Leonard Izzard1, 2, John Stambas1, 2*

...ipulate pathogenicity and immunity and as biomarkers for disease severity.

...

Shen Yang1, Guang-Zhi Tong1, 2*

...ustify;">Antiviral innate immunity plays a central role at the early stage of viral life cycles. The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a major concern for the swine industry and causes high degrees of morbidity and mortality. The intracellular signalling cascades of the innate immune system triggered by HP-PRRSV often lead to the elimination of infection. However, HP-PRRSV induces pathological changes and can c...

Oladipo Elijah Kolawole*, Oloke Julius Kola, Awoyelu Elukunbi Hilda, Olasunmibo Oluwatobi Gabriel, Ogunyale Tolulope Temitope

E-mail | koladipo2k3@ yahoo.co.uk

...rus due to their impaired immunity. The study was carried out to determine the sero- prevalence of Hepatitis E among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Ogbomoso. The blood sample of consented two hundred and seventy five (275) subjects were obtained and their sera were screened for antibodies to HEV using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Samples were collected over a period of 4 months (September – December, 2014). The mean age and mean...

John G. Bruno

... to provide rapid passive immunity for large human populations in the event of a major pandemic or infectious disease doomsday scenario. 

...

Muhammad Abubakar1*, Shumaila Manzoor2, Jonas Johansson Wensman3, Emeli Torsson3, Qurban Ali1 and Muhammad Munir4

...ally mediating protective immunity, may explain the extreme infectious nature of the virus and its host-specific pathogenesis. Moreover, understanding the nature of such circulating field viruses is essential to underpin the endemic potential of PPRV and its possible spread to the susceptible wild or domestic small ruminants.

...

Iqra Mahmood1, Asif Nadeem1*, Masroor Ellahi Babar2, Muhammad Muddassir Ali1, Maryam Javed1, Aisha Siddiqa1, Tanveer Hussain2 and Muhammad Tariq Pervez2

... solution of mastitis and immunity related diseases.

...

Gabriela Mansano do Nascimento, Helena Lage Ferreira and Clarice Weis Arns

 

...ainst the virus is innate immunity whose activation is independent of the antigen and depends on the ability of the host to recognize pathogens by means of specific pattern recognition receptors. This interaction induces the production of cytokines, chemokines and interferons. Through Janus kinase/signal transducers and transcription activators pathway, interferon induces the transcription of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), responsible for playing an essen...
Uzma Farid Durrani1,*,Sagar Mal Goyal2, Asim Khalid Mahmood1,Cathleen Hanlon3, Susan Moore3, Muhammad Waqas1 and Raheela Akhtar4
...d lacking maternal rabies immunity. One basis of findings of this study it was concluded that puppies population lacking maternal rabies immunity is one of the responsible factors for increasing incidence of rabies in humans and dogs living in Lahore, Pakistan.
...

Mahmoud Said1*, Abd El Satar Arafa1, Mohammed A. Rohaim2* and Hussein A. Hussein2

...rence of maternal derived immunity impact of maternal derived immunity interference in vaccination regimen in poultry, a total of one hundred day old commercial broiler chicks were vaccinated with LaSota. A group of chicks (n=40) were immunized using baculovirus (H5 and ND) inactivated vaccine via subcutaneous route. Birds (n=20) were then either challenged with 106 EID50 using Egyptian avian influenza H5N1 and Newcastle dis...
Naila Chand1,*, Shabana Naz2, Hamza Maris1, Rifat Ullhah Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1
...on growth performance and immunity in broilers under natural summer stress. A total of one hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were divided into four different treatment groups such as Bet-0, Bet-1.0, Bet-1.5, Bet-2.0 having betaine supplementation at the rate of 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 g/kg feed, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher weekly and total feed intake and weight gain were recorded in group Bet-2.0. Higher level of betaine supplementation sig...
Yanjie Guo1, Weini Wu1, Hongmei Wang2, Xiao Guo2 and Yongping Xu2,*
... and the process of local immunity in the female reproductive system is regulated by the coordinated integration of the nervous, immune and endocrine systems. The nerves that branch from the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) are a major source of sympathetic nerves, which dominate the immune response of the female reproductive system. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an important Th1 cytokine and plays an important role in pregnancy. To explore whether or not Th1 cy...
Lotta Wahldén1, 3, Ulf Emanuelson1, Torsten Møller2 and Jonas Johansson Wensman1*
...ted to provide protective immunity in the African wild dog; however, their use has been hampered by the fear of vaccine-induced disease. Kolmården Wildlife Park in Sweden has used a live attenuated vaccine without any apparent cases of vaccine-induced disease, but no studies to evaluate immune response after vaccination have been performed. The objective of this study was to gain more knowledge about immune response following vaccination of the Afri...
Hazrat Nabi1, Irshad Hussain2, Muhammad Adil3, Amar Nasir3,*, Arbab Sikandar3, Saeed Khan1 and Nasrullah Khan3

 

... Plus 3.0) on the humoral immunity, lymphoid organs and growth performance of broilers. In this study, a total of 118 day-old broiler chicks were used, of which 108 were randomly divided into 6 groups (A to F) on day 14th. Aflatoxins derived from Aspergillus parasiticus were mixed in the feed measuring 150 ppb and fed to various broiler groups. Mycotoxin binders were also added into the feed and offered to group E and F from 14th-4...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...and conferring short term immunity in contrast to other pox viruses and also produce localized skin lesions in humans who are in contact with infected animals and their products. Unique and specific virulence genes located at termini of ORFV genome with their encoded products are attributed to host immune evasion, short-term immunity both in natural infection post-vaccination in target species and repeated host susceptibilit...
Muhammad Zahid1, Aneela ZameerDurrani1, Muhammad Ijaz1, KhushiMuhammad1,Muhammad Usman1,*, Muhammad Husnain1 and Nadeem Kamal2

 

...ed 52.2% prevalence. When immunity status was taken into account it was found that vaccinated animals showed very low prevalence, i.e. 4.39% as compared to non-vaccinated animals having 66.53%. Another risk factor age suggested that younger animals were more affected (60.17%) as compared to older ones (29.41%). It was also observed that animals in closed housing system were more affected as compared to open housed animals. When comparative efficacy of d...

Jafar Aqeel Naqi1, Abdul Mateen1, Dilawar Hussain2,*, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Sajjad Hussain1 and Abuzar Tabasum1 

...hat garlic can be used as immunity stimulant and to enhance growth performance in Nile tilapia.
...
Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Nasir Rajput2, Wen-xia Tian1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro2, Asmatullah Kaka2, Sheng Niu1 and Fa-jie Jia1
...size, feed efficiency and immunity of heat stressed broiler chicken.
...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

April

Vol. 51, Iss. 2, Pages 399-799

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