Khan1
...y 2016 was conducted in Bajaur Agency which forms the northern part of Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) and never explored for chiropteran diversity prior to the present study. Five congeners namely common Pipistrelle Pipistrellus pipistrellus, Javan Pipistrelle P. javanicus, Coromandel Pipistrelle P. coromandra, least Pipistrelle P. tenuis and Kelaart’sPipistrelle P. ceylonicus were recorded for the first tim...

Syed Amjad Kamal Jan* and Naushad Khan 

...d completed in2018. The major objectives of the study were to determine the factors which affect the production per acre of rice and analyze the problems and constraints faced to rice grower in the study area. The universe of the study was Lower Dir District which consist of seven tehsil while on the basis of more production only two tehsils Balambat and Lalqila were purposively selected The total rice growers number in this district was37557, Balambat 6121 an...

Sonia1, Khuram Nawaz Sadozai1*, Noor Paio Khan2, Abbas Ullah Jan1 and Gulnaz Hameed3 

...loyed to figure-out the major findings. Econometric diagnostic tests were used to verify the model stability. Therefore, LM test was encompassed to detect the serial correlation. The result of Hausman test has suggested applying “Fixed Effect Model” for further analysis. Major estimates of the overall 30 years data reveal that among non-climatic variables, area under wheat cultivation and seed are highly signific...
Dur-E-Shahwar1,2, Riaz Ahmad Sheikh1, Nazia Jamil2*
...es. Produced water is a major waste water stream of petroleum industry which is produced during petroleum extraction from subsurface in which hydrocarbons are found as a main environmental pollutant. Present study is focused on production of biosurfactants from indigenous bacteria, isolated from produced water and produced water contaminated soil samples collected from three selected sites of Eastern Potwar, Punjab, Pakistan. Forty seven bacteria were isolated...

 Saira Zaheer1, Abrar Hussain1*, Aqsa Khalil1, Muhammad Mansha1, Muhammad Lateef2

...inths are familiar as a major problem to livestock production. Helminths cause multiple infections in animals of significant economic importance. Haemonchus contortus, (helminths worm), is highly infectious parasite of small ruminants, and is a major cause of diseases and significant mortality in various cattle, sheep, deer, buffalo and goat, etc. Various synthetic anthelmintics have been used, on wide scale, to contr...
Fariha Latif* and Muhammad Javed
...ant capacities of three major carps Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhina mrigala towards metals mixture (Cd+Cr+Cu+Pb) were determined during present research work. Sensitivity of the three fish species (120-day old) towards metals mixture was measured in term of 96 h LC50 and lethal concentration. These acute toxicity tests were performed at constant temperature (30oC), pH (8) and total hardness (250 mgL-1
Muhammad Hidayat Rasool1,*, Muhammad Zaheer1, Muhammad Farooque Hassan2, Muhammad Shafique1 and Muhammad Usman Qamar1
...lactamases (MBLs) among major Gram negative pathogens is an emerging threat and a matter of great concern worldwide. Especially increasing resistance to 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporin and carbapenems is an issue of high importance. Present study was aimed to determine the frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of MBL producing carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative rods (GNRs) isolated from clinical specimens. A clinical de...

Muhammad Zulfiqar1*, Irshad Abbasi2, Himayatullah Khan1, Arjumand Nizami3, Abdul Hakeem4, Jawad Ali3 and Muhammad Jamal Khan

...e, July and August) the major flow is generated by snow/glacier melt. The glacier melt increases with increase in air temperature and maximum flow discharge of 31.25cfs was observed during the month of June and then decreases with decrease in air temperature. In general, the snow/glacier melt was the major contributor (79%) during the summer months and spring water contribution was 21%. However, in winter months only spring ...

Ayesha Khan*, Zubair Ahmad Khan, Urooba Pervaiz And Mehmood Iqbal 

... (Hons) degree with the majority of extension agents having job experience of more than 20 years. The main sources of information for the majority (79%) of extension agents were extension publications and training. Extension agents viewed that poverty (49%), expensive inputs (21%) and illiteracy (16%) were the main adoption constraints faced by farmers. Majority (86%) extension agents repo...
Kamran Zakaria1*, Noreen Munawar1 and Shafqat Ejaz2
...encies are present with major significance that indicate changes in the rainfall system. While, the calculated global wavelet power spectra showed variable frequencies, they presentedodd patterns (symbolized by A and B) that might be used to portray the region. Therefore, three sub-regions with consistentprecipitation patterns were recognized as: Region A (not apparent) and Region B (south and north part of the basin) and Transition zone (central portion of ba...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

...agriculture considers a major source of population feeding, employing and coactive partner of industrial growth. The purpose of the study was to analyze technical efficiency of Bt and Non-Bt cotton farmers in two core cotton districts Muzaffargarh and Rahim Yar Khan of Punjab, Pakistan. In this study, the stochastic frontier approach was employed for empirical analysis and multiple stages random sampling technique used for data collection of 400 Bt and Non-Bt ...

John Ogunsola1*, Richard E. Antia2, Benjamin O. Emikpe2 and Olajumoke A. Morenikeji

...moschata), black cobra (Naja nigricollis) and lions (Panthera leo) had survival rates of their hatchlings/neonates to be 83%, 95% and, 67% respectively. The challenges include absence of a pseudo-naturalistic environment, poor fostering ability and inadequate perinatal care. The prospects, if these challenges are addressed, are potentially humongous and rewarding. When appropriate management and health practices are put in place, wild animals in captivity can ...

Aqsa Khan1, Sabyan Faris Honey2*, Babar Bajwa2, Nelofer Jamil1 and Muhammad Sohail Mazhar2

...onsidered as one of the major insect pest for apple growers in Balochistan province, Pakistan. To mass rear codling moth in the laboratory for different research purposes, three artificial diets with different compositions were evaluated for codling moth larvae. Two diets containing wheat germ in their composition as major protein source and one diet without wheat germ were used. Addition of wheat germ in the diet compositio...
Christine Jeske
...nces to follow a moral trajectory. Because multiple standards of morality compete within societies, this element of well-being is subject to constant negotiation. Attaining well-being depends not merely on having a certain bundle of resources, connections, or circumstances, but on gaining a tenuous moral approbation. Well-being, then, is actually produced or reduced in sites where people publically negotiate the morality of their life choices. In this article,...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

...n: justify;">Cotton has major contribution among cash crops in provision of raw material to local textile industry, exporting cotton lint and livelihood of cotton farmers in Pakistan. Potential productivity in agriculture is possible with introduction of advanced mechanization, which is only feasible with financial injections in this sector. The study in hand has focused the role of credit in the cotton production of southern Punjab. Simple Random Sampling tec...

Khadim Hussain Wagan1*, Muhammad Ibrahim Khaskheli2, Jamal-U-Ddin Hajano1 and Abdul Ghani Lanjar2 

...oal rot of sunflower is major fungal pathogen which can survive for months to years in soil and also over season in the seed. Therefore, population density and their aggressiveness to cause the disease is playing critical role for management of this pathogen. For such purpose colony forming units (cfu) per gram of soil and seed were determined and capability of previously characterized M. phaseolina isolates to cause the disease was tested on HO-1 variety. Add...

Muhamamd Naeem1 and Murad Khan2* 

...on. The paper also show major factors that affect poultry production. Poultry business should be encouraged through the provision of inputs on subsidised prices. 

...

Arjumand Nizami1, Jawad Ali1 and Muhammad Zulfiqar2* 

...ihoods (Cristal) to map major risks and vulnerabilities along with coping strategies then ascertaining their relationship with community-based livelihoods assets. According to results, there are three frequent disaster risks in the study area which comprise avalanches, landslides and floods. These disasters inflict a heavy damage to the livelihood assets including crops, water, houses and other physical infrastructure. In order to overcome these losses, commun...

Farhana Gul1*, Dawood Jan1 and Muhammad Ashfaq2 

...ng densities were three-major adaptation practices whose benefits were analyzed. The adaptation results indicated that adopters of adaptation technology would range from 33 % to 74.47 % in Dera Ismail Khan and 62 % to 65.18 % in Peshawar. Before adaptation, poverty rates would range from 23 to 28.90 percent in D.I.Khan while from 19 to 28.62 percent in Peshawar for all GCMs. These findings concluded that proposed adaptation strategies could have significant i...

Saeed Ullah1, Muhammad Israr1*, Shakeel Ahmad2, Nafees Ahmad3 and Asif Yaseen

...test. It was found that majority (62%) of the farmers were in the age groups of 41-60. HH size of the farmers was 6-9 members per HH. Farming experience of the HH heads was 21-31 and above years as reported by 63.33% of the respondents. Chi-square P-values pointed that age, HH size and farming experience have positive relationship with the LD. Land possession was 6-15 acre for the 53.33% of the farmers and growing both cash and food crops. In the area, the far...

Manzoor Hussain1, Muhammad Awais2, Farhatullah3, Saiqa Bibi1, Muhammad Rameez Khan3, Afifa Khalid1 and Sajid Ali3* 

...t pathogens represent a major threat to cereal crops, though little is known about the status of oat crown rust in Pakistan. This study was designed to assess crown rust status and field based partial resistance of 16 exotic oat lines introduced from Europe along with local check, under natural field conditions at District Mansehra, Pakistan. Data on crown rust severity and host reaction was taken at three scoring dates to assess partial resistance using area ...

 Abdul Maalik1, Shahzad Ali1,*, Anam Iftikhar1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Haroon Ahmad2 and Iahtasham Khan1

...>Staph. aureus were major causative agent of bovine subclinical mastitis and there were multiple risk factors associated with incidence of mastitis.

...

 Muhammad Arshad Hussain1 and Tariq Mukhtar2,*

...ciated with okra in the major vegetable growing districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. The overall incidence of 39%, prevalence of 85% and severity of 4.1 in terms of the galling index was recorded throughout the province. Differences in the incidence of root-knot nematodes were recorded from all the districts ranging from 11% to 70%. The incidence was found to be the maximum (70%) in districts of Bahawalnagar and Rahim Yar Khan followed by Dera Ghazi K...
Iram Maqsood1,2,3 and Ke Rong *1,2
...loss is considered as a major source of population decline of this precious species. Consequently, for the sake of A. sinensis conservation, China took steps with the top priority of habitat restoration, controlled management in captive breeding centers, as well as initiation of reintroduction into the wild. Captive breeding centers focused on livestock, controlled sex ratio, promoting growth characteristics, population genetics, and organ preservation....

Ragia S. Mohamed1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mamdouh. M. Hamoud1, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shimaa A.E. Nasr1, Manal M. Zaki1, ElShaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...anure which considers a major threat to the Egyptian poultry industry since 2011 onwards. In the present study, manure of specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks was contaminated with allantoic fluid of 8 log2 NDV and kept at room temperature then daily examination of poultry manure for the survival of NDV on the basis of virus isolation and haemagglutination assay (HA). Our results revealed that pH of the manure from time of its mixing with the NDV infected allan...
SiRui Wang1,2, Fekede Regasa Joka1,2, XiaoLong Wang1,2,* and SuYing Bai2,*
...ring evolution, and the majority of the amino acid sites are constrained by the strong structure and function of the protein, indicating a high risk of avian influenza infection in the tested wild birds.
...
Ashfaque Ahmed Nahiyoon1,*, Shahina Fayyaz2 and Nasira Kazi2
....
...
Tianlong Cai1, Falk Huettmann2, Kisup Lee3 and Yumin Guo1,*
...er habitats. Four other major areas are also suitable for stopover: (i) the coastal area of the Bohai Sea, (ii) the Three Rivers Plain-Amur River Basin, (iii) the Torey Lake Basin and the (iv) Zeya River-Heilongjiang River. The gap analysis revealed that existing nature reserves conserve merely 16.7% of the suitable habitat and 26.7% of the core habitat. However, much more suitable habitat is still located widely outside nature reserves. Based on our predictio...

Fady Samir1, Rania F. El Naggar2, Mohamed M. Hamoud3, Manal M. Zaki1, Abdulrhman M. Gamal1, Samah E. Laban1, Shaimaa A. E. Nasr1, El Shaimaa Ismael1, Osama K. Zahran1* 

...V of genotype VII are a major threat to the Egyptian poultry industry since 2011 onwards with continuous evolution and diversity. In the present study, manure from specific pathogen free (SPF) chicks was contaminated with allantoic fluid of NDV and kept at room temperature ranged from 20 to 25oc which is nearly the same as poultry farms on different coupon surfaces (metal, plastic and cooling pads). Daily examination of poultry manure for the persistence of ND...

Abdul Kabir1, Laiba Uroog2*, Naushad Ahmad3, Fawad Ahmad3, Muhammad Saqib3, Noor Badshah4 and Taj Ali Khan3 

... In Pakistan, it is the major disease of different dairy animals including bovines. However, only a little information is available about bacterial profile of the disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted to find the Etio-prevalence of bacterial species causing subclinical mastitis in a cohort of buffaloes at Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. 120 quarter samples were collected from suspected buffaloes in selected areas of Peshawar, Charsadda, Mohmand Agency, and Dara A...

Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi* 

...at breeding with single major gene for resistance may be unsuccessful due to breakdown in resistance. Up to this extent, multi cropping using resistant varieties appears to be better option for the disease’s management. Evidence from my laboratory suggest that biological control is the best option having ecofriendly activities for the management either using botanicals or through some biological agents. Formulations of various botanicals along with biolo...

Anum Khursheed1, Malik Muhammad Shafi2 and Haidar Ali2* 

...tudy indicated that the majority of the sampled respondents were female. To compare the size of livestock holding paired t-test was used. Productivity of livestock kept by sampled respondents has increased significantly. About (100%) of the sampled respondents stated that there is increase in livestock productivity after the interventions of AJKRSP. Results also show that

Arshad Farooq* and Muhammad Zafarullah Khan 

...lts further showed that majority (73.68%) farmers had medium (26.56%) knowledge gap while 13.33 percent farmers were found with low (13.46%) knowledge gap whereas 12.98 percent farmers revealed high knowledge gap (41.48%) in the study area. District wise findings indicated that farmers of D.I. Khan and Mardan districts had 21.87 percent and 32.17 percent knowledge gap, respectively. The overall k...
...llahi Bux Kalhoro, Syed Sajjad A. Shah and Halima Kalhor, 2017. Optimum Salinity Level for Seed Production and Survival of Red Tilapia (Hybrid) in Concrete Tanks. Pakistan J. Zool., vol. 49(3), pp 1047-1056.
 
(ii) Hameeda Kalhoro, Abdul Malik, Ghulam Abbas,* Illahi Bux Kalhoro, Sajjad Ali Shah and Haleema Kalhoro, ...

Tariq Shah1*, Umar Hayat1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad3 

...g livestock production. Majority of the respondents are quite satisfied regarding the effectiveness of these advices. Results further indicate that farmers visit or contact livestock expert mainly for livestock diseases and artificial insemination. However, some of the respondents report long distance, lack of proper facilities and high charges for not visiting the livestock experts. Majority of the respondents both member a...
Abid Hussain1,2, Farida Ahmed3, Shyamali C. Dharmage4, Shafiq ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahbaz Aslam5 and Zaigham Abbas1,*
... to different allergens majorly aero allergens indicating poor indoor and outdoor air quality. This demands more public health facilities, and strict environmental regulations of air quality to manage allergic diseases in Pakistan.
...
Emel Banu Buyukunal1,*, Rojan Ibrahim Albazaz1 and Mehmet Ali Bal2,3
...organisms. As a result, majority of poultry isolates was susceptible to most of the tested antibiotics and highest resistance rates were detected for ciprofloxacin (2.8%) followed by ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem with equal resistance rates of 1.4% with CLSI interpretative criteria. However, analyzing of the same data according to EUCAST interpretative criteria resulted in higher number of resistant isolates (n=16). In this case, isolates showed resistance to...

Khan Sher1*, Muhammad Nisar2 and Muhammad Subhan1 

...d from 210bp to 630 bp. Major allelic frequency fluctuated from 54.0% to 96.0%. An overall, the total No. of alleles per locus extended from 22 (PVBR 20) to 49 PvM053. Similarly, the frequency values oscillated from 0.06 of PVBR 20 to 0.14 of PvM053. The PIC values were ranged from 0.295 of PVBR 20 to 0.831 of PvM053. The Two Way Cluster dendrogram was conducted for 12 polymorphic SSR markers, which disseminated all common bean lines into two m

Asim Khan1, Shahid Ali1*, Syed Attaullah Shah1, Aftab Khan1 and Raza Ullah2 

...r given estimation. The major findings proclaim that maximum temperature has negative impact on the yield of maize. Impact of precipitation show a positive and significant contribution to maize yield. High temperature has deleterious impact on maize productivity. Therefore, policy exertions needs to be concentrated toward impact of climate change on maize productivity. Development of temperature resistant maize verities for Khyber Pakhtunkhwa is also a good op...

Abid Ali1*, Hidayat ur Rahman1, Farhatullah1 and Zahir Shah

...ype of epistasis played major role in the inheritance of ear leaf area, stover yield and harvest index in all crosses. Similarly, in the inheritance of days to silking, ear leaf area, ear length, stover yield, biological yield and harvest index additive epistasis was involved. Based on the findings from this study, crosses SW-491 × EV-157, EV-157 × SW-491 and EV-157 × EV-120 were recommended for subsequent breeding programs. 

...
Pin Lyu1, Xiangxian Chen2* andQinlong Liu3*
... muscle injuries remain major challenges of sports medicine practice and further studies could provide more information for effective treatment of this pathological condition. In this study, adult rats were divided into four groups namely natural healing (control), exercise and massage, massage only and exercise only and received acute skeletal contusion to the right tibialis anterior, followed by corresponding rehabilitation methods. The injured muscular tiss...

Mehran Ahmad, Syed Attaullah Shah and Shahid Ali* 

...carried out to identify major determinants that influence tomato yield and estimate allocative efficiency of tomato growers in district Mardan of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. The study was based on primary data, collected from a sample of 105 tomato growers selected through multistage random sampling procedure. Data was collected through a well-designed interview schedule during January-July, 2018. Cobb-Douglas type production function was used to ...
Mohsen M. El-Sherbiny1,2,*, Reny P. Devassy1, Erinn M. Muller3, Abdulmohsin A. Al-Sofyani1 and Ali M. Al-Aidaroos1
...diel variability of the major mesozooplankton taxon, Copepoda was studied with respect to the prevailing hydrographic conditions along the coastal waters of Gulf of Aqaba, Saudi Arabia during the summer period. Conspicuous stratification was evident in the water column while nutrient distribution highlighted the oligotrophic nature of the region. Nitrate showed a notable increase in the deeper layers of almost all the stations and towards the south. Chlorophyl...

Ali Mahmoud Zanaty, Naglaa Mohammed Hagag, Neveen Rabie, Mahmoud Saied, Karim Selim, Saad A. Mousa, Azhar Gaber Shalaby, Abdel-Sattar Arafa and Mohamed Khalifa Hassan 

...y, also considered as a major threat for commercial and traditional poultry industry in Egypt, even in vaccinated flocks. A total of 8121 different samples (organs and swabs) that represented 588 NDV suspected flocks were collected from poultry farms showing respiratory manifestation and/or drop in egg production during 2015-2018. Out of 588 NDV outbreaks 95 flocks were confirmed positive NDV by rRT-PCR using genotyping primers, with a prevalence rate of 16.2%...

Umar Hayat1, Khalid Khan2, Saima Liaqat3* and Balach Rasheed

...>Pakistan is one of the major victims of climate change resulting in water scarcity, low agriculture productivity, and variation in seasons across the country. The present study is an attempt to analyze the dynamic effects of variation in rainfall on economic growth in different provinces of Pakistan. Results show that low rains over the period of time have adversely affected the production, employment, and supply chain of crops. Furthermore, to avoid the adve...

Sadaf Rahim and Mudassar Iqbal* 

...s effective against two major insects pests including Diuraphis noxia and Tribolium castaneum. The pure fungal strain of Trichoderma was grown using two different nutrient media including Glucose Peptone Yeast Broth (GPYB) and Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) and the effect of organic extract was investigated against selected insects’ pest. From this study it was found that the mycelial extract of T. harzianum fermented on PDB showed enhanced insecticidal mor...

Muhammad Shafique, Nosheen Noor Elahi*, Muhammad Rashid, Amjad Farooq and Kausar Hussain Shah

...justify;">Salinity is a major soil problem limiting plant growth and development. Application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is effective against this stress. Mung bean is an important crop that is used as food. Present experiment was conducted under natural environment to evaluate the effect of PGPR on biomass production, nitrogen and proteins percentage of four mung bean varieties under different NaCI levels in sand culture after 5,7 and 9 we...

Umar Hayat1*, Tariq Shah1, Muhammad Suleman Bacha2 and Muhammad

...riculture is one of the major sectors of the economy of Pakistan. It contributes 42.3 percent of the labour force and 18.9 percent to GDP of the country. Since its inception, Pakistan’s economy is planning to achieve agricultural-led growth to promote economic stability in the country. The present study is an attempt to examine and analyse the nexus of various sub-sectors of agriculture and their contribution to agricultural growth in the country. Data o...

Ammara Saeed* and Noor-ul-Amin 

...cro nutrients that play major role in growth and development of plants. A Randomize Complete Block Design experiment was laid with split plot arrangement at Ornamental Horticulture Nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture Peshawar during 2014 and 2015. Cut flower rose cultivars were tested with treatments of 3 levels of phosphorus (30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) and potassium (20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) each as well as combined. Results showed th...
Wen-Feng Li1, Rong-Yue Zhang1, Chun-Hua Pu2, Jiong Yin1, Zhi-Ming Luo1, Xiao-Yan Wang1, Xiao-Yan Cang1, Hong-Li Shan1 and Ying-Kun Huang1,*
... the natural enemies of major sugarcane pests and their roles in natural control in sugarcane growing regions in Yunnan. In general, these natural enemies can be divided into two groups: parasites and predators. The dominant species include Apanteles flavipes (Cameron), Sturmiopsis inferens Townsend and Trichogramma sp., which parasitize the sugarcane borer; Synonycha grandis (Thunberg), Lemnia biplagiata (Swartz), Cheilom...

Waqas Raza*, Muhammad Usman Ghazanfar and Muhammad Imran Hamid 

...to was conducted in the major potato growing areas of Punjab viz., Khushab, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Okara, Jhang and Chiniot districts during the cropping seasons of 2016-2017. A total of six districts comprising of three locations in each district were surveyed for the collection of late blight infected samples. During 2016 and 2017, prevalence of disease in all the surveyed districts ranging between 34.6-24.4% and 39.3-28.6% respectively with district Okara recor...

Masooma Munir1,2*, Abdul Ahad3, Asra Gull1, Aqsa Qayyum2, Nouman Rashid Siddique2, Amer Mumtaz2, Naeem Safdar2, Barkat Ali2, Muhammad Nadeem1 and Tahir Mahmood Qureshi

...ruit based products are major part of healthy diet ever since human life began on earth. Now a day, consumers prefer ready to eat and convenient food. Food bars are healthy nutritious, small meals having sensory attributes as well. In the present study, apricot based snack bars were prepared with spinach powder addition to enhance micronutrient status of snack food bars. Four treatments were prepared by increasing the level of spinach in apricot bars and stor...

Asad Ali Khaskheli1*, Gulfam Ali Mughal1, Gul Bahar Khaskheli2, Allah Jurio Khaskheli3, Arshad Ali Khaskheli4, Abdul Samad Magsi5, Ghulam Shabir Barham2, Arab Khan Lund5 and Maqbool Ahmed Jamali4 

...d to monitor and assess major nutrients in different camel browse vegetations over Thatta district. Results of current study indicated highest moisture content in Trifolium alexandrinum and lowest in Tamarix gallica. Zea mays contained considerably high organic matter. Capparis deciduas followed by Salvadora oleiodes and Ziziphus nummularia possessed significantly high concentration of crude protein. Further the Prosopis juliflora against Zea mays, in Acacia n...
Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Moez Ayadi1 and Abdullah H. Alyemni2
...wborn lambs of pregnant Najdi ewes fed two different total mixed rations (TMR) with different levels of energy and protein viz. higher protein than recommended by National Research Council (1985; TMR1), and higher energy than National Research Council (1985; TMR2) compared with the traditional feeding system of barley and alfalfa hay; Control). A total of 96 Najdi ewes, about nine months old, were divided randomly into three...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 51, Iss. 5, Pages 1599-1997

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