Salma Shaheen, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani

...ficantly enhanced spinach growth by exhibiting higher average spinach plant height (35 cm), number of leaves (16.4), fresh foliage yields (330 g pot-1), dry foliage yields (32 g pot-1), leaf length (40.5 cm) and leaf area (238.4 mm2) relative to poultry manure, compost or FYM treatments. Similar trend was observed during 2010-11. Over all, press mud with EM was more effective in improving soil quality and enhancing spinach growth

Muhammad Irshad1, Abdur Rab1, Javed Rahman2, Muhammad Sajid1, Ilyas Khan2, Sajad Ali1, Muhammad Razaq1, Sallahuddin1

...ng dates and media on the growth of kiwi (cv. Hayward) cuttings at Agriculture Research Institute (ARI) Mingora Swat, during 2011. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement in three replications. Planting Dates (20th Jan, 30th Jan, 10th Feb, 20th Feb and 2nd March) were allocated to main plots, whereas soil media (Silt+ Garden soil+ FYM) at the rate of 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 1:2:1 and 1:1:2 were assigned to sub p...

Arshad Ali Khan1, Muhammad Sajid1, Abdur Rab1, Sahib Alam2, Abdul Bari3

... inorganic sources on the growth, yield and fruit quality of two tomato cultivars i.e., Falcon and Rio Grande for two years. The response of tomato cultivars was assessed to six combina- tions viz. 0-0 (control), 100-0, 75-25, 50-50, 25-75 and 0-100% of poultry manure (PM) and Sul- phate of Potash (SOP). All the factors (K-sources, cultivars and years) alone and in combination sig- nificantly affected the growth, yield and f...

Malik Ikram Ullah1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1*, Muhammad Sadiq1, Inayatullah Awan1, Muhammad Munir2, Ghazanfarullah1

Muhammad Mudassar Maqbool1, Anser Ali1, 2 *, Tanveer ul Haq1, Muhammad Nasir Majeed1, Dong Jin Lee2

 

...lso on the stage of plant growth at which it develops. A pot study was conducted during 2011-12 at College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan, to assess the effect of induced water stress on performance of different wheat varieties at critical growth stages. Three wheat varieties viz. Faisalabad-2008, Lasani-2008 and Kohistan-97 were manually sown in polythene lined pots. Five water stress treatments were created by withholding...

Ahmed Sultan Jatoi1*, Shahid Mehmood2, Jibran Hussain2, Hafiz Muhammad Ishaq2, Yassar Abbas3, Muhammad Akram2

 

... investigate the six-week growth performance in four different strains of Japanese quails maintained at Avian Research and Training Centre, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore. For this purpose, 2160 newly hatched quail chicks were randomly picked up from available stock and then placed into 108 experimental units (replicates comprising 20 chicks each). Growth parameters i.e. weekly body weight (g), weight g...

Muhammad Rizwan Tariq1*, Muhammad Issa Khan1, Aysha Sameen1, Mahr un Nisa2

 

...ts significantly enhanced growth performance of rabbits and improved poly unsaturated fatty acids in the meat of rabbits as compared to other groups.

 

...

Khalid Usman1*, Niamatullah Khan2, Fazal Yazdan3

...I. Khan, Pakistan, during growth season 2011‑2013 in a randomized complete block design replicated thrice. The strain DNH-105 gave optimum yield owing to more bolls per plant (37.2), boll weight (3.4 g) plus higher ginning out turn (39.9%) compared to the standard varieties of cotton in Pakistan. The quality characteristics such as fibre length (29.2 mm), strength (28.5 g tex-1), micronaire (4.3µg inch–1) and uniformity (80.2%) were also high...

Imdad Sohu1, Allah Wadhayo Gandahi2*, Ghulam Raza Bhutto2, Muhammad Salim Sarki2, Rabail Gandahi3

...ed nutrient management on growth and yield of chickpea crop. The treatments included control (no organic or inorganic fertilizer), NPK (36-72-0 kg ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1), Farmyard Manure (20 t ha-1), Poultry Manure (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + FYM (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + P.M (20 t ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1) + FYM (20 t ha-1), NPK (36-72-20 kg ha-1) + P.M (20 t ha-1), NPK (18-36-10 kg ha-1) + FYM (10 t ha-1), and NPK (18-36-10 k...

John Stinespring, Ryan T. Cragun*

...steady state solution and growth path for the share of the population that is nonreligious. The model setup and solution are shown to be both intuitive and determined by three parameter values. The authors illustrate its use by estimating these parameter values using biannual data from the 1973 to 2012 General Social Surveys (GSS). The parameter estimates from the first half of the GSS data series, 1973-1991, provide a good fit to the 1993-2012 data. Calibrati...

Gultaj Hussain1, Abdur Rahman1*, Tariq Hussain2, Siraj Uddin1, Tariq Ali3

E-mail | abdur_rahman@aup.edu.pk

...57: H7 and S. typhymurium growth when exposed to these treatments. Results revealed that levels of citric and lactic acid concentrations effect were maximum for 5.0%, followed by 3.0% and least for 1.0% on E. coli and Salmonella load on beef surfaces. In addition, citric acid was more effective than lactic acid at all concentrations (1.0, 3.0 and 5.0%) in reducing E. coli and Salmonella growth. The citric acid at 5.0% was fo...

Luca Vitale

...iotic stresses that limit growth and productivity; however, plants are able, to some extent, to cope with limiting environmental conditions by means of different mechanisms that contribute to their adaptive success in different habitats.

...

Mudasir Irfan Dar*, Fareed Ahmad Khan and Farha Rehman

E-mail | irfanmudasir@gmail.com

...controls at all doses and growth stages observed, attaining maximum with 40 grams Imidacloprid active ingredient per hectare-1 at day 15 after treatment. The antioxidative enzyme activity of SOD, APX and GR showed increasing trend in a dose-dependent manner, attaining maximum at 40 g.a.i ha-1 of Imidacloprid treatment at day 7 after treatment (DAT) followed by 3 and 15 DAT, respectively. On the contrary, the CAT activity was increased at lower concentrations o...

 Nagina Zeb, Muhammad Sajid, Abdul Mateen Khattak and Imtiaz Hussain

...m and maleic hydrazide on growth and flower quality of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum) was carried out at Ornamental Nursery, Department of Horticulture, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2011. Suckers of chrysanthemums were planted during the first week of January and transplanted in 20 cm clay pots in July. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with two factors replicated three times. Different le...

Mushtaq Ahmad1*, Habib Akbar1, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan Khattak2 and Abdul Bari3

...method and biochar on the growth, yield and its related parameters of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) at Sugar Crops Research Institute Mardan during 2011-12 and 2012-13. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement in four replications. Sugar beet was sown at the rate of 6 kg ha-1 at four seeding depths from 1 to 4 cm. Nitrogen was applied at band and broadcast methods at the rate of 140 kg ha-1 mixed with biocha...

Muhammad Amjad Nadim1*, Mohammad Safdar Baloch1, Ejaz Ahmad Khan1, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Kashif Waseem2

...ers and micronutrients on growth and yield of wheat was conducted at the Agricultural Research Institute, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) using split-plot arrangements with four replications. Main plot consisted of NPK and organic fertilizers while micronutrients viz. Zn, Cu and B (alone and in combinations) were assigned to sub-plots. The results revealed significant variations in plant

Khalid Ali1*, Amanullah Jan2

...rea index (LAI) 4.4, crop growth rate (CGR) 5.7 g m-2 d-1, seed yield (2329 kg ha-1) and harvest index (22.10%). Incorporation of whole plant had significantly increased LAI (4.1), seed yield (2226 kg ha-1) and harvest index (22.1%) of canola crop over stubbles incorporation. Decrease in CGR and grain yield was observed with delaying green manuring (40 > 70 > 100 DAS). Increase in LAI, CGR, grain yield and harvest index was noticed with increasing N rate...

Mukhtarullah1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal1*

...riety Pak-2013 instead of growth the existing local (Khattakwal). Higher grain yield for future food security with growing population is important to be harvested with replacing the existing low yielding varieties by any of the improved available wheat varieties (e.g. Lalma, Chakwal-50, and Pak.-2013) in Karak area where almost all wheat is planted as rainfed crop.  

...

Imtiaz Hussain, M. Sajid, Noor ul Amin, Abdul Mateen Khattak, Abrar Hussain Shah, S. Mussarat       Hussain, Sayed Hussain and Nagina Zeb

...nting dates on vegetative growth of Silvery was studied at Ornamental Horticulture Nursery, Department of Horticulture, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, during January to September, 2011. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plots arrangement was used for the experiment. The experiment was replicated four times. The Silvery softwood cuttings were planted in two different growing conditi...

Nadeem Khan1*, Arshad Ali Khan1, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Nouman2 and Badshah Islam1

...d Cara Cara revealed poor growth.  

...

Neil Levy

...ndash; roughly, explosive growth in machine intelligence, resulting in the appearance of AIs that are vastly superior to us cognitively – will or might occur in the relatively near future. Understandably, many are worried by this prospect. In this paper, I argue that we have less to fear from the singularity than many people think. Depending on how we define ‘singularity’, it is either less likely to occur, or it will likely occur in a form t...

Neil Levy

...ndash; roughly, explosive growth in machine intelligence, resulting in the appearance of AIs that are vastly superior to us cognitively – will or might occur in the relatively near future. Understandably, many are worried by this prospect. In this paper, I argue that we have less to fear from the singularity than many people think. Depending on how we define ‘singularity’, it is either less likely to occur, or it will likely occur in a form t...

 Umed Ali Laghari, Ahmed Naqi Shah, Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Zia-ul-Hassan, Ghulam Murtaza Jamro and Khalid Hussain Talpur

...t;0.05) increased various growth traits and yield of grass pea genotypes. The crop supplied with 20 kg K2O ha-1 produced maximum branches per plant (5.2), pods per plant (32.3), seeds per pod (4.7), seed index (82.7 g) and seed yield (2589 kg ha-1) when compared with 0.0 and 10 kg K2O ha-1. Interestingly, Sel-449 was the most responsive genotype to K nutrition which resulted in higher branches per plant (5.3), pods per plant (29.7), seeds per pod (4.5), seed i...

 Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro, Qamaruddin Jogi, Mahmooda Buriro, Aijaz Ahmed Soomro, Ghulam Mustafa Laghari and Ali Nawaz Khaskheli

 

... germination and seedling growth of C. arvensis and C. rotundus as compared to control. Integrated application of eucalyptus powder at 30 g kg-1 soil+eucalyptus water extract at 30 ml kg-1 of soil and eucalyptus powder at 20 g kg-1 soil+eucalyptus water extract at 20 ml kg-1 soil showed highest inhibitory effect. In both aforesaid treatments, lowest and statistically similar values of germination, root/ shoot length and fresh/ dry weight seedling-1 were record...

Allah Wadhayo Gandahi, Khalilluah Panhwar, Rabail Gandahi, Muhammad Saleem Sarki and Mahmooda Buriro

...of nutrient management on growth, yield characters and leaf reddening in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Cotton variety Haridost was studied under 4 NPK treatments (000 NPK kg ha-1, 120-0-0 kg N ha-1, 120-70-0 kg N ha-1, 120-70-40 kg NPK ha-1 and 5 secondary and micronutrient (Control, 50, 3, 4 and 1.5 kg ha-1 Mg, Fe, Zn and B, respectively) treatments. NPK @ 120-70-40 kg ha-1 resulted maximum plant height, number of green leaves plant-1, number of opened boll...

Muhammad Khurshid, Muhammad Nafees, Inam-ur-Rahim and Wajid Rashid

...d in Buhrawai. This rapid growth of cash crops cultivation has reduced the available grazing land by 23% in Buhrawai. The over expansion of cultivation in herding venues affected the livestock grazing pattern in term of rotational grazing and open mobility within the pastures. This led to decrease herding venues 43.7% mobility routs 37.5% and herd size by 60.4% for both groups respectively. Analysis of gender-based family labor distribution during past 30 year...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...eriments. Moreover, plant growth parameters were also improved due to antagonistic relationship of fungi and nematodes in soil.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Rysanek

...More interestingly, plant growth parameters including shoot and root were tremendously improved in L. muscarium treated plants than that of other treatments.

...

Sungil Kim1, Muhammad Riaz2, Amjad Farooq3 and Sungkwon Park4*

...s with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, meat quality and fatty acid composition of pork belly. A total of 50 gilts and 50 barrows (initial BW 26±6.3 kg) were randomly allotted to 2 diets including a corn-based control diet and control plus 9% DDGS. After 105 d administration of experimental diets, growth performance, pork quality traits, and fatty acid composition in loin were analyzed. No significant difference...

Safdar A. Wahocho, Tanveer F. Miano, Noor U.N. Memon and Niaz A. Wahocho

...dic effects on vegetative growth and flower quality of Zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jacq.) were examined during 2015 at the Horticulture orchard, Sindh Agriculture University Tandojam in a three replicated RCBD design. The zinnia plants were grown under four photoperiodic treatments which included T1=Natural photoperiod (Control), T2=4 hours daylight (8 am -12 noon), T3=6 hours daylight (8 am – 2 pm) and T4=8 hours daylight (8 am – 4 pm). The results re...

Mehreen Zaidullah and Hina Fatima

...s as well like population growth and the wealth effects that have been observed in Pakistan. These changes can affect the consumption pattern of the people, and hence result in the food demand shifts. The current study estimates for the presence of structural shifts in the demand for food in Pakistan for the selected food groups from the Household Integrated Economic Survey for the years1985-86, 1993-94, 2001-02 and 2007-08. Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand Syste...

Ai Ming Zhou1,2, Guang Wen Liang2, Ling Zeng2, Yong Yue Lu2 and Yi Juan Xu2*

... no-ant plots, the colony growth rate of mealybug significantly increased, and the parasitism of mealybug was obviously decreased, both in fire ant-infested plots and in fire ant-free plots. Colony growth rate of mealybug in fire ant-infested plots was greater than fire ant-free plots. These results suggest that S. invicta suppresses the exploitation of honeydew-producing hemipterans by ghost ant and occupies most of the hon...

Atul Sharma, Aruna Chandra Singh, Gautam Bacher, Sunil Bhand

...er to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Their abuse results in various side effects on the human health, environment and agriculture. The occurrence of bacterial “suprainfection” with tolerance to antibiotics has attracted the significant attention, mainly due to the consequences of multi drug resistance and potential threat to human health and the environment. With the increasing incidences of antimicrobial contamination, especially in...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...matode that affects plant growth and yield. We report on studies aimed to evaluate the effects of five nematophagous fungi on the population dynamics of this pest in sugar beets in laboratory and greenhouse trials. The fungi chosen were Arthrobotrys oligospora, Dactylella oviparasitica, Clonostachys rosea, Stropharia rugosoannulata, and Lecanicillium muscarium. In the laboratory experiment, S. rugosoannulata proved to be the most efficient biocontrol agent by ...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...ngal conidial Pi. Foliage growth was directly related to fungal Pi and inversely to nematode Pi. Our results showed that the higher Pi of L. muscarium was associated with the lower Pf of M. incognita. Foliage growth increased with increased fungus inoculum.

...

Manzoor Hussain*, Miloslav Zouhar and Pavel Ryšánek

...P=0.05) among them. Plant growth was significantly (P=0.05) improved in the plants treated with L. muscarium.

...

Afzaal Ahmad Naseem1*, Maleeha Akram1, Sarwat Jahan2, Kiran Afshan2, Zubaria Iqbal1, Faheem Tahir3, Mazhar Qayyum1 and Syed Shakeel Raza Rizvi1

...lerated longitudinal bone growth at puberty or pubertal growth spurt has been ascribed to reciprocated physiological influences of both somatotropic and gonadal axes, manifested as higher secretion of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone (T). GH and T affect linear growth velocity (LGV) directly through stimulation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Furthe...

John Gachohi, Simon Karanja, Salome Wanyoike, Nduhiu Gitahi, Salome Bukachi, Kenneth Ngure

...s that support Leptospira growth, (ii) animal and human seasonal public health burden of Leptospirosis, (iii) seasonal variation in the distribution of Leptospira determinants in a slum setting, and (iv) a simulation model based on an ecological metapopulation framework to track Leptospira bacterial population dynamics in biotic and abiotic habitats in a slum setting. This is the first study in Kenya to describe the role of temporal dynamics of multihost commu...

Siyu Yang1, Fukuan Du2 and Pao Xu1,2*

...tide family which effects growth, development and metabolism. In this study, full-length of one type of SS cDNA from C. nasus was synthesized, cloned and sequenced. This SS cDNA encodes a protein with 114 amino acids that contains the SS14 sequence at its C-terminus. This putative peptide is identical to that generated by the SS1 gene in other vertebrates. Tissue distribution of C. nasus SS1 mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which...

Tayiba Latif Gulraiz1, Arshad Javid1*, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2, Muhammad Shahbaz3, Irfan3 and Sharoon Daud4

...germination, enhance root growth and soil fertility.

...

Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1, Farzana Abbas1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Naeem Tariq Narejo2, Khalid Javed Iqbal3, Ghulam Abbas4* and Syedah Andleeb5

...et not only improved fish growth and health but also enhanced egg fecundity, gonadal development and spawning.

...

Abdul Mannan Babar1* and Abdul Hannan Nagi2

Ahmed Samy, Wesam Mady, Naglaa M. Haggag, Samah H. Mohamed, Ebtissam N. AlShamy, M.K. Hassan

... respectively. Results of growth kinetics in PBMCs showed that V3 replicated more efficiently comparing to RSF/1 at all-time points. Further, strain V3 induced significant up-regulation of IL-1b and IL-6 at 24 hours post infections (hpi) comparing to RSF/1. However, both strains induced significant up-regulations of interleukin (IL)-8 at 1 and 3hpi and interferon (IFN)-α late 24 and 48hpi. Altogether, our results suggest that the concurrent up-regulation...

Muhammad Shafiq and Tahir Maqsood

...t however, the vegetative growth i.e. plant height, tillering and total biomass were affected non-significantly in response to B application. Regarding chemical analysis concentration of boron in both wheat straw and grains increased with B application but there was no effect of fertilizer B on NPK concentration of straw and grains. These results are very heartening; signifying that for any soil, B adsorption isotherm need to be worked out for location precise...

Dilawar Hussain* and Abdul Mateen

...valuate its effect on the growth performance of Nile tilapia over a period of 10 weeks. Inclusion of AFB1 at both 2 and 4 ppm levels significantly (p<0.05) decreased specific growth rate (SGR), net weight gain (NWG), average daily gain (ADG), survival, feed intake, feed efficiency ratio (FER) and protein efficiency ratio (PRE), irrespective the addition of the 4TX in the diets. Among different dietary groups of the fish, ...

Aiza Tahir, Muhammad Asif, Zaigham Abbas and Shafiq ur Rehman*

... SNAF showed an effective growth reduction of S. aureus RP isolate, compared with other bacteriophages. The bacterial challenge test in milk indicated that proliferation of S. aureus was successfully ceased until six hours post infection when applied at and MOI of 100.

...

Bahattin Cak1, Orhan Yilmaz1, Siddik Keskin2, Tahir Bayril3 and Mohammad Masood Tariq4*

...nt a visual assessment of growth as a function of time and predict body weight at a specific age. We investigated the growth characteristics of Colored Mohair goat using four nonlinear growth models. Thirty (n=22 males and n=8 females) Colored Mohair kids were used. The kids were weighed at 2-week intervals from birth to 150 days. The Monomolecular, Gompertz, Richards and Three Parameter L...

Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1*, Lorenzo Gallus2, Sara Ferrando2, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman3, Abdul Ghaffar4 and Abdul Mateen5

...ng level and frequency on growth performance, nutrient utilization and body composition of juvenile black fin sea bream, Acanthopagrus berda (weight 23.5g−125.8 g) were investigated. Fish were randomly distributed in rectangular glass tanks (150 liter) and were fed at six ration levels of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0,3.5, 4.0 and 4.5% body weight per day (BW d−1) and four feeding frequency i.e., once, twice, thrice and four times per day. Fish in all replicates w...

Sidra-Tul-Muntaha1, Muhammad Sagheer1*, Mansoor-ul-Hasan1 and Shahbaz Talib Sahi2

...valuate the repellent and growth inhibitory efficiency of five plant extracts (Azadirachta indica, Melia azadirach, Pegnum hermala, baryosma and Zingiber officinale) and three synthetic pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on three geographical populations of Callosobruchus chinensis collected during 2013 from Faisalabad, Multan and Nankana districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Three concentrations of each plant extract (5, 10, 15 and 20%) and syn...

Salma Shaheen, Mumtaz Khan, Muhammad Jamil Khan, Saleem Jilani, Zarina Bibi, Muhammad Munir and Mehwish Kiran

 

...utrient cycling and plant growth. However, information regarding its co-application with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on enhancing spinach yield is scarce. A pot experiment was conducted at Gomal University D.I. Khan, Pakistan, during 2009-10 to study the changes in soil fertility and spinach growth after the application of EM with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. The six treatments were; control (T0), 10 ...

Sana Irshad Khan1*, Zafar Iqbal2, Hamid Ullah Shah2 and Shaukat Hussain3

...owed 62.20 ± 2.51% growth inhibitions against Fusarium oxysporum using agar well diffusion method. Further investigation, including various chromatographic and spectroscopic analyses on the separation and isolation of potent metabolites is suggested to get a useful lead structure for development of novel antibiotics to combat resistant pathogens.

...

Zamarud Shah, Safdar Hussain Shah, Asad Jan and Gul Shad Ali

...vastating impact on plant growth. Heat shock transcription factors are known to play an important role in regulating heat stress in plants. Tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) was transformed with heat shock transcription factor HsfA1d by transfecting leaf discs with Agrobacterium strain GV3101 carrying CaMV35S-YFP::HsfA1d construct. After PCR and confocal-based confirmation, HsfA1d overexpression lines (OX1, OX2 and OX3) were evaluated for their response to heat...
Waheed Anwar*, Muhammad S. Haider, Ahmad A. Shahid, Hamid Mushtaq, Usman Hameed, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman and Muhammad Javed Iqbal
...sarium restrained the growth of B. tabaci as compared with control.
...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Sara Ferrando3, Lorenzo Gallus3, Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman4, Abdul Ghaffar5 and Abdul Mateen6
...f varying dietary oils on growth, nutrient utilization and body composition of juvenile black fin sea bream Acanthopagrus berda was investigated. Fish juvenile (10.1±0.5 g) were collected from Sonari Channel, Hawksbay, Karachi and were brought to aquaculture laboratory of the Centre for 15 days acclimatization. After acclimatization, they were randomly distributed into the rectangular tanks (3 × 1.5 ×1.5 ft each). In each tank, 10 fis...
Md. Yeamin Hossain1,*, Md. Alomgir Hossen1, Md. Nasir Uddin Pramanik1, Fairuz Nawer1, Md. Mosaddequr Rahman2, Suraiya Sharmin1, Dalia Khatun1, A. H. Bahkali3, Abdallah M. Elgorban3 and Khairun Yahya4
...cated negative allometric growth in male, female, and combined sexes (b < 3.00, p < 0.001). All LLRs were highly significant (p < 0.001), with coefficients of determination (r2) values exceeded 0.98. Among the condition factors, KF is the best index for assessing the well-being of this species in the Ganges River. The WR was not significantly different from 100 for males (p<...
Mehmet Cilbiz1* and F. Banu Yalim2
... justify;">In this study, growth parameters (i.e. condition factor, length-weight relationship, K, L, to), mortality rate (Z, M, and F), recruitment pattern and yield were investigated for Oncorhynchus mykiss in Karacaören I Dam Lake. Fish were collected on monthly basis between July, 2013 and June, 2014. Growth parameters were analyzed by ELEFAN with monthly leng...
Yaoguo Li1,2 and Maoxian He1
...ome methylation level and growth traits inpearl oyster, Pinctada fucata (P. fucata). The incidence of type II locus (hemi-methylation locus) was significantly correlated with the shell height and the shell length, with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.204 and 0.233, separately. The incidence of type IV locus (super methylated locus) on the other hand was significantly correlated with the shell length, with Pearson correlation coefficient of ...
Abdur Rahim1, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Sara Ferrando2, Lorenzo Gallus2 and Abdul Ghaffar3
...y;">In the present study, growth potential of juvenile black fin sea bream, Acanthopagrus berda was examined in brackish water ponds. Fish were stocked @ 1500 individuals per pond (2 treated and 2 control) of approximate dimensions, 13.72 m × 10.97 m × 1.52 m (229 m3). In treated ponds, fish were fed with artificial diet (protein 42%, lipid 20% and energy 25.2 kJ g-1) for 120 days in three equal meals. On the other hand...
Shazia Ali, Hizb Ullah and Sarwat Jahan*
... involved in delaying the growth spurt.
...
Majed Rafeeq1,*, Nadeem Rashid1, Muhammad Masood Tariq1, Rassol Bakhsh Tareen2, AsadUllah1 and Zahid Mustafa1
...sativum showed higher growth performance compared to Cassia angustifolia and Artemisia scoparia and control(P<0.05). Relative organ weights and relative carcass yield of treatment groups were not significantly different (P>0.05). The Relative length of the intestine of the treatment groups showed significant difference (P<0.05). Supplementation of herbal additives and antibiotic had a positive effect on bacterial enumeration of Ileum...

Mohammad Raoofi and Mohammad Taghi Alebrahim

...second cutting had better growth compared to the first cutting, so that the plant produced the highest fresh and dry yield in the second cutting. However, weed non-interference increased the levels of superior morphological traits of alfalfa, such as fresh and dry yield, plant height, and number of leaves per plant, number of main-stem nodes, leaf area and percentage of vegetation cover as well as increased the nutritional value of alfalfa in terms of nutrient...
Sung Kwon Park1a, Jin Young Jeong2a, Eun Seok Cho3, Yong Dae Jeong3 and Chang Seok Park4*
...ellular processes of cell growth and immune system. Thus, results from our current study indicate that DEG analysis of RNA-seq data help us better understand the precise mechanisms of PEDV in pig PBMC. 
...

M. Abdus Salam1, M. Moynul Haque2, Md. Obaidul Islam3, M. Nasir Uddin4 and Md. Nazmul Haque3*

...ent storage containers on growth, yield and quality of cotton genotypes. The experiment was conducted between July, 2010 to February, 2011 at Cotton Research, Training and Seed Multiplication Farm, Sreepur, Gazipur, Bangladesh. Significant variations related to genotypes and seed sources were observed for stand establishment, branch development, phenology, yield components, yield and fiber quality attributes of cotton. Yield and quality of cotton were signific...
Matiyar Rahaman Khan1,*, Sabyasachi Pal2, Ghule Tushar Manohar2, Somnath Bhattacharyya3, Amit Singh4, Prahlad Sarkar5 and Samuel Lalliansanga6
... cause reduction of plant growth parameters and highest reproduction (R=87.27). 
...
Adel Eid Mohamed Mahmoud*
...d and ruminal parameters, growth performance, meat analysis and feed intake of growing lambs. Fifty one Barki lambs with body weight of 30±0.57 kg; in three groups (17 animals, each). Experimental rations were composed of concentrate and clover hay in a 60:40 concentrate: roughage ratio.There was no effect of bakery by-products inclusion on nutrients digestibility and nutritive values except digestion coefficients of crude protein and digestible crude p...

Waqas Ahmed Dogar2, Arshad Ali Khan3*, Saeed Ahmed2, Sudheer Tariq2, Mukhtar Ahmad2, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Noman2 and Nadeem Khan1 

...igh density plantation on growth and yield of citrus (Kinnow and Musambi) grown under drip irrigation at Postgraduate Agriculture Research Station (PARS) Institute of Horticultural Sciences, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Plants were grown at three planting distances as T1 (11 x 22ft), T2 (11 x 11ft) and T3 (22 x 22ft). T1 (11x22ft) was optimum plantation and showed best results for yield. Maximum fruit yield per plant (3.6373 kg) was observed from the ...
Ahmed Mujtaba1, Tariq Masud1, Asif Ahmad1, Waqar Ahmed3, Saqib Jabbar3* and Robert E. Levin2
...hibited significantly the growth of tested bacterial strains. Among the bacterial strain tested Salmonella entritidis and Helicobacter pylori were even more sensitive to 20.313 (µg/ml) of chlorogenic acid and showed zone of inhibition with the value of 6.0 and 7.0 mm. The HPLC analysis of apricot suggested that 5.0 gm of apricot contain 1.04 µg/ml of chlorogenic acid on dry weight basis. It is concluded that apricot may be an alternat...

Usman Shakoor1*, Mudassar Rashid1, Abdul Saboor2, Nabila Khurshid1, Zuhair Husnain2 and Abdul Rehman2

... availability in the crop growth periods and fertilizer application (today or in the future) will certainly increase production. This scenario demands devising adaptation strategies for farmers to be made available, this should be the key policy intervention of the government to cater with the climate change on agriculture and particularly on maize. Fertilizer management and crop variety choices according to the changing climate will address this serious conce...

 Sitansu Pan and Amrita Das

Evaluation of shelf life of some value added organic formulations of Trichoderma harzianum
...eem and mustard cake. The growth was estimated in terms of colony forming unit (c.f.u.)/g of substrate up to 120 days at 30 days interval. In all organic products or their amendment with oil cakes c.f.u. increased up to 60 days and then gradually declined. Among the four organic media, vermicompost retained 21.3 x 10 c.f.u./g at 120 days where as leaf mold,FYMand rice bran retained 20.1 x 10 c.f.u./g, 17.3 x 10 c.f.u./g and 15.1 x 10 c.f.u. /g of substrate res...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
... and capable of promoting growth of certain crops. There are two major methods of inoculum production of Trichoderma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is grown on various cereal grains, agricultural wastes and byproducts. The solid state production is highly labour intensive and fit for cottage industry. These products are used mainly for direct soil application in nurseries/main fields to supp...

1S. A. Khan and 2S. Jha

Effect of dates of sowing, moisture regimes, varieties and weather factors on incidences of aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) in rape and mustard
...uring different phases of growth of rainfed vis-à-vis irrigated rape and mustard crops, and work out relationships between aphid population and weather parameters for its forewarning. Results revealed that initial incidence times of aphid varied from 19 November to 3 December, depending upon dates of sowing done during 1 October to 5 November, which fall under recommended dates of sowing. In crops sown during 22 October to 5 November, critical periods o...

1Bikash Ranjan Ray and 2Mrinal Kanti Dasgupta

Management of root holoparasite Aeginetia pedunculata of (Orobanchaceae), causing wilt of sugarcane by trap and catch crops
...4-a strigol analogue) and growth of the parasite on excised root pieces of prevalent crop cultivars including sugarcane, were evaluated in A. pedunculata infested sugarcane field for their (crops) efficacy to deplete or recharge the parasite seeds in soil. Rice (Oryza sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides Staph. & Hubbard.), italian millet (Setaria italica (L.) Breauv.), black gram (Phaseolus mungo L.), dhaincha (Sesbania acul...

A. K. Chaubey and Satyandra Kumar

Bio-management of root knot nematode and root rot disease by antagonistic fungi and rhizobacteria
...isease and promote plants growth as the length and weight of root and shoot in pot trials on tomato plants. Keywords: Antagonistic fungi, root knot nematode, wilt fungus, bio-management
 

 

...

Sitansu Pan and Someshwar Bhagat

Biological control of plant diseases
...ed plant nutrients, plant growth prowth promoting properties and induced resistance. Multiple interactions between bacteria-fungi-actinomycete, may exist in nature and that is why consortium of microorganisms is needed for tackling several plant pathogens simultaneously instead of only one biocontrol agent-one pathogen,which is the most common and established system of biocontrol of plant diseases.

...

Basudeb Dasgupta, Partha Dutta and Srikanta Das

Biological control of foot rot of betelvine (Piper betle L.) caused by Phytophthora parasitica Dastur
...ytophthora parasitica and growth, yield, and keeping quality by applying two bioagents, viz., P. fluorescens and Trichoderma harzianum. P. fluorescens inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1 was applied once at pre-monsoon, twice during pre- and post- monsoon and four times at quarterly intervals. T. harzianum inoculated in 500 kg oil cake ha-1was applied at quarterly intervals. Bordeaux mixture (BM) was used to compare the treatments in preventing the intensity of...

Sunita J. Magar and D.D. Nirmal

Effect of plant spacings and cultivars on spread of Yellow Vein Mosaic Virus (YVMV) disease
...ction rate throughout its growth period was observed in closer plant spacing i.e. 30 x 30 cm in kharif. Among cultivar, Parbhani Kranti show slow progress of the disease. Among plant spacings the closer plant spacing 30 x 30 cm show slow progress of the disease followed by 50 x 30 cm and 60 x 30 cm both in kharif and summer seasons.

...

P.S. Ajith, K.K. Lakshmesha, S. Mahadev Murthy and N. Lakshmidevi

Botanicals for control of anthracnose of bell peppers
...hibit the radial mycelial growth of C. capsici in-vitro. The plant extract from C. aromaticus at 50% concentration showed 42% radial mycelial growth inhibition in poisoned food technique, whereas 15% increased seed germination and 26% reduced disease incidence is recoded when compared to untreated control. In pot experiments, there is an increase in height and weight of the plants by 22% and 44% respectively in seeds treated...

Goutam Mondal

Plant growth promoting activity of some indigenous Tricho-derma isolates and their field performance against sheath blight of rice in old alluvial zone of North Bengal
...uml;hn. Efficacy in plant growth promoting activity of all the isolates was also tested on cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis L.), chilli (Capsicum frutescens L.) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with culture filtrate of biocontrol agents and found both positive and negative effect on seed germination, plant growth and vigour. Maximum increase in germination by 13.64% (chilli), shoot length by 59.69% (toma...

M.S. Islam, M.Ali, and I. Ahmad

Efficacy of sedomil 72WP and recozeb 80WP to control die-back (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of tea in Bangladesh
...ecozeb 80WP caused colony growth inhibition, respectively by 75.00-90.77% and 75.88-91.33% in 2008 and 74.66-90.55% and 75.66-91.11% in 2009. In a field experiment at the main farm of Bangladesh Tea Research Institute (BTRI), both fungicides were applied as foliar spray for three times at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg ha-1. In 2008, sedomil 72WP gave 45.52-92.78% and recozeb 80WP gave 46.47- 90.39% reduction in PDI. In 2009, the reduction in PDI was 45.84-90.83% an...

A.A. Oyerinde, P.Z. Chuwang, P.Z. and G.T. Oyerinde

Evaluation of the effects of climate change on increased in-cidence of cowpea pests in Nigeria
...s recorded at the various growth stages of the cowpea plant in the two seasons. Therefore the advent of increased fauna on cowpea established in this study portrayed a need to find possible ways to reduce the emission of Greenhouse gases in the region in order to ameliorate the effects of induced global warming on cowpea production in the country and also provide effective control of the identified pest in order to maintain or stall resurgence. 

D. C. Khatua, B. Mondal and G. Saha

Bioassay of some agricultural chemicals, human drugs and disinfectants on Phytophthora melonis Katsura causing fruit and vine rot of pointed gourd
...ounced effect on mycelial growth, sporangia formation and its germination. None of the eight antibiotics used in this study prevented mycelial growth. No sporangia formation was recorded in five antibiotics viz. streptomycin sulphate + tetracycline hydrchloride, streptomycin sulphate, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, ofloxacin and norfloxacin at 100 ppm. The insecticide, Profenophos prevented sporangia formation and consequent...

S. Pal, H. Banerjee and N. N. Mandal 

Efficacy of low dose of herbicides against weeds in transplanted kharif rice (Oryza sativa L.)
...weed population and their growth. This treatment also gave the maximum grain yield (3.53 tha-1) and straw yield (4.73 tha-1) of rice resulting in lowest weed index (5.61 %). Therefore, penoxsulam 24 SC at 0.0225 kg a.i. ha-1 applied at 8-12 days after transplanting may be recommended to replace the tedious, time consuming and expensive hand weeding practice of weed control in transplanted kharif rice.
 

 

...

Dhananjoy Mandal 2K. Baral 3M. K. Dasgupta

Developing site-specific appropriate precision agriculture
...ive parameters, viz. crop growth and productivity, soil nutrient management, pest management, (BCA) biocontrol agent balance, and energy balance, economics ~ each with several variables. We are also providing ground and prepare to provide PA –specific data to the farmers. By Return per Rupee invested Rice-Potato-Pumpkin1, Cucumber-Cabbage-Basella alba, and Groundnut–Brinjal+Brinjal sequences were suitable for resource-rich growers, whereas Okra-Chi...
Jakub Jan Skorupski
...k (Neovison vison) growth hormone gene was analyzed. For this purpose set of 3 amplicons were sequenced, including 5’-UTR and all exons and introns. The study involved 389 animals. The sequencing results revealed the presence of 5 exons (10 bp, 161 bp, 117 bp, 162 bp, 201 bp) and 4 introns (245 bp, 171 bp, 176 bp, 290 bp), with a total length of 1745 bp. Fourteen polymorphic variable sites were identified: 12 SNP substitutions, one single nucleoti...
Freeha John, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem and Muhammad Hamed 
...n crops were at different growth stages such as 1st node (crop 1), at stem elongation (crop 2) and at end of tiller (crop 3). Maximum aphid infestation was recorded in all crops in the 3rd week of February when crops were at booting stage (crop 1), at flag leaf stage (crop 2) and at 2nd node stage (crop 3). Decline of aphid population was observed in mid March. The highest aphid population was recorded in mid-Dec sown crop foll...
Ayesha Zahid,Ammara Muazzam, Sidra Mustafa, Saba Irshad*,Malik Siddique Mahmood and Rehman Shahzad

 

...queness and inappropriate growth of fiber cells. In the present study, a novel G to C substitution (1104G>C) (pE368Q) was screened by PCR-SSCP in exon 2 of GJA8 and this tansversion altered exceedingly conserved glutamic acid to glutamine at site which was involved in coding of ASF1 like histone chaperone. Further presumption based on structural and functional analysis of mutated protein was anticipated by bioinformatics tools, which manifest mild changes i...
Jia-xiang Wang1,2,* and Peng Li1,2
...endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been identified in the pancreas of many vertebrates. While ghrelin has been found in the cerebellum and gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks, little is known about its distribution in the pancreas ofthe African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the African ostrich pancreas were investigated using imm...

Gadeeyya G and Ratna Kumar P.K.

...parts on different fungal growth media. The diagnostic characteristic features of each isolate were critically studied using relevant literature. The pathogenicity of the isolates was examined to select biocontrol agent against host weed. 
...
Fariha Imtiaz1, Muhammad Islam1, Hamid Saeed2,*, Bushra Saleem1, Maryam Asghar1 and Zikria Saleem2
...y was to investigate hair growth promoting effects of extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum leaves. The extracts of powdered leaves were obtained in various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and distilled water) using hot and cold extraction methods. Phytochemical analysis of leaves was performed on powder and extracts of leaves using already reported methods. Mineral analysis was done using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Ha...
Mehmet Avci1, Recep Aydin1,* and Jale Metin Kiyici2
...different ration forms on growth, feed conversion and behavioral characteristics of Brown Swiss calves. The calves in treatment group were supplied with mixed ration of chopped roughage (5-7 cm) and concentrate calf starter feed and the calves in control group were supplied with natural roughage and concentrate feed separately. The calves were supplied with milk at about 8% of their birth weights and weaned at 49th day. Mixed chopped and separate na...

Furukh Faiz1,2, Muhammad Issa Khan2, Masood Sadiq2 and Haq Nawaz3

...ekly. After 42 day of the growth, the birds were slaughter with the Islamic Halal Method and the blood samples of the birds were preserved for antioxidant enzymes assay analysis. The data showed that as the citrus waste percentage in the feed of the broiler was increased, its feed intake and the body weight decreased but the citrus waste has non-significant effect on the feed conversion ratio of the broiler birds. The results also showed that citrus waste in t...
Huseyin Sasi1* and Gulcin G. Ozay2
...Basin) including the age, growth, length-weight relationship and reproduction. The study was conducted in upper Akcay River between June 2012 and May 2013. Monthly data showed that native fish chub were aboundantly with other native fish (Acanthobrama mirabilis) in upper Akcay River. The age distribution for both females and males of S. cephalus populationwas betweenI-VII, and the second age group was found at maximum rate of 30.60%. Their fork l...

Dilshad Ahmad*, Muhammad Irfan Chani and Asad Afzal Humayon

...t sustainable agriculture growth. Forecasting plays an imperative role in adjusting the vision and applicability regarding aspirations. The study attempted to forecast major crops area, production, yield and per capita food availability using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model. Sixty-seven years annual time series data from 1947-48 to 2013-14 was obtained to forecast major crops and per capita food availability for 21years from 2014-15 to 2...

Aftab Wajid1, Ashfaq Ahmad1, Muhammad Awais2, Muhammad Habib-ur-Rahman3*, M. Aown Sammar Raza2, Usman Bashir2, Muhammad Naveed Arshad1, Sana Ullah4, Muhammad Irfan5 and Umair Gull1
 

... related traits of cotton growth, seed cotton yield and yield attributes. Increasing N increments reveals a positive association with biomass accumulation (growth), yield and yield associated components. Among N increments, 200 kg ha-1 achieved more number of bolls per plant (31.00), average weight per boll (3.48 g) and ultimately lead to higher seed cotton yield (2.42 t ha-1) as compared to other N rates (50, 100, 150 kg ha-1). Significant differences were al...

Niamatullah Khan1*, Najeeb Ullah2, Inam Ullah2 and Asif Imran Shah1

...produced extra vegetative growth rather than seed cotton yield while late planting induced flowering and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield. The results further illustrated that, genotype DNH-105 ranked first for plant population, sympodia per plant, bolls per plant, weight per boll and seed cotton yield when sown on April 01. CIM-616 was the 2nd suitable variety under April 01 sowing. Earlier and later planting ...
Saba Irshad1,*, Ayesha Ashfaq1, Ammara Muazzam1 and Abida Yasmeen2
...tent enough to reduce the growth rate of M. canis and A. flavus up to 35%, with no inhibitory influence on Candida species and F. solani. These extracts fully inhibit growth of PC3 cells. Moreover, partially purified lectin, from Curcuma longa L. with a molecular weight of 17.3 KDa might be useful to treat patients as a considerably cheap herbal drug which can be prescribed to poor people e...

Muhammad Ibrahim and Ahmad Khan*

...r crop stand affects crop growth and development. Understanding the role of mulching techniques and nitrogen management in crop stand and phenological occurrence is not well understood. Therefore field studies were conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar-Pakistan to quantify the effects of mulching techniques and nitrogen management on maize (Zea mays L) phenology and crop stand in 2013 and 2014. Treatments included mulching...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Tasneem Hameed1, Muhammad Afzal2, Arshad Javid3, Nosheen Aslam4, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah6, Majid Hussain5, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1
...) of microbial phytase on growth performance and nutrient digestibilityof Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed sunflower meal based diet. The chromic oxide was added as inert marker in the diets. Three replicate groups of 15 fish (Average weight 5.05±0.013 g fish-1) were fed at the rate of 5% of live wet weigh and feces were collected twice daily. The results of present study showed improved growth perf...

Attaullah Khan1, Muhammad Shafi1*, Jehan Bakht2 and Shazma Anwar1

...inity and seed priming on growth characters of Wheat varieties” was carried out at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (IBGE), The University of Agriculture, Peshawar during winter 2013-2014. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. The response of fourteen wheat varieties at two seed treatments (primed with 50 mM CaCl2 and un-primed) with four salinity levels (0, 45, 90, 135 mM) was studi...
Netti Aryani1, Azrita2, Ainul Mardiah3 and Hafrijal Syandri2*
...tant factor affecting the growth of giant gourami. The aims of the study were to investigate the effect of different feeding rates on the growth, and carcass composition of giant gourami (initial weight 14.17±0.15 g and length 9.88±1.11 cm). The nutrition content of the diet was a cross energy of 3,340.50 kcal/kg, made up of 30% crude protein, 7% crude lipid, 6% crude fiber, 12% ash, and 12% moisture as a perce...
Kadir Karakuş1, Bahat Comba2, Abuzer Taş3, Tunahan Sancak3, Arzu Comba2, Devrim Saripinar Aksu4, Hasan Koyun5 and Mohammad Masood Tariq6,*
...tistical significance for growth hormone was Formol = Surgery > Control (P<0.05). In August month, the application factor was found to be significant only in testosterone (P <0.05). No significant difference between the control and surgical groups in testosterone was noted. In this study, although the application of different castration methods in 4-month-old male Norduz sheep resulted in changes in the blood hormone levels, it was determined that the...
Ibrahim A. Alhidary1,*, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Moez A. Ayadi1,3 and Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2
...ifferent levels of NDF on growth performance, metabolic profile and rumen characteristics in Naemi lambs. Fifty growing Naemi lambs at age of three months with an average bodyweight of 27.77 ±1.09 kg were randomly distributed to five different treatments, ten lambs each, as follow: 1. Alfalfa hay and barley grain (ABG); 2. Pelleted alfalfa hay and barley (PAB); 3. TMR1 (25.67% NDF); 4. TMR2 (30.88% NDF); and 5. TMR3 (55.93% NDF). Lambs were housed in an...

Kamran A. Awan1, Jawad Ali2 and Mohammad Akmal3

...ure has to rise for wheat growth in Pakistan. Wheat crop is planted on more than 52% area as rainfed crop in the providence Khyber Pakhtunkhuwa (KP). The study, therefore, aims to plant wheat in season from early to late i.e. November 15 to December 25 with about 10 days intervals. Field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar in winter season 2015-16. Experiment was in a randomized complete block design, in s...
Naila Chand1,*, Shabana Naz2, Hamza Maris1, Rifat Ullhah Khan1, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi1
...etaine supplementation on growth performance and immunity in broilers under natural summer stress. A total of one hundred and twenty day-old broiler chicks were divided into four different treatment groups such as Bet-0, Bet-1.0, Bet-1.5, Bet-2.0 having betaine supplementation at the rate of 0, 1, 1.5 and 2 g/kg feed, respectively. Significantly (P<0.05) higher weekly and total feed intake and weight gain were recorded in group Bet-2.0. Higher level of beta...
Hameeda Kalhoro1, Abdul Malik2,Ghulam Abbas2,*, Illahi Bux Kalhoro3, Sajjad Ali Shah4and Haleema Kalhoro3
...uence of various feeds on growth increment, body constituents and survival rate of snakehead (Channa marulius) cultured in plastic tanks (42.5 liters water carrying capacity each). Fish juveniles (length: 10.63 ±0.980 cm, weight: 9.030±1.40g) were stocked after acclimatization. A total of 3 treatments were tested following 2 replications i.e. first treatment (T1, Squid feed), second treatment (T2, Tubifex feed) and th...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

...ainst C. michiganensis on growth nutrient broth (GNB) medium as compared to other culture media (Potato dextrose broth and yeast extract broth). Similarly maximum zone of inhibition was observed in optimized parameters like shaking flask culture, 25 °C temperature, media of pH 5 and light fermentation.The EtOAc extract exhibited the minimal value of MIC (10.41±4.50 µg/mL) against gram negative E. coli, while its acetonitrile fraction yielded (...

Sadia*, Abdur Rab, Sayyed Hamad Ahmad Shah, Irfan Ullah, Farida Bibi and Islam Zeb

...ication on fruit drop and growth of winter guava was carried out in Horticulture Farm at The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during 2016. RCB Design was used for this experiment with three replications i.e. factor A was Deblossoming Time (Control, May, June, July, August and September) and factor B was GA3 application (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 ppm). Results demonstrated that minimum fruit drop (5.95%), fruit density (0.80gcm-3) with maximum number...
Saleem Khan1, Amir Hamza2, Farhadullah Khan3, M. Subhan4, Aziz Khan1, Irfan Ali Shah1, Shakirullah Khan Shakir3*
...uced changes in different growth related end point using cotton as a model plants, the present study was designed. For this purpose, dry seeds of four cotton genotypes (Gomal-93, Bt-131, Bt-121 and Bt-CIM-602) were exposed to gamma rays with 10, 15, 20 and 25 Kilo Radium (KR) doses sourced from 60Co. The irradiated seed samples were assumed treated seeds while non-irradiated seeds of each genotype were used as control. Field experiment was conducted...
Muhammad Fiaz1, Khadija Munawar2, Muhammad Mushtaq2,*, Mukhtar Ahmad3, Mushtaq Ahmad Chaudhry3, Muhammad Aslam3, Tanveer Ahmad1 and Nasrullah4
...acer to lambs for optimum growth performance and survivability. For this purpose, Salt Range neonatal lambs (n = 24, age = 01 week) were selected and divided equally into three groups having 08 lambs each. The experimental lambs were fed ewe milk, calf milk replacer-1 (Telilac) and calf milk replacer-2 (Creamo) through nipple feeding for optimum performance in lambs after mandatory colostrum feeding. Results depicted that average daily gain (ADG) and the body ...
Furqan Sabir1, Muhammad Tayyab1,*, Bushra Muneer2, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Ali Raza Awan1, Naeem Rashid3, Muhammad Wasim1 and Sehrish Firyal1
...f free phosphorus for the growth of monogastric poultry birds. Current study deals with the production and characterization of recombinant thermostable phytase from Thermotoga naphthophila (PHYTN). This study was an initial step for the fulfilment of domestic industrial requirement of phytase in Pakistan.The PCR resulted in the amplification of 1.8 kb phytase gene. SDS-PAGE confirmed the size of recombinant protein as 70 kDa. The optim...
Fang Wang, Yong-Fang Jia, Po Wang, Qi-Yan Du and Zhong-Jie Chang*

 

... LET could inhibit oocyte growth in female and promote the development of testes in males. For the gonad differentiation related genes, the expression profiles of Cyp19A and Cyp19B show a pattern of increase in short time and low concentration, but decline in long time and high concentration. Arα has a trend of increases, ERα shows downwards trend. Dax and Foxl2 are female-biased genes, their expression profiles show similar tre...

Carolina Torres Alejo1,2, Laila Andreia Rodrigues Beserra1,2, Paulo Eduardo Brandão1,2, Luis Ramiro Luna Espinoza1,2 and Fabio Gregori1,2* 

...pecies, causing decreased growth performance and mortality. In this study, 59 pools of intestinal content of layers, broilers, and breeders were investigated from different Brazilian regions for the presence of rotavirus (RVA, RVD, and RVF), avian coronavirus (ACoV), and avian astrovirus (AAstV), using PCR reactions followed by nucleotide sequencing and analysis. Twenty-nine pools (29/59; 49%) appeared positive for AAstV, 6 pools (6/59; 10%) were positive for ...
Nargis Bano and Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*
...getative and reproductive growth, along with various and biochemical attributes, but augmented the leaf proline. SA application significantly increased plant fresh and dry weight, leaf area, proline and decreased root length, number of roots and water use efficiency. SA treatment therefore decreased adverse effect of stress on strawberry plants. Thus the result suggests that SA at a concentration of 3mML-1 concentration could be used comme...
Aqsa Mehboob1, Noor Khan1,*, Usman Atiq1, Khalid Javed Iqbal2, Rafia Tayyab1, Syeda Suhaira Batool1, Hafiza Saleha Batool1, Sana Amjad1 and Mehwish Tanveer1 
...additive on the survival, growth and body composition of striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus. The experiment was conducted in fiberglass tank having capacity of 18 L water with a stocking density of 25 fish fry per aquaria. There were two treatment groups; T1, T2 and a control (T0) each was replicated twice. Fenugreek as an additive was added in experimental feed at the rate of 0.5% in T1 and 1.0% in T

Abdus Subhan1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1, Muhammad Mansoor2 and M. Jamil Khan

...;0.05) variation in plant growth, yield parameters of wheat and water use efficiency. The inorganic fertilizer gave significantly higher total dry matter, grain and straw yield and also due to the greater grain yield the water use efficiency calculated was greater in the NPK treatment. Bulk density, porosity and organic matter were significantly improved by the cattle manure and compost treatments. The moisture content and water holding capacity revealed non &...

Zaheer Abbas*, Shaukat Ali, Jalal-Ud-Din and Ghulam M. Ali

Sanjukta Chakrabarti1, Colin J. Barrow2, Rupinder K. Kanwar3, Venkata Ramana1*, Rakesh N. Veedu4,5 and Jagat R. Kanwar3* 

...s is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and its family of ligands and receptors (VEGFRs). Survival, proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells which give rise to the vascular network, is mediated through VEGF/VEGFR activation of the signal transduction pathways. Thus blocking VEGF is an efficient strategy for blocking tumor angiogenesis. Several anti-VEGF drugs have been developed over the last two decades and some are still at d...
Naheed Bano* and Muhammad Afzal
...r species due to its slow growth and high mortality due to unavailability of suitable diet especially at juveniles stage. This study focus on the healthy production with low cost by using sunflower meal to some extent replace fish meal. In this 3× 3 factorial and completely randomized design study 324 fish were used. The acidification levels were (0, 1.5 and 3%) whereas the phytase levels were (0, 500 and 1000 FTU). The addition of 3 % citric acid and 10...

Akerele Dare*, Ashaolu Olumuyiwa Fowowe, Sanusi Rahman Akintayo and Egbetade Adedolapo 

....05) subsectors on output growth in the respective subsectors. Likewise, the amount of the fund allocated to fishery subsector on fish output has positive influence on fish output but significant only at 10% level. While increases in the amount of the fund in a given year may substantially raise crop and fish production in that same year, it may take up to 2 years to experience a significant output expansion in livestock. Although results suggest that expansio...
Shengyan Su, Zaijie Dong*, Wenbin Zhu, Lanmei Wang and Jianjun Fu 
...explore the catch-up like growth from diallel cross-breeding due to its similarity with high growth speed in the later period for common carp Cyprinus carpio L cross-breeding. A compensatory index matrix for 3×3 full diallel cross combinations used for selection was built to investigate compensatory like growth of each combination. Yes/No(Y/N) effect was determined for specifi...
Faiz Muhammad1,*, Syed Khurram Fareed1, Urooj Zafar1, Taseer Ahmed Khan2 and Aqeel Ahmad1
...t efficient for producing growth within 36 h while method A produced within 48 h nevertheless both had the same positivity (70%). While other two methods C (filtrate into broth) and D (filtrate onto agar) produced just 40% and 31%. Moreover, the C methods is the most time consuming method for growth production. The former two methods were superior in their productivity 30% and 39% over C and D methods, respectively. The tPCR...
Mahreen Yahya, Noor Abid Saeed*, Sajid Nadeem, Muhammad Hamed and Sajid Shokat 
...reased gradually with the growth of plants. Three aphid species were recorded i.e., Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), Schizaphis graminum (R.) and Sitobion avenae (F.). Mean seasonal aphid population (no. of aphids/tiller) on wheat plants during the whole season was the highest in NW-1-8183-8 and NW-3-3341-7 and the lowest in Faisalabad-08. However, grain yield was the highest in Galaxy-13 and the lowest was in Lasani-08 variety. Two applica...
Muhammad Imran Mahmood* and Muhammad Zubair
...nt irrigation sources and growth parameters of forest trees Shisham, Neem, Siri and Sufeda. The effect of different irrigation levels exhibited the highest plant height in Sufeda under flooding which were 135 and 125cm after and before the experiment. However, Neem showed maximum plant height after experiment (103 cm) under drought condition. But, the minimum plant height (57 cm) before experiment was observed in Sufeda under droughtexhibiting 50% decline than...
Boran Karataş, Muhammed Arabaci and Şükrü Önalan*
...t study is to analyze the growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (G) and brown trout (Salmo trutta ssp) (K) monoculture and polyculture in 75-25%, 66-34% and 50-50% stocking rates and its effects on food utilization and to determine the results with respect to aquaculture. Stocking was conducted in 5 different ratios in the study and each different stocking ratio was considered as a group and 24 fish were used in each group. St...
Jianping Li1, Qian Jiang2, Wei Chen2, Yumei Li3, Huaizhi Jiang4, Jinlong Huo5 and Qiaoling Zhang2*
...
KIT encodes a growth factor receptor that is expressed in the precursor of the melanophore. It plays an important role in the multiplication, migration and survival of melanophores. As of yet, no studies have addressed the diverse expression of the KIT gene and its protein ingoats of different fur colors. The effect of KIT mutations on KIT protein expression was examined in white cashmere and black cashmere goats. A single A&ra...
Amtul Jamil Sami1,*, Madeeha Khalid1, Rehman Shehzad1, Sana Mughal1 and A.R. Shakoori2 
...rucial in controlling the growth of mammary tissue during pregnancy and its release during pregnancy accounts for increased mammogenesis. Bubaline placenta was obtained and processed for extraction of extracellular proteins at pH 9.5 using Tris-Glycine buffer. Placental lactogen was purified by gel filtration chromatography using Sephadex-G100 and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE- Sepharose, employing a linear salt gradient. SDS-PAGE was used to monitor the...
Sher Khan Panhwar1,2,3, Zhou Yong Dong1,4,*, Gao Tianxiang1,3, Wang Ping5, Han Zhiqiang1, Wang Zhongming1,4 and Wang Yang1,4
...68.6 mm in 2004 and 2009, growth coefficients ranged from 0.230 to 0.685, and t0 from -0.654 to -0.494. The rate of total mortality (Z) ranged from 0.82 to 2.73 year-1 in 2013 and 2001, respectively. The exploitation rate was estimated to range from 0.660−0.797 year-1. Catch per unit effort estimates showed a consistent decline in catches. This study is a start to bridge the gap between data and information, allowing reso...
Jing Xin Mao1,2, Guo Wei Wang2, Yuan She Huang3, Rui Wang2, Guo Ze Wang4, Bing Zeng1 and Fu Yuan Zuo1,*
...creasing age in different growth stages. Ages and tissues are the main factors that influence the gene expression significantly.
...

Muhammad Asad1, Safdar Ali1, Muhammad Ramzan Ansar2, Ijaz Ahmad3*, Muhammad Suhaib4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

... days of its spray. Wheat growth parameters like plant height, number of tillers per m2, spike length and number of spikelets per spike remained statistically at par among various treatments. Significantly higher number of fertile tillers (172), Plant height (93.83 cm), spike length (7.4 cm) were noted with Wheat Star @ 370.5 g ha−1. Although treatments did not differ significantly with respect to wheat grain and biological yields, yet the highest grain ...
Semra Benzer1,* and Recep Benzer2
...study aims to compare the growth estimation result of the two methods which are Length - Weight Relations and Artificial Neural Networks from Uluabat Lake regarding narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz 1823) between 2015 and 2016. The relationships between total length (TL) and total weight (TW); carapace length (CL) for Astacus leptodactylus caught from Uluabat Lake were presented with tradional method of length-weight relat...

Bibi Haleema1*, Abdur Rab1 and Syed Asghar Hussain2 

...inc foliar application on growth and fruit production of tomato was investigated during the year 2013 at ARI Tarnab, Peshawar to optimize calcium, boron and zinc concentration for enhancing the growth and fruit related attributes of tomato. The experiment was conducted using Randomized Complete Block (RCB) Design with 3 factors, replicated 3 times. Calcium (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9%), Boron (0, 0.25, 0.5%) and Zinc (0, 0.25, 0.5%...

Riaz Alam* and Muhammad Sajid 

...nfluenced the rooting and growth attributes of olive cultivars. Mid August, proved to be the most favorable time for air-layering in terms of rooting percentage (42.40%), number of root (4.37), root length (4.35 cm), weight (1.68 g), number of re-sprout (3.67) and shoot length (5.61 cm) while late (September 14) and early (July 1) layering responded poorly to all the studied attributes. The response of individual cultivar was dissimilar to different times of l...
Quang Minh Dinh
...ub>max) and the growth performance (Φ’) were 5.56 yrs and 2.50, respectively. The fishing, natural and total mortalities of this fish were 1.29 yr-1, 1.44 yr-1, and 2.73 yr-1, respectively, and its exploitation rate was 0.53. There were two recruitment peaks in May and October, and relative yield-per-recruit and biomass-per-recruit analyses gave Emax = 0.735, E0.1 =...
Qunhua Han1,2, Meiwen Zhang1,*, Cong Guo2, Xunjun Zhou1, Bo Li1 and Yong Wang1
...hs of age with respect to growth. Vole pups were randomized into litters of 1-2 (LD, low density), 3-5 (MD, medium density), and 6-9 (HD, high density) individuals, and the body weight, body length, tail length, and hind foot length were measured and curve-fitted by using Von Bertalanffy and Logistic equations. Instantaneous growth rates and growth acceleration of Yangtze voleat different ...
Pan Hong, Ruonan Li, Yumeng Li, Hainan Lan* and Xin Zheng*
...bcellular distribution of growth hormone (GH) from humans and rats have been extensively reported. However, to date, there are no descriptions of the cell behaviour of porcine GH in domestic animals. Thus, freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes were used as a somatic cell model to study the internalization and subcellular localization of porcine growth hormone (pGH), and the results showed that pGH could be internalized into p...

Rafiullah*, Muhammad Jamal Khan and Dost Muhammad 

...P use efficiency and crop growth at Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar. Wheat (cv. Atta Habib-2010) seeds were first germinated in sand culture and then three weeks old seedlings (7.5 cm) were transferred to water tubs containing Hoagland solution without P. The treatments included 0, 18, 36, 72, 144 and 216 mM as KH2PO4 solution foliarly applied three times with one week intervals starting after two wee...
Serap Gelibolu1,*, Yasemen Yanar2, M. Ayce Genc3 and Ercument Genc4
...-oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth performance, body physiology and tissue morphology of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Treatment of fish with MOS-feed shown a significant increase in live weight and protein efficiency rates when were directly compared with mock-treated fish control. However, there was no statistically supported level of significance was observed for growth rates and feed conversion rates among grou...
Xiaoting Zhang1,2, Jiaxiang Wang1,2,*, Peng Li1,2,* and Lixun Ye1,2
...endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been identified in the lung of many vertebrates. While ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells have been found in the cerebellum, pancreas and gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus), little is known about its distribution in the lung of the African ostrich. To provide the morphological basis of ghrelin function in the African ostrich lung, the distribution...

Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Naeem*

... (TL and W), and types of growth pattern. Correlation coefficient (r) value (0.984) shows high significant relationship between total length and wet body weight, while growth pattern was isometric as value of ‘b’ being 2.97 (95% confidence interval of b = 2.840 to 3.092) was very close to ideal slope value (b = 3). Highly significant correlationships (P < 0.001) were found between body weight versus various mo...

 Asma Akhtar, Abdul Rehman

...both isolates showed fair growth up to 1 mM of K2Te2O3. Both strains showed maximum growth at 37ºC and pH of 7. The bacterial growth in the presence of metal ions was delayed as compared to the control. High ellurite reduction potential was shown 98% (1f) and 97% (2b) after 24 h of incubation. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity was increased to 279% (1f) and 150% (2b) ...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...s 30°C. Using optimum growth conditions and suitable fermentation medium, E. hormaechei can be used at an industrial level as producer of vanillin. Bioconversion of waste residues of rice bran oil to vanillin by bacterial strains is of greater interest nowadays. Bioproduction of vanillin is not only considered natural but also safe for human health.

...

 Hafiz Muhammad Tahir*, Arooj Zaheer and Rabia Yaqoob

...dent inhibition of fungal growth was observed on bread treated with web silk of N. theisi as compared to untreated control. It is concluded that silk of N. theisi possess antifungal property.

...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Sara Ferrando4 and Lorenzo Gallus
...h 5‰ increment) on growth, feed efficiency and meat quality of red tilapia, Oreochromis sp. (mean body weight 5±0.07g) were investigated. Juveniles of red tilapia were randomly distributed into seawater tanks (60 cm × 30 cm × 45 cm each). Ten fish were stocked in each tank with 2 replications. Fish were fed with commercial floating pellet (35% protein) at 3% body weight per day for 40 days. Results showed that fish
Zia ur Rehman1, Naila Chand1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Sarzamin Khan1 and Muhammad Subhan Qureshi3
Saara Ahmad1,*, Iftikhar Ahmed2, Saida Haider3, Zehra Batool3, Fatima Ahmed4, Saiqa Tabassum3,6, Syeda Madiha3, Tahira Perveen3 and Saad Bilal Ahmed5
...g maximum weight gain and growth in considerably less time. The constituents that are fed to chickens concentrate in the flesh and bring deleterious health outcomes on the consumers. The ill effects account for hyper-lipidemias and imbalance in the steroidal sex hormones may result in the development of cysts in the ovaries with resultant difficulties in reproduction. The present study was done on 75 rats divided randomly in 5 equal groups fed with rat chow, c...

Muhammad Zamin* and Abdul Mateen Khattak 

...ing heights for different growth and quality parameters including green cover, canopy stiffness, leaf length and width. Most of the ecotypes gave better performance at mowing height 3 and 4 cm, which comply with the standard mowing height for turf grasses. Ecotypes RS2, MZADS1 and SAADS1 resulted in the best performance against mowing shock. Based on their performance, these ecotypes could be used for turf purposes in public landscape under saline environments...

Ayesha Bibi*, Musharaf Ahmad and Shaukat Hussain 

...rose-CaCO3) for bacterial growth. For identification of the characteristic bacterial colonies Cmm-specific primers CMM-5 and CMM-6 were used for amplification of 614bp product from pat-1 gene of bacterial plasmid. The whole bacterial DNA was used as template, extracted with standard procedures using commercially available kit i.e. protinase-K (sigma). 27 out of 34 isolates were confirmed as Cmm having 614bp band. Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L) was the onl...
Abdul Malik1,2, Ghulam Abbas1,*, Abdul Ghaffar3, Ghulam Dastagir4, Sara Ferrando5, Lorenzo Gallus5, Asad Ali Muhammad1,6, Abdul Jabbar2 and Khalil-ur-Rehman2 
...rmil; and 30‰) for growth performance, food conversion, body composition and survival rate of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (mean body weight 4.5±0.5 g) were investigated. Fingerlings were randomly distributed into the glass tanks (60 x 30 x 45 cm each). Ten fish per tank were stocked with two replications. Fish were fed with commercial floating pellet (35% protein) with 3% of total biomass day-1 for 50 days. Results showe...

Saima Akhtar Qureshi1 and Asim Anwar2*, Ather Maqsood Ahmed

...rs are used to check pest growth instead of pesticides which reduces ecological and health damage. Pesticides are used at the last resort in IMP method so it reduces the cost of production and increases the farmers’ profit. However, concerns about production may hinder widespread adoption of this technology by farmers. The aim of the study is to evaluate economic feasibility of IPM method in Punjab. The study consisted of 326 farmers (161 IPM producer an...

Muhammad Ijaz Khan* and Amanullah Jan 

...rable environment for the growth and development of crops, soil conditioners are used. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of soil conditioning and irrigation regimes on the performance of maize crop during 2011 and 2012. Four irrigation regimes ranging from 3-6 irrigation in relation to the critical stages of maize crop were applied. Irrigation consisted of 93 mm water. Three organic soil conditioners viz., farmyard manure (10000 kg ha-1), wheat...
Muhammad Hafeez-ur-Rehman1,Farzana Abbas2,Ghulam Abbas3,*, Arshad Javid4, Ali Hussain4, Syedah Andleeb5,Khalid Javed Iqbal6 and Muhammad Akmal1

 

...ary protein levels on the growth and chemical conformation of broodfish and its eggs. There were three treatments (T1, T2 and T3) and a control with three replicates in each group. Control group was exclusively fed on natural food composed of tilapia fry while fish in T1 was fed on 30%, T2 on 35% and T3 on 40% protein diet, respectively. A total of 240 Channa marulius (945 g) were arbitra...
Alim-un-Nisa1*, Sajila Hina1, Sania Mazhar1, Imran Kalim1, Ijaz Ahmad1, Naseem Zahra1, Shahid Masood1, Muhammad Khalid Saeed1, Qurat-ul-Ain Syed1 and Maida Asif2
... do not promote microbial growth rather it has antibacterial activity. The lethal dose and toxicity determination of the color extracted from marigold showed that it is safe for consumption as no clinical symptoms were observed in rabbits after giving the maximum dose of 1000ml of color.
...

S. M. I. Hossain*, S. U. K. Eusufzai and M. A. Rahman**

...rent irrigation levels on growth and yield parameters of six sugarcane varieties (Isd 16, Isd 30, Isd 31, Isd 32, Isd 33 and Isd 34). The experiment was laid up in two factors split-plot design with five irrigation levels in main plots and six varieties in subplots. Irrigations at 21, 28, 35 or 42 days interval in addition to two live irrigations increased sugarcane yield from 15% to 46%. Irrigation at 21 days interval showed higher establishment, tiller, mill...

Ata-ul-Mohsin*, Ehsan-ul-Haq** and Muhammad Naeemullah*

...ium and phosphorus on the growth and development of rose grain aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker) and its parasitoid Aphidius rhopalosiphi (De Steph.). High calcium and high phosphorus concentrations applied to a partially resistant wheat cultivar “Rapier” did not have a significant effect on the growth and development of the aphid or its parasitoid. However, the mean fecundity of the parasitoid was higher on...

Khalid Mahmood Aujla, Sajida Taj*, Khalid Mahmood** and Nadeem Akmal*

... critical stages of plant growth, and affordable diesel and electricity prices should be ensured. Timely availability of credit to the resource poor farmers would also enhance the wheat yield in Punjab.

...

 Nasreen Sultana* and A.Ghaffar**

... completely inhibited the growth of L. theobromae in vitro at 50 ppm whereas Aliette, Benlate, Mancozeb, Ridomil and Vitavax showed complete inhibition of colony growth at 100 ppm. Invariably all fungicides at three different concentration viz., 1, 2, 3 g (a.i.) kg-1 seeds reduced the recovery of the seed borne fungi. The most effective seed treatments were Benlate, Topsin-M, Carbendazim and Aliette @ 3 g kg-1 seeds which en...

 R. Hussain* and A. N. Naqvi**

...omatometric measurements, growth, productive and reproductive traits. Somatometric measurements indicated the average height 70.41±0.837 cm vs. 57.91±0.342 cm, heart girth 83.58±0.628 cm vs. 70.42±0.702 cm and body length 78.18±0.355 cm vs. 70.10±2.160 cm in males vs. females of Gojali goat. The data on growth traits indicated the average birth weight, weaning weight and adult weight...

 Zafar Khokhar*, Imtiaz Hussain**, Badruddin Khokhar* and Muhammad Sohail**

...ects of planting dates on growth and yield of different wheat genotypes in Sindh. The trial was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications during 2000-01 and 2001-02 at Sakrand, Sindh. Four sowing dates i.e. November 1 and 15, December 1 and 15 were in main plots, whereas six wheat genotypes (V-7001, V-7002, V-7004, MPT-6, Abadgar-93, and Anmol-91) were in sub plots. Because of better tillering, plant growth<...

 Badaruddin Khokhar*, Imtiaz Hussain** and Zafar Khokhar*

...sp;Irrigation at critical growth stages could improve wheat yield significantly. A study was conducted during 2000–2002 to determine effect of different irrigation levels on growth and yield of different wheat genotypes in the province of Sindh. The trial was laid out in split block design at Wheat Research Institute, Sindh, Sakrand, in which four irrigation treatments I3 (irrigation at crown root, booting and soft dou...

 Abdullah Adil Ansari* and Kumar Sukhraj**

...periment along with plant growth parameters of Okra. The study revealed that combination organic fertilizers vermicompost and vermiwash combination [VW+VC] compared with control [CON] and chemical fertilizers [CHM], had great influence on plant growth parameters. The average yield of Okra during trial showed a significantly greater response in VW+VC compared with the control by 64.27 %. The fruits have a greater percentage o...

 Sarfraz Ahmad, Shaista Koukab, Nayyar Razzaq, Muhammad Islam, Aneel Rose*, and Muhammad Aslam**

...e, Quetta to evaluate the growth and production potential of Matricaria recutita. Two crops a year are possible in highlands of Balochistan. The first production cycle starts from late February upto June and second production period is from August to November. Flowers are produced in flushes and picking is possible with 10-15 days interval. In irrigated conditions, maximum fresh and dry flower production at one flush was recorded 2783 and 763 kgha-1, respectiv...
Maryyum Khalil1, Hamda Azmat1,*, Noor Khan1, Arshad Javid2, Ali Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain3, Asim Ullah1 and Sumaira Abbas1
...a;-amylase) added feed on growth performance, health and hematological analysis of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (initialaverage weight 32.46±0.36 g). The 40% crude protein diet was prepared by adding feed ingredients along with 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, 0.00 g kg-1 of α-amylase as T1, T2, T3 and T4 (control). At the end of feeding trial, 100% survival rate was recorded. Growth rate was significantly inc...
Asad Sultan1, Sahal Ahmad1, Sarzamin Khan1, Rifat Ullah Khan2,*, Naila Chand1, Muhammad Tahir3 and Shakoor Ahmad2
...e results of silymarin on growth, nutrient digestibility and hematological parameters were comparatively lower (P<0.05) in broilers during TN and HS zones. The current results indicate that the supplementation of feed with silymarin and ZnO improved the growth performance, blood parameters and nutrient digestibility in broiler during heat stress, however, the positive effect of ZnO was better than silymarin. 
...
Saleem Abid1*, Nasir Jamal2, Muhammad Zubair Anwar3 and Saleem Zahid4 
... trend model, Exponential growth model, S-curve trend model and double exponential smoothing model were used to find the best fitted model for area and production of potato in Pakistan. Forecasting errors namely mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), mean absolute deviation (MAD) and mean squared deviation (MSD) were used as model selection criteria. Lowest values of these errors indicated a best fitting model. The study showed that exponential

  Farhat Ullah Khan, Nowshad Khan and Zaibunnisa Abdullah*

Corresponding author: farhatkhan7@gmail.com (This is part of Ph.D. work of senior author)

IMPACT OFKINNOW (MANDARIN) YIELD LOSSES ON SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE FARMING COMMUNITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...d ultimately the economic growth of the country will be increased in future by improving the cultural practices and adopting modern post harvest technologies of kinnow throughout Pakistan.

...

 Faisal Khalil, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Ammaz Khan, Fakhar-ul-Hassan and Nabila Bibi*

EFFECT OF GIRDLING AND PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON PRODUCTIVITY IN OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA)
...the internal imbalance of growth regulators and other physiological factors. Plant growth regulating hormones like gibberellic acid (GA ), salicylic acid (SA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) alone and/ 3 or coupled with girdling operations may improve cropping potential of existing olive varieties in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was envisaged on olive trees to explore possibilities of inducing fruitfulness through the u...

 Khalid Mahmood Qureshi, Fakhar ul Hassan, Qamar ul Hassan, Usman Shaukat Qureshi, Saman Chughtai and Adnan Saleem*

IMPACT OF CULTIVATION SYSTEMS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA ANANASSA) CV. “CHANDLER”
...ems for better vegetative growth, production and fruit quality of strawberry. The results of cultivation systems on different vegetative traits i.e., plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, fresh and dry weights of leaves, crown size , root length and reproductive parameters i.e., number of trusses, number of flowers, number of fruits, fruit size, fruit weight and qualitative measures viz., total soluble solids, total sugars, ascorbic acid were found signif...

 Muhammad Tariq*, Raja Muhammad Omer**, Muhammad Ashraf Mian*, Obaid Ur Rehman***, Amjad Tahir Virk and Kazim Abbass**

PROMOTING CERTIFIED SEED AVAILABILITY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L) THROUGH PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND ITS IMPACT ON YIELD IN RAINFED AREAS
...ally in lesser vegetative growth leading to poor crop yield. Hence, it is the need of the time to enhance provision of certified seed of improved varieties to the farmers. An approved wheat variety 'Chakwal-50' of rainfed areas was selected for certified seed production and distribution in rainfed District Chakwal under joint venture of a study on comparison of seed source(Certified vs. Farmer's seed) contribution towards wheat yield at six sites in the Distri...

 Safdar Ali, Sahiba, M. Azim Malik, Fayyaz-ul-Hassan and M. Ansar*

GROWTH OF RAINFED FODDER MAIZE UNDER DIFFERENT LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
...to increase in vegetative growth parameters like plant height, stem diameter and leaf area. It was concluded that fertilizers combination of -1 180:90 NP kg ha was recommended for obtaining higher maize fodder yield under rainfed conditions of Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

...

 Saima Rani and Irum Raza*

COMPARISON OF TREND ANALYSIS AND DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING METHODS FOR PRICE ESTIMATION OF MAJOR PULSES IN PAKISTAN
...howed that if the present growth rates remain the same then prices of these pulses in Pakistan would be Rs.37.64, Rs.120.26, Rs.89.55 and Rs.55.03 per kg, respectively in 2015- 16. An increasing trend in the estimated prices will turn down the demand of these pulses and consequently poor class of the economy who do not have enough resources to buy expensive livestock-based protein-rich food will be badly affected.

...

 Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Muhammad Arshadullah, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

EFFECT OF BORON NUTRITION ON PADDY YIELD UNDER SALINESODIC SOILS
...0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg ha ) on growth, yield and ionic concentration of rice directly sown on raised beds under -1 saline sodic soils (ECe=5.32 dS m , pH=8.52 and SAR=18.87) at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian, district Hafizabad, Punjab Pakistan during 2009 and 2010. Treatments were arranged in RCBD with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity. Data on tillering, -1 plant height, spike length, number of grains spike , 1000-grain weig...

 Ayesha Tahir, Hassnain Shah, Muhammad Sharif, Waqar Akhtar and Nadeem Akmal*

AN OVERVIEW OF TOMATO ECONOMY OF PAKISTAN: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
...r, keeping in view the 8% growth rate in tomato area and 5% in production, there are opportunities in tomato production for export from Pakistan. At present Pakistan's exports are heavily focused on Middle East and Afghanistan markets. Therefore, there is a need to look for other markets to increase the tomato exports during the glut supply season. 

...

 Wabekwa, J.W., I.A. Sodagni and F.K. Mohammad*

PHYSIOLOGICAL GROWTH AND YIELD EVALUATION IN PMINERALIZED SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L.) UNDER SUDANOSAHELIAN AGRO-ECOLOGY, NIGERIA
...r sowing (WAS) 2 5 . Crop growth rates similarly increased with increasing P O rates (40-80 kg 2 5 -1 ha ) at 6 WAS in both years and the combined means for the two years, and at 8 WAS in 2011 and the combined analysis. Days to 50% flowering and head dry weight were not significantly influenced by P O rates and 1000- 2 5 -1 grain weights indicated that increased P O application (40-80 kg ha ) 2 5 enhanced grain filling efficiency and this influenced weight per...

 Arshad Ali, Imdad Ali Mahmood, Muhammad Salim, Muhammad Arshadullah* and Abdul Rasool Naseem**

GROWTH AND YIELD OF DIFFERENT BRASSICA GENOTYPES UNDER SALINE SODIC CONDITIONS
...6.2) in Hafizabad to test growth and yield response of six Brassica cultivars (BARD-I, Dunkled, Rainbow, BRS-II, Sultan Raya and cv. 95102-5) under saline sodic conditions. Data on growth and yield parameters were collected randomly (average of five plants per replication) at the time of crop maturity. Ionic concentration in plant tissues and oil content in seeds were also determined. Comparatively more number of branches an...

 Shafique Qadir Memon*, Muhamamd Safar Mirjat, Abdul Quadir Mughal** Nadeem Amjad***, Muhammad Azhar Saeed, Shabbir Kalwar, Asif Ali Mirani and Habib Iqbal Javed****

TILLAGE AND NPK EFFECT ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SPRING MAIZE IN ISLAMABAD, PAKISTAN
... provided more vegetative growth and grain yield in maize. However, poor-resource farmers can use the medium level of NPK @ -1 150-75-75 kg ha for getting an economical and successful maize crop.

...

 Muhammad Arshadullah, Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Arshad Ali and Imdad Ali Mahmood*

CUMULATIVE EFFECT OF SULFUR AND CALCIUM ON WHEAT GROWTH AND YIELD UNDER SALINE-SODIC SOILS
... three rates of gypsum on growth and ionic concentration of -1 wheat variety (Saher) sown in saline-sodic soil (ECe=5.32 dS m , pH=8.52 and SAR=18.87) at Soil Salinity Research Institute (SSRI) Farm, Pindi Bhattian during rabi 2009-10. Treatments were arranged using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity, data on tillering, plant height, spike -1 length, number of grains spike , 1000-grain weight, st...

 Tahir Abbas, Bushra Nawab, Rahila Nazli, Rubina Saleem, Amrat Lal and Khalid Jamil*

EFFICACY OF COTTON WASTE COMPOST AND FERTINEMAKIL FERTILIZER ON THE GROWTH PARAMETER OF SUNFLOWER PLANTS
...ment showed maximum plant growth character in terms of plant height, number of flowers, diameter of flowers, 1000 grains weight and oil contents. The highest significant improvement in plant growth characters were recorded in plots treated with cotton waste compost and cotton waste compost+ Fertinemakil fertilizer. The Fertinemakil alone showed less significant effect but it is a good source of organic fertilizer.

...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-din*, Syed Haider Abbas*, Maqsood Qamar* and Muhammad Noman*

EFFECT OF SPLIT N FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON PHYSIOAGRONOMIC TRAITS OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...showers during vegetative growth period provide an opportunity to apply N in split doses. Study was conducted to find out appropriate N rate and application method to enhance wheat productivity. -1 Three N rates i.e., 60, 90, and 120 kg ha and three application methods i.e. full basal N dose at planting and N application in two and three equal split doses at tiller formation and stem elongation stages. Maximum grain yield -1 -1 (5.20 t ha ) was achieved when N...

 Sara Khalid*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Ishfaq Ahmad Hafiz*, Khalid Saifullah Khan* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF ORGANIC AMENDMENTS ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH, FRUIT AND YIELD QUALITY OF STRAWBERRY
...ments enhanced vegetative growth and improved quality of strawberry fruits.

...

 Rabeea Tariq*, Khalid Mahmood Qureshi*, Imran Hassan*, Muhammad Rasheed* and Usman Shaukat Qureshi*

EFFECT OF PLANTING DENSITY AND GROWING MEDIA ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF STRAWBERRY
...uality. To make the plant growth successful in the container, the requirement of special media is very important step because plant growth is largely depended on the physiochemical properties of the growing media used. Winter strawberry production in a greenhouse using high plant densities and various media may be a viable alternative to openfield production system. Planting density can be increased thrice by using different...

 Sadia Tehrim*, M. Yasin Mirza** and G. Mustafa Sajid*

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT GROWTH REGULATORS FOR EFFICIENT PLANT REGENERATION IN GRAPES
...sitive effect on in vitro growth responses (shoot proliferation and root induction) when combined with BAP. The media containing NAA, BAP and kinetin accelerated the growth in terms of shoot mass in two accessions, 4494(1) Kowar Sufaid and 4472(12) Harker Agoon and again the culture response was genotype dependent. There was a difference in the growth responses of the three accessions stud...

 Shafique Qadir Memon*, Nadeem Amjad**, Muhammad Safar Mirjat***, Abdul Quadir Mughal***, Khalil Ahmad Ibupoto***, Shabbir Ahmad Kalwar****, Asif Ali Mirani**** and Muhammad Azhar Saeed****

EFFECT OF TILLAGE AND USE OF ORGANIC AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD COMPONENTS OF MAIZE
... provided more vegetative growth, grain yield and dry matter in maize. Residual effects and supplemental fertilizer application in maize production were greater than fresh maize production.

...

 Naveed Jehan*, Khalid Mahmood Aujla**, Muhammad Shahzad*, Abid Hussain**, Muhammad Zahoor*, Majid Khan* and Ahmed Bilal*

USE OF MOBILE PHONES BY FARMING COMMUNITY AND ITS IMPACT ON VEGETABLE PRODUCTIVITY
...productivity enhancement, growth and farmers’ prosperity. Mobile phone helps farmers in getting information about commodity prices in different markets. The farmers can get up-to-date information about various markets in different regions and can accordingly arrange transportation and labor services in time. The study was conducted to see the effect of timely information availability with mobile on productivity. The data was collected through well struct...

 Ali Ahsan Bajwa*, Ehsanullah*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Wahaj Nafees*, Mohsin Tanveer* and Hafiz Salman Saeed*

IMPACT OF FERTILIZER USE ON WEED MANAGEMENT IN CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE - A REVIEW
...ers, pesticides, chemical growth regulators, machinery and poor management practices are accelerating environmental pollution, soil degradation, global warming, climatic change and food deterioration. Conservation agriculture offers a sustainable solution for all these problems most often. This review focuses the use of fertilizers in conservation agriculture and their impact on weed management. Weeds are major constraint in the productivity of agro-ecosystems...

 Muhammad Sohail*, Imtiaz Hussain*, Riaz-ud-Din*, Sikandar Khan Tanveer*, Maqsood Qamar* and Syed Haider Abbas*

EVALUATION OF ADVANCE WHEAT LINES FOR AGRONOMIC TRAITS IN RAINFED ENVIRONMENT
...oil moisture during early growth period and high temperature stress during reproductive growth stage. Better yield under stressful environment is the main objective while evaluating genotypes for rainfed ecologies. A field study was conducted at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan to evaluate the agronomic traits of three advance lines (NR-397, NR-379 and NR-400) in comparison to released variet...

 Mustaring,* I. Subagyo,** Soebarinoto** and Marsetyo*

 
GROWTH, YIELD AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF NEW INTRODUCED BRACHIARIA SPECIES AND LEGUME HERBS AS RUMINANT FEED IN CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA
... were done to compare the growth, yield and nutritive value of grasses namely Brachiaria brizantha, B. mulato, and B. mutica and five legume herbs such as Clitoria ternatea, Dolichos lablab, Macroptilium bracteatum, Centrosema pascuorum and Centrosema pascuorum in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia using completely randomised block design. Each species was planted on 2.5m x 3m plot, and repeated 6 and 4 times in experiment 1 and 2, respectively. Parameters measured i...

 Maqsood Qamar*, S. Dilanawaz Ahmad Gardazi**, Riaz-ud-Din*, Muhammad Sohail* and Syed Haider Abbas*

PARTIAL RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST AND ITS EFFECT ON SUSTAINABILITY OF WHEAT YIELD
...everity (DS) and epidemic growth rate in comparison with wheat cultivar, Inqalab 91. During 2007 cropping season, natural epidemic was developed and relative AUDPC was recorded from 0 to 100% whereas the 2008 cropping season was dry and no stripe rust appeared. Two advanced lines (NR 268 and NR 285) showed the infection type (IT) less than 7 (incompatible reaction) to the mixture of prevailing stripe rust inoculums. Very low level of DS and AUDPC were recorded...

 Muhammad Ali*, Ghulam Mustafa Sajid**, M. Faisal Anwar Malik*** and Kalimullah****

ESTABLISHMENT OF IN VITRO CULTURE OF GRAPES
...r germination and initial growth parameters. Accession No. 020017 (Dakh-1) exhibited highest viability (100%), shoot length (4.12 cm) -1 and nodes plant (3.8). Moreover, it was found that response of cultures to different treatments was dependent both on accession and treatment duration. In conclusion, this protocol proved to be useful in optimizing the dose and duration of the treatment of grape explants with the surface disinfectant.

...

 Muhammad Aamir Khan*, Abdul Saboor*, Rauf-i-Azam**, Abdul Qayyum Mohsin* and Fayyaz-ul-Hassan***

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL TRADE LIBERALIZATION ON INCOME INEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN
...ries to increase economic growth and therefore reducing poverty. In this backdrop, the current study evaluates the impact of Pakistan’s agricultural trade liberalization using a modified Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) framework. The newly developed MyGTAP program was used to modify the Pakistan’s data in the Global GTAP Database and Standard GTAP model to include multiple households and labor types. This disaggregation allows to analyze distr...

 Sajid Ali* and Abdul Jabbar**

GROWTH AND VARIABILITY IN AREA PRODUCTION AND YIELD OF SELECTED FRUIT CROPS IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA
... study was to investigate growth and variability in area, production and yield of selected fruit crops including apple, peach, pear, and plum in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The study is based on secondary data from 1975-76 to 2011-12 which is further bifurcated into three periods; period-I (from 1975-76 to 1990-91), period-II (from 1991-92 to 2011-12), and period-III (from 1975-76 to 2011-12). Cuddy-Della Valle index has been used for variability analysis. Th...

 Muhammad Ayub*, Rizwan Maqbool*, Muhammad Tahir*, Zoaib Aslam*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem* and Muhammad Ibrahim**

IMPROVED GROWTH, SEED YIELD AND QUALITY OF FENNEL (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.) THROUGH SOIL APPLIED NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS
...0:45 and 90:90 kg ha ) on growth, seed yield and quality of fennel during 2011-2012. Fertilizer NP dose (90:45 kg -1 ha ) increased plant height by 44%, number of leaves per plant by 76%, 1000 seed weight by 44%, biological yield by 50%, seed yield by 296%, harvest index by 162% and protein content by 6%. However, fertilizer NP -1 (90:45 kg ha ) decreased oil content by 26%. Therefore, addition of NP fertilizer had the potential to increase fennel seed yield, ...

 Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Arshad Ali**, Tariq Sultan** and Muhammad Munir Ahmed***

CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM ROOT SYSTEM OF SUNFLOWER (HELIANTHUS ANNUS L) GROWN UNDER SALT AFFECTED AREA OF PAKISTAN
...trains.

...

 Tosif Tabassam*, Tariq Sultan**, M.Ehsan Akhtar**, M.Mahmood-ulHassan** and Arshad Ali**

SUITABILITY OF DIFFERENT FORMULATED CARRIERS FOR SUSTAINING MICROBIAL SHELF LIFE
...ng locally isolated plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains from maize rhizosphere. Different combinations of material were prepared using clay soil (35-50%), fly-ash (30-45%), press mud (5-15%) and lignite (5-15%). Clay soil (53% clay) was used for adhesion purpose but considering free of lump formation an important property of a good carrier, mixing 40% of soil with other material was found suitable. Using 40% of soil, six different treatments we...

 Muhammad Qasim*, Sonila Hassan*, Arshed Bashir*, Hafiz Zahid Mahmood** and Irfan Mehmood*

ANALYZING PRODUCTION POTENTIAL OF SELECTED FOOD AND LEGUME CROPS FOR FOOD SECURITY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...dy was designed to assess growth rate in area, yield and production of selected major food commodities and to project these parameters on the basis of estimated growth co-efficient. Time-series data for area, yield and production were collected for wheat, sugarcane, rice, mung and gram since 1980-81. The semi-log trend function was employed to find out the growth rate of selected commoditi...

 Nouman Badar*, Hina Fatima**, Abdul Jabbar*** and Muhammad Asif*

MAJOR FOOD CROPS PRODUCTION AND YIELD FORECAST IN PAKISTAN
... In short, the production growth rate of wheat, rice and maize was higher in 2012.

...

 Sobia Naheed*, Irum Raza*, M. Zubair Anwar*, Nusrat Habib*, Naheed Zahra* and Sabeen Siddiqui*

FORECASTING AREA AND PRODUCTION OF BARLEY IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...linear trend, exponential growth curve and double exponential smoothing were compared and the best fitting model was chosen by reason of three accuracy measures namely mean absolute deviation (MAD), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), and mean squared deviation (MSD). The values of these

measures were lowest for the double exponential smoothing method, therefore, this method was selected for predicting barley production and area in Punjab f...

 Saqib Shakeel Abbasi*, Ayesha Tahir**, Irum Raza* Saleem Abid* and Muhammad Nisar Khan*

TREND ANALYSIS AND FORECASTING OF WHEAT AND RICE IN PAKISTAN
... trend model, exponential growth model and S-curve model. The minimum values of Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD) and Mean Squared Deviation (MSD) have been acquired and then the forecasting was made for the best fitted model with minimum error. Five year average prices for the individual crop(s) were also calculated to observe the past trend. The study demonstrates that for wheat and rice (Basmati and IRRI); S-Curve model is...

 Imran*, Shaheeda Naveed**, Asad Ali Khan* and Inayat Khattak* 

IMPACT OF PHOSPHORUS LEVELS AND SEED RATES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LATE SOWN MAIZE ON HIGH ELEVATION IN SWAT, PAKISTAN
... levels and seed rates on growth and yield of late sown maize cv. 2 5 Baber on high elevation during kharif season, was conducted at Farmer Field School, Swat, Pakistan during summer 2012. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design having three replications. Sowing was done one month late (July 15) than the optimum time of sowing. Optimum time of sowing on high elevation in Swat, Pakistan starts from May 15 to June 15. Four -1 -1 levels of...

 Doulat Baig*, Fida Mohammad Abbasi*, Habib Ahmed*, Maqsood Qamar** and Muhammad Ayub Khan**

RESPONSE OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS TO DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS FOR PHYSIOLOGICAL AND AGRONOMICAL TRAITS UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS
... vegetative, reproductive growth and yield of the crop. The protein is wholly dependent upon the amount of nitrogen fertilization available in soil for the plant use. A two year study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan. The experiment was aimed to –1 –1 evaluate the effect of different nitrogen (N) levels (N = 0 kgha , N = 60 kgha , N = 0 1 2 –1 –1 –1 –1 80 kgh...

 Azhar Usman Ali*, Ghulam Sarwar*, Muhammad Aftab* and Sher Muhammad**

EFFECT OF SOIL AND FOLIAR APPLIED COPPER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)
...effect of copper on wheat growth and soil composition through its soil and foliar application. For -1 this purpose, non-saline non-sodic soil (pH = 8.10, EC = 0.85 dS m , SAR = 4.60, saturation percentage = 29 % and sandy clay loam) was collected, brought to -1 green house and filled in the pots @ 6.5 kg pot . All these pots were irrigated to achieve uniform soil column. This experiment comprised 5 treatments viz., -1 -1 control, soil application of copper @ 2...

 Muhammad Mudasar Aslam ⃰, Muhammad Jamil**, Ijaz Malook**, Amana Khatoon*, Ali Rehman*, Abdur Rahim***, Pirzada Khan*, Shakir Ullah Khan Shakir*, Shahid Irfan*, Faizan Ullah****, Khair Ul Bashar**, Mahideen Afridi** and Shafiq Ur Rehman*

PHYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA, TAMARIX APHYLLA AND PEGANUM HARMALA ON PLANT GROWTH OF WHEAT AND MUSTARD
... many plants are known on growth of different useful crops. This research study was designed to find out phytotoxic effects of Calotropis procera, Tamarix aphylla and Peganum harmala on seed germination and seedling length of wheat and mustard. Results showed that seed germination of wheat was significantly decreased by 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% while mustard seeds were resistant and were affected by higher dilutions (15%, 20% and 25%) of all plant extracts. R...

  Sohaib Arshad*, Sarwat Naz Mirza*, Imtiaz Ahmad Qamar** and Maqbool Shahbaz**

DETERMINATION OF FORAGE QUALITY OF INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC RHODES GRASS ACCESSIONS UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS
...es were analysed at three growth stages namely vegetative, flow-ering and maturity. These grasses have shown significant differences in fresh and dry matter -1 yield. Fresh matter yield ranged from 6.17 to 6.68t ha at pre- -1 -1 flowering, 9.67 to 11.83 t ha at full flowering and 22.83 to 27.80 t ha at m -1 aturity. While dry matter yield ranged from 0.86 to 1.38 t ha at pre- -1 -1 flowering, 1.73 to 2.78 t ha at fullflowering and 6.67 to 8.67 t ha at maturity...

 Muhammad Farrukh Saleem*, Munir Ahmad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza** and Abdul Shakoor*

EFFECT OF TOPPING UNDER DIFFERENT NITROGEN LEVELS ON EARLINESS AND YIELD OF COTTON
... plant with indeterminate growth habit. However it has been adopted as annual, so efforts like topping and optimum nitrogen levels to modify its architecture can play a role in improving its success as annual. A field experiment to study the effect of topping under different nitrogen levels on earliness and yield of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was conducted at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, during kharif -1 2013. The crop wa...

 Muhammad Tahir* and Nawal Zafar* 

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY PERFORMANCE OF RABI CEREALS SOWN ALONE AND IN BLENDED POPULATION AT VARIABLE SEED RATIOS
...s plant , leaf area, crop growth -1 -1 rate, fresh weight plant , dry weight plant , green forage yield and dry matter yield were obtained in plots where barley was sown alone at 100% seed ratio. The highest crude fiber and total ash percentage was observed in plots where oat was sown alone at 100% seed ratio and crude protein percentage was highest when oat was blended together with barley at 75% + 25% seed ratios.

...

Muhammad Zahid Kiani*, Tariq Sultan**, Arshad Ali**, Ghulam Qadir*** Imdad Ali Mahmood**, Tauseef Tabassam**, Muhammad Arshad Ullah** and Nasir Abbas* 

EFFECT OF PGPR STRAINS ON SUNFLOWER GROWTH AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS UNDER SALINITY STRESS
...gn: justify;"> Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are potentially useful for stimulating plant growth under harsh environment. A pot trial was conducted to examine the performance of four isolated strains in five treatments viz., KS 44, KS 7, KS 41, KS 42 and KS mix under four different artificially developed -1 salinity levels (5, 8, 10 and 12 dS m ) at National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad. Hybrid ...

 Nisar Ahmed Soomro*, Abdul Fatah Soomro**, Hamz Ali Samo* and
Muhammad Siddique Depar***

GROWTH AND YIELD COMPARISONS OF FOUR COMMERCIAL WHEAT VARIETIES TO IRRIGATION FREQUENCIES
...ed bit adverse effects on growth and yield traits over 5 irrigations with 84.77% germination, 79.16 cm plant height, 10.07 tillers plant , 254.91 tillers m , 51.91 grains spike , 57.60 g 1000-seed weight and 5230.75 kg grain yield ha ; while the plots given 3 irrigations showed lowest values for all the parameters. In varieties, Imdad-2005 maximizes its performance with 90.81% germination, 88.33 cm plant height, 10.29 tillers plant , 273.10 tillers m , 54.99 g...

 Shahid Iqbal Khattak*, Muhammad Amjad Nadim**, Mohammad Safdar Baloch**, Kashif Waseem** and Muhammad Sohail***

IMPACT OF VARIABLE SEEDING DATES ON CEREALS' PERFORMANCE UNDER AGRO-ECOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF DERA ISMAIL KHAN
...ore lodging due to longer growth period. The study concludes that cereals should be sown between mid-October to mid-November for their best performance in areas with similar agro-ecology.

...

 Mubbashira Nazir*, Saira Batool*, Sultan Ali Tariq**, Abid Hussain** and Ya Sakina**

INTERDECADAL GROWTH VARIABILITY AND DECOMPOSITION ANALYSIS OF FRUIT CROPS IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
...ce from 1971 to 2014. The growth trend of fruits' production in the province showed positive behavior for major fruits (citrus, mango and guava) in almost all the decades, except for mango in 1970s and guava in 2000s. The decline in production of mango in 1970s was due to negative growth in both area and yield. While, a slowdown growth in the area and decrease in yield were reasons of decl...

 Saleem Abid*, Anum Fatima*, Sobia Naheed*, Asrar Sarwar** and Muhammad Nisar Khan*

DOUBLE EXPONENTIAL FORECASTING MODEL FOR DATES PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
...ratic trend , exponential growth , s-curve and moving average) for estimating predicted values of area and production of dates for upcoming seven years. The estimated values of area and production represent increasing trend were 2.2, 93.8, 95.5, 97.2, 98.0, 100.6 and 102.3 '000' hectares and 548.5, 556.0, 563.5, 571.0, 578.5, 585.9 and 593.4 '000' tonnes from 2013-14 to 2019-20, respectively .

...

 Hina Fatima** and Bushra Yasmin**

EFFICIENCY AND PRODUCTIVITY ANALYSIS OF PAKISTAN'S FARM SECTOR: A META-ANALYSIS*
... evaluate the misdirected growth policies in farm sector of Pakistan.

...

Basharat Hussain Shah*, F. S. Hamid*, Shams ul Islam*, Fayaz Ahmad*, Sohail Aslam*, and Noorullah Khan*

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L.) GENOTYPES FOR YIELD AND OTHER ATTRIBUTES AT SHINKIARI, MANSEHRA
...re carried out during the growth period and data was recorded on different growth parameters. Significant differences were observed for all the agronomic traits studied. Root rot attack was observed during the growth period. Pea variety 'Meteor' was found susceptible against this disease followed by 'Sarsabz 9800-1' as moderately susceptible and 9375 as resistant. The other varieties/lines...

Mehwish Kiran*, Muhammad Saleem Jilani*, Kashif Waseem*
and Muhammad Sohail**

EFFECT OF ORGANIC MANURES AND INORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF RADISH ( L)
...rganic fertilizers on the growth and yield of radish, at Horticulture Departmental experimental area, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I. Khan. The experiment was laid out in RCD with seven treatments replicated thrice. The treatments included control, farm yard manure (FYM) @ 25 t ha , poultry manure (PM) @ 10 t ha , goat manure (GM) @ 15 t ha , press mud (PrM) @ 20 t ha , sewage sludge (SS) @ 20 t ha and nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium (NPK) @ 120...

 Abdul Rehman Khan*, Muhammad Mahmood–Ul-Hassan**, Rizwan Ahmad** and Anjum Munir ***

ARSENIC III TOLERANCE POTENTIAL OF FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLLUTED AND NON-POLLUTED SOILS OF PAKISTAN
... concentrations (MIC) and growth rate. Out of 18 isolates, 12 belonged to genus , 3 to , 2 to and one to . The isolates and appeared to be most tolerant to arsenic. Fungal strains isolated from Gujranwala soil exhibited more As(III) tolerance than those from Multan and Islamabad. Maximum fungal growth was observed at temperature of 30 to 35 C and pH 6 to 7 under incubation period of 96-120 hrs. The isolated strains were capa...

 Asif ullah Khan*, Faizan Ullah*, Sultan Mehmood*, Muhammad Irshad* and Farhat Ullah Khan**

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. LEAF AQUEOUS EXTRACT ON EARLY SEEDLING GROWTH OF L. PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS
...its inhibitory effects on growth and development of and therefore could be a potential source of botanical herbicide in the control of this noxious weed species.

...

 Ehsanullah*, Muhammad Amjad Shahzad*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum*, Ali Zohaib*, Muhammad Ishfaq* and Ejaz Ahmad Warraich*

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOWING METHODS AND PLANTING DENSITIES ON GROWTH, YIELD, FIBER QUALITY AND ECONOMIC EFFICACY OF COTTON
...ign: justify;"> Crop growth and productivity may differ under different sowing methods and planting densities. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the influence of different sowing methods and planting densities on growth, yield, quality and economic returns of cotton. Sowing methods included pit planting (1 m × 1 m pits), bed planting (75 cm apart beds), ridge planting (75 cm apart ridges) and line sowin...

 Tassadduq Rasool*, Ali Zohaib*, Ehsanullah*, Riaz Ahmad*, Tasawer Abbas*, Tahira Tabassum*, Muhammad Ather Nadeem*, Mahmood-ul-Hassan*

FORAGE YIELD AND QUALITY IN PEARL MILLET-SESBANIA INTERCROPPING SYSTEM UNDER VARIOUS GEOMETRICAL PATTERNS
...ping reduced pearl millet growth. Nonetheless, least decrease in height (23%), leaf area (42%) and number of leaves (16%) of pearl millet was occurred by intercropping sesbania in 45 cm apart two-row strips of pearl millet, as compared to sole cropping of pearl millet. Total green forage yield (60%) was increased by sesbania intercropping over sole-cropping of pearl millet and the intercropping of sesbania in 45 cm apart two-row strips of pearl millet was most...
Yanling Xia1,2, Heping Li2, Yuntao Liang2, Jichen Zhao2, Binshan Lu2 and Di Liu1,*

Hina Zubair1, Saima Perveen2, Saeed Alam3, Akkad Rafiq4* and Sara Ejaz 

...ontrolling the population growth is one of the most feasible solutions to reduce burden on the country and it can be achieved by effective use of contraception. This study was designed to analyze the trends of utilization of different family planning methods in relation with socio-demographic factors at divisional headquarter hospital in a year time. A retrospective study was performed by analyzing one year records from family planning clinic at divisional hea...
Selçuk Kaplan1,* and Sertaç Atalay2
...ymorphism of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and leptin (LEP) genes in Kivircik crossbred ewes. Therefore, IGF1/BfoI and Lep/BcnI polymorphisms were examined by polymerase chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the regulatory region of the IGF1 gene was detected by amplification of the 294 bp region using specific primers and cleavage with the BfoI
Muhammad Zameer Kayani1,*, Tariq Mukhtar2 and Muhammad Arshad Hussain3
...of M. incognita on growth and yield of cucumber and nematode reproduction. All inoculum densities caused significant reductions in growth and yield of cucumber and were found to be positively correlated with the latter. On the other hand, ages of plants at inoculation had negative correlations with reductions in these parameters at each inoculum density. The production of galls was found to be positively correlated wi...
Fatmagün Aydin1,* and Fatma Burcu Harmantepe2
...fficinalis L.) oil on growth, haematological parameters were evaluated on tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). For this experiment, 360 fish (11.81± 0.02 g) were used. Fish were divided into four equal groups in three replicates and were fed with diets containing 0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 % of sage oil for 30 days. The results showed that the haematological parameters (total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular vo...
Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska1,*, Magdalena Skibicka1, Barbara Cioch-Szklarz1, Jolanta Karakulska2, Karol Fijałkowski2 and Sonia Hiller3
...of selected parameters of growth in different housing systems with regard to the assessment of microbial flora taken from the nasal cavity of animals. The study was performed on 28 calves of Polish Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White variety (PHF HO). The average weight of calves at the age of three months differed depending on the housing system. Individuals in igloo type booths were heavier as compared to the traditionally reared calves. The differences regard...
Hao Zhang,1,2,3,* Hai Tao Nie,3 Tie Wei Ma,3 Zi Yu Wang3 and Feng Wang3
...ments for maintenance and growth of F1Dorper × Hu ewe lambs. Thirty-five ewe lambs averaging 33.52±0.56 kg body weight (BW) were used. Seven ewe lambs were randomly chosen and slaughtered at 34.93 ± 0.37 kg BW as the baseline group for measuring initial body composition. Another seven lambs were also randomly chosen and offered a pelleted mixed diet (approximately concentrate : roughage = 60 : 40, DM basis) for ad libitum intake ...
Ali Haider Saleem1,*, Khalid Javed2, Masroor Ellahi Babar3, Tanveer Hussain3, Asad Ali2, Afzal Ali2, Nisar Ahmad2, Muhammad Zahid Farooq1 and Muhammad Dawood2
...ng various functions like growth, puberty, reproduction and milk production in both animals and humans. The sequence variations have been studied, reported and associated with many growth traits like weaning weight, six month body weight and nine-month body weight etc. in cattle, buffalo, goat and sheep worldwide. LEP gene polymorphism and associations have not been extensively reported in Lohi sheep of Pakistan, so this stu...
Lili Zhang, Yuanxiao Wang, Yili Kong, Hussain Ahmad, Rui Yan, Li Dong, Jingfei Zhang and Tian Wang*
...e effects of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) on growth, meat quality and muscle fiber composition in pigs. Sixteen piglets with normal birth weight (NBW, body weight (BW) = 1.71 ± 0.04 kg) and sixteen piglets of low body weight with IUGR (BW = 0.93 ± 0.03 kg) at birth were procured. Blood samples were collected at 28, 66, and 160 days of age from both groups. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were ...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
..., respectively. Bacterial growth was checked at different pH and temperature conditions. Best growth was observed at pH 7 and at 37ºC.
...
Fouzia Tabssum1* and Syed Shahid Ali2
..., respectively. Bacterial growth was checked at different pH and temperature conditions. Best growth was observed at pH 7 and at 37ºC.
...
Muhammad Tariq Zahid1, Farah Rauf Shakoori2, Soumble Zulfiqar3, Khalid A. Al-Ghanim4 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori3,4*
...he ciliate showed optimum growth at 27±1°C and pH 7.0 to 7.5. The maximum resistance dose of copper for T. farahensis was found to be 8, 9 and 80 µg/ml in wheat grain medium, Bold-basal salt medium and modified Neff’s medium, respectively. T. farahensis exhibited significant copper storage ability removing 54.9 % copper from medium within 96 h of 30 µg/ml copper stress. The maximum uptake rate was observed within 30 m...
Nazish Imran 
...t of overall health & growth of young population. Youth with positive mental health have positive self-efficacy beliefs, are productive and able to tackle developmental challenges adequately.(4) On the other hand, poor mental health in young age is associated with school failure, delinquency, social and peer problems, substance misuse alongside adverse outcomes in adulthood. 
...
Song Jiang1,2, Fa-lin Zhou3, Jian-hua Huang1, Qi-bin Yang1, Li-shi Yang1 and Shi-gui Jiang1,*
...roodstock showed negative growth in their breeding season from the perspective of body energy value. During the experimental period, food conversion efficiency (FCE) and energy conversion efficiency (ECE) values of the treatment group were significantly higher than those of the control, with FCE values of 11.06% and 1.89%, respectively, and ECE values of 15.45% and 2.64%, respectively. These results indicated that eyestalk ablation promoted food consumption, f...

Muhammad Suhaib1, Ijaz Ahmad2*, Masooma Munir3, Muhammad Bilal Iqbal4 , Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 and Safdar Ali6 

...ity is also affecting the growth and yield of this crop. While salicylic acid is found to play a helpful role in supporting the plant growth and development under salt stress. Keeping in view these factors a hydroponic experiment was conducted on wheat with two levels of salicylic acid (0.25 mM and 0.50 mM) under two salt levels (75 mM and 150 mM) to assess that whether the salicylic acid is helpful in coping the harmful eff...

Azhar Mehmood1,2,*, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem2, Muhammad Tahir2, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar3, Tasawer Abbas4, Ali Zohaib2, Hafiz Tassawar Abbas

... of nitrogen and boron on growth, yield and oil quality of sunflower hybrids during 2009. Two nitrogen levels (0 and 150 kg ha-1) and three boron levels (0, 2 and 3 kg ha-1) were tested against two sunflower hybrids (Hysun-33 and DK-4040). All the growth and yield components like plant height, stem diameter, head diameter, achene and biological yield were significantly affected by varying levels of nitrogen and boron fertili...
Hamayun Khan1,*, Abdul Wahab1, Navaid Kazi2, Younas Muhammad1,Summaya Kazi3, Salman Kazi4, Azmatullah Khan1, Ikramullah Khan5 and Shakoor Ahmad1
...niotic fluid during fetal growth stage of successful pregnancy. Experiments were executed on 15 pregnant rabbits at three different time point of successful pregnancy i.e. day 18, day 25 and day 28 with commercially accessible kits for biochemical markers that includes glucose, total protein, albumin, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). The current study demonstrated the asce...

Habibullah* and Sahib Alam  

...cal properties at various growth stages of maize and subsequent wheat crop. Biochar was applied before sowing, while N application was carried out in splits to the crops. The study was conducted in district Buner, Pakistan using randomized complete block design with split-plot arrangement. Biochar was applied at the rates of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 ton/ha as the main plot factor. The immediate effect of biochar was assessed on maize crop integrated with four level...

Feroza Haider1,2, Shamim Gul2,3*, Javaid Hussain4, Sadaf Asalam Ghori5, Muhammad Naeem Shahwani6, Muhammad Murad6 and Abdul Manan Kakar

...ived biochars on the crop growth performance and accumulation of chromium, iron, manganese and zinc in the edible parts (roots) of Brassica rapa (turnip) under groundwater and wastewater irrigation. Biochars were applied at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 kg m-2 to soil. Amendment of biochar increased significantly the aboveground plant biomass by 28% - 34.3% under groundwater and 18.3% - 30.4% under wastewater irrigation. Dry weight of root biomass increased by 16.1% - 20.2%...

Zakirullah Jan1, Shamsher Ali1*, Tariq Sultan2, Muhammad Jamal Khan1, Zahir Shah1 and Farmanullah Khan1 

...ng seedlings and then the growth and yield of various crops and ultimately disturbing the socioeconomics of the farming community. Among the microbes, cyanobacteria are known as photoautotrophic, blue green algae which is not a truly eukaryotic algae and grown in different and such complex habitats freely and symbiotic association with large numbers of plants and microbial mats. In this regard, a pot experiment was carried out with the aim to assess the impact...
Ghulam Muhae-ud-Din1,4, Anam Moosa1, Umer Farooq Ghummen1, Muhammad Jabran1, Amjad Abbas1, Muhammad Naveed2, Abdul Jabbar1 and Muhammad Amjad Ali1,3,*
...ts resulting in a serious growth-limiting factor in ornamentals. In this study, the response of ten ornamental plants to M. incognita was assessed in pot experiments. All the ornamental plant species showed varying degree of infection of M. incognita. Rhapis excels and Ophiopogan japonicas were moderately resistant, Cordyline fruticosa, Hibiscus syriacus and Carrisa macrocarpa were moderately susceptible, Mur...

Muhammad Suhaib1*, Ijaz Ahmad2, Masooma Munir3, Badar-Uz-Zaman1, Bushra Atta4 and Muhammad Khubaib Abuzar5 

...ess environment or normal growth conditions. While regarding salicylic acid induced amelioration it was notable that both levels of salicylic acid had significant effects on the physiology and biochemical parameters of crop plants however lower level of salicylic acid 0.25 mM was found more efficient then the higher level of salicylic acid. Salicylic acid induced improvement is significant regardless of stress environment or normal gro...

Saleem Ashraf1*, Ashiq Hussain Sangi1Zakaria Yousaf Hassan3 and Muhammad Luqman2

...ata to calculate compound growth and forecast area, production and average yield in the Punjab Pakistan For this purpose, data collected from government reports for the period of 1990-2017 was criticaly examined. Empirical results indicated that area under cultivation showed negative compound growth rate while production and average yield showed positive compound growth in Pakistan. While,...
Pasqua Rotondi1, Maria Antonietta Colonna1, Giuseppe Marsico1, Francesco Giannico1, Marco Ragni1 and Anna Maria Facciolongo2,*
Ayesha Munir, Hafiz Muhammad Umer, Anjum Nasim Sabri and Imran Sajid*
...ive agents to inhibit the growth of caries causing S. mutans. The natural extracts of Streptomyces strains significantly inhibited and delayed the biofilm formation by S. mutans and a profound effect was observed in case of the extracts of Streptomyces strains HU-09 and HU-10, which delayed biofilm maturation and even decreased biofilm formation with the passage of time. The micro well cytotoxicity assay against Artemia salina

Nashwa Mohamed Eid1, Al-Hussien Mohamed Dahshan1, El-Shayma El-Nahass2, Basma Shalaby3 and Ahmed Ali1* 

...to completely inhibit the growth of CP. An in vivo study was conducted in commercial broiler chickens, where, 2 groups of 10 day-old broilers were fed a balanced ration with addition of thyme (0.25%) or clove (0.125%). Birds were then challenged with CP (1×108 CFU) together with another 2 groups without EOs at 15 days of age. Starting from 3 days’ post infection (DPI), the second 2 set of birds without EOs addition were fed ration containing 0.25% ...
Fazul Nabi1,2, Hui Zhang1, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal1 , Mujeeb ur Rehman1, Muhammad Shahzad3, Khalid Mehmood1,3 and Jiakui Li1,* 
...lvia miltiorrhiza (SM) on growth plate width, liver oxidative stress and toxicity in avian TD. One hundred and fifty broiler chicks were equally distributed into three groups: Control, Thiram (50 mg/kg/d) and SM (10 mg/kg/d) treated. Results showed that thiram caused lameness, decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities in the serum along with decrease in level o...

Fayaz Ahmad1*, Noorullah Khan1, Farrukh Siyar Hamid1, Qamar uz Zaman1, Shamsul Islam1, Muhammad Abbas Khan1 and Sair Sarwar

...cient recovery and proper growth. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Mature tea plants (26 year old) of Qi-men variety were deeply pruned (30 cm from the ground level by completely defoliating the bushes) on five different dates i.e., November, December, 2012, January, February and March, 2013 having one month interval. Application of potash fertilizer @ 90,120 and 150 kg ha-1 was also compared with control...
Hazrat Nabi1, Irshad Hussain2, Muhammad Adil3, Amar Nasir3,*, Arbab Sikandar3, Saeed Khan1 and Nasrullah Khan3

 

...nity, lymphoid organs and growth performance of broilers. In this study, a total of 118 day-old broiler chicks were used, of which 108 were randomly divided into 6 groups (A to F) on day 14th. Aflatoxins derived from Aspergillus parasiticus were mixed in the feed measuring 150 ppb and fed to various broiler groups. Mycotoxin binders were also added into the feed and offered to group E and F from 14th-42nd day of age. The...
Tengfei Lu1, Wenhua Pei1, Shuang Zhang2, Yangnan Wu1, Fenghao Chen2, Xiao Han2 and Weijun Guan1,*
...re positive in AMSCs. The growth of different passages cells typically appeared in S curve. Furthermore, AMSCs successfully differentiated into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and hepatocyte-like cells after procedure induction. The results showed that the AMSCs obtained from sheep demonstrated the features of multipotent stem cells. Therefore, AMSCs could be a good option for transplantation for treatment and regenerative medical projects.
...

Shamsher Ali1*, Sarmad Khan1, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Naveed ullah4, Muhammad Rashid3 and Wiqar Ahmad1 

... different soils at early growth stage. Five bread wheat varieties i.e Atta Habib, Barsat, Siren, Pirsabak-2004 and Pirsabak-2005 were cultivated under three soils having different salinity levels; i- Normal-non saline soil (EC=0.9 dS m-1), ii- moderately saline soil (EC=7.2 dS m-1) and iii- highly saline soil (EC=13.3 dS m-1). The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) with two factors, repeated thrice. Wheat varieties were sown per pot...
Mingming Ning1,2, Yanjie Zheng1, Yuanyuan Dun1, Weijun Guan2 and Xiuxia Li1,*
...of chicken serum and some growth factors. CAFSCs can be transferred to 34 passages nowadays. Surface marker Oct4, CD105, nanog, CD73 and SSEA-4 on CAFSCs are detected positive with immunofluorescence histochemistry, Gene CD44, CD29, CD73 and SH2 are detected positive with RT-PCR. We carry karyotype analysis out and find that chromosome is 2n=78 and shows normal. CAFSCs in mid period of subculture propagate fastest from cell cycle examination on Flow Cytometer ...
Nadeem Munawar, Iftikhar Hussain and Tariq Mahmood*
...crop at various stages of growth and in uncultivated fields was significantly higher than those on field boundaries. The overall comparison of the rodent burrows occurrence in groundnut crop indicated a significantly higher number inside the crop as compared to the field edges at maturity stage. Similarly, maturity stage of the millet and maize crops attracted significantly higher population of rodents. On the other hand, at post-harvested and un-ploughed/non-...
Bin Wang1, 2, Qianji Ning1,*, Qian Wang2, Wei Peng2, Tong Hao2,*and Jinsheng Sun2,*
...an seriously affect their growth, causing significant losses to the aquaculture industry. The current studies on the molting mechanism mainly focused on the independent analysis of single protein, rather than a protein-protein interaction. In this work, with the systematic point of view, the subcellular location of 830 unidentified proteins were annotated based on the previously reconstructed protein-protein interaction network (PIN) of E. sinensis usin...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Muhammad Zubair ul Hassan Arsalan1Arshad Javid2, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain3, Nosheen Aslam4, Qasim Ali5, Majid Hussain6Muhammad Masoom ul Hassan Rehan7, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1,8Anam Khalid1 and Danish Riaz1
...te the effects of MOLM on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in L. rohita fingerlings. MOLM was added in the diet by replacing fish meal at the levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Triplicate tanks were used for each treatment having 15 fingerlings. These fingerlings fed at the rate of 5% of live wet weight. Chromic oxide as an inert marker was also added in the diets. Feces from each tank were collected twice a day to estimate the nutrient d...
Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Nosheen Aslam2, Arshad Javid3, Shehzadi Liaquat1,Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1, 4, Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1 and Muhammad Adnan Khalid1
...d negative effect on fish growth performance. Chromic oxide (1%) was added in the diets as inert marker. It was noted that probiotics supplementation played a significant role in improving absorption of minerals, carcass composition and haematology of fish. Higher mineral digestibility (Ca 76%, Fe 62%, Zn 57%, P 76%) and carcass composition (crude protein 17% and crude fat 10%) was found in fish fed on 3 gKg-1 level of probiotics supplemented canola...
Guifen Liu1,2, Xiaomu Liu1,2, Khuram Shahzad3, Wei You1,2, Juan J. Loor3,* and Fachun Wan1,2,4,*
...le at different stages of growth. Microarray analysis of data at 12 vs 18 months, 12 vs 24 months, 12 vs 30 months, 18 vs 24 months, 18 vs 30 months and 24 vs 30 months uncovered a total of 10625 differentially expressed genes (P ≤ 0.05; no fold change). The dynamic impact approach (DIA) bioinformatics tool was used to uncover the most-affected biological pathways among the DEG. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software also was used to analyze upstream tra...
Fangxiao Dong1,2, Xuan Luo1,2, Delu Yuan1,2, Aixin Liang1,2* and Liguo Yang1,2*
... been used to improve the growth and lactation of animals, however, the immune response is still unsatisfactory, especially in large animals. The present study aimed to investigate whether tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) could be applied as signal peptide for enhancing the effect of somatostatin DNA vaccine. A novel recombinant plasmid pEGS/2SS-tPA encoding two copies of somatostatin genes fused to tPA signal sequence was succesfully construct...
Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1,2, Syed Makhdoom Hussain2,*, Farhat Jabeen2, Abdullah Ijaz Hussain3, Arshad Javid4, Muhammad Asrar2 and Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan2
...y, resulting in poor fish growth. Results demonstrated that phytase supplementation showed significant (p<0.05) improvement in ADC% of minerals and carcass composition of fish. Maximum digestibility of minerals and improved carcass composition of C. catla fingerlings was noted at 900 FTU kg-1 level of phytase supplemented MOSM based test diet. It was further noted that phytase supplementation decreases the discharge of minerals thro...

Saeed Ullah1, Amanullah Jan1, Murad Ali2*, Wiqar Ahmad3, Hafeez Ur Rehman2, Muhammad Ishaq2 and Bilal Ahmad2  

...t and banding on chickpea growth and yield during winter 2013-14 at the New Developmental Farm, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar. The experiment was carried out by following randomized complete block design procedure replicated four times. Pods number plant-1 (PN), grain yield (GY) biological yield (BY), and harvest index (HI) were significantly increased by 9, 4, 23 and 8%, respectively over the control with fertilizer banding compared with broadcast. ...

Tanzim Ullah Khan1*, Mohammad Tariq Jan1, Ahmad Khan1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Muhammad Ishaq2, Khilwat Afridi2, Murad Ali2, Muhammad Adeel Qureshi2, Imtiaz Ahmad3 and Muhammad Saeed2  

...recommended for improving growth, yield and yield components of wheat. 

...

Muhammad Shoaib Saleem*, Muhammad Faheem Akbar, Amjad Sultan and Saqib Ali 

...Neonicotinoids and Insect growth Regulators (IGRs) against jassid (Amrasca devastans Dist.) on eggplant crop. The crops were grown in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications, each have five treatments inclusive of control. The recommended doses of Nitenpyram, Clothianidin, Momentum (combination of Nitenpyram+Chlorfenapyr) and Buprofezin were applied when population of insect pests reached at economic threshold level (ETL). Pre-treatme...
Muhammad Anwar Iqbal1, Habib Rehman2, Ali Hussain3,*, Faiza Jabeen4, Ijaz Ahmad2, Kamran Ashraf5, Muhammad Irshad Arshad6 and Omaima Khan7
... partially influenced the growth performance of Japanese quails.
...
Ayesha Noreen1, Dilara A. Bukhari2 and Abdul Rehman1,*
... important role in cancer growth and metastasis. ROS and tumor cell interaction could activate the signalling pathways, promoting cell proliferation, invasion, inducing angiogenesis, inflammation and cellular transformation in cancer. A better understanding into the mechanism of ROS in cancer progression might be useful for the development of biomarkers and therapeutic strategies. The objective of this review was to summarize the roles of ROS in different stag...
Madeeha Arshad1, Asmatullah1, Chaman Ara1, Shagufta Andleeb2 and Naveed Ahmad3,*
... increase in intrauterine growth retardation and resorptions of fetuses, with increasing dose concentration, was also observed. Morphometric observations of fetal body parts like head circumference, eye circumference, forelimb and hindlimb size and tail length demonstrated a significant (P<0.005) decrease with increasing dose concentrations in comparison with control group. The fetal body weight and CR length reduced significantly (P<0.005) in all dose g...
Irshad Ali1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Abdul Waheed2, Ferhet Abbas Yousafzai1, Farhat Abbas Bokhari1, Majed Rafeeq1, Muhammad Ali1, Muhammad Adnan Attique1, Shahid Amin3 and Tahir Hameed1
... was found with regard to growth in these animals. The overall means for birth weight (B wt), and weights at 120 days, 180 days, 240 days, 365 days, 730 days and Pre weaning average daily weight gain (Kg) were 25.74±3.7, 101±6.70, 150±17.00, 163±6.8, 189±6.80, 475±21.17 and 0.71±0.13, respectively. Male had higher height at wither, chest girth and length compared to female (P<0.05). It is suggested that Bhag ...
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1, Muhammad Shakir Khan1, Muhammad Iqbal1, Imtiaz Ali Shah1,Sheeraz Ghani1, Amjad Ali2, Zubina Hameed1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3 and Tariq Ali1,3,*
...replacer to compare their growth performance and economics. The experiment was performed at Livestock Research and Development Station (LR&DS), Surezai, Peshawar for a period of 12 weeks. The calves were fed with milk replacer (10% of their live body weight) in two equal doses, one in the morning followed by an evening dose, until the end of 8th week. The average birth weight of AJC was 15.75±2.43 kg; while, it was 28.18±0.87 kg fo...
Hanif Ur Rahman1, Umer Saddique1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan1, Shakoor Ahmad1, Muhammad Kamal Shah1, Said Sajjad Ali Shah1, Farhan Anwar Khan1Fazli Rabbani2, Muhammad Asif Hussain2, Attaur-Rahman2, Irshad Ahmad3,4 and Sadeeq ur Rahman2,*
...re found positive for the growth of Mycoplasma. MM cluster specific PCR showed 49 (16.3%) samples were found positive, of which 34 (11.3%) were found positive for Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc) and 15 (5%) were identified as Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) by species specific PCR. Three samples were found positive both for Mmc and Mccp suggesting mixed infection. To the best of our kn...

Abdur Rehman and Zahir Shah 

..., enhanced plant and root growths of plants. These results suggested that application of both Mo and Fe is necessary for pea crop enhanced nodulation, N2 fixation, yield, nutrient uptake and for improved soil fertility 

...

G. Venkatesan* and Amit Kumar  

...cauliflower like external growth around mouth regions and rarely the lesions are found in other parts of the body and internal organs. Another characteristic feature of ORFV including other PPVs is the ability to re-infect the same host and conferring short term immunity in contrast to other pox viruses and also produce localized skin lesions in humans who are in contact with infected animals and their products. Unique and specific virulence genes located at t...
Kamran Khan1, Sarzamin Khan2, Nazir Ahmad Khan2,* and Naseer Ahmad2
...axseed supplementation on growth performance, carcass yield and meat quality of rabbits. Sixty indigenous rabbits were divided randomly into five treatment groups. The control group was fed on standard concentrate basal diet, whereas in the treated groups, the basal diet was supplemented with low (3.5%; LCF) or high (7%; HCF) level of crushed flaxseed and low (1.5%; LFO) or high (3%; HFO) level of flaxseed oil until slaughtering (day 90). Carcass fat depositio...

Fiaz Ahmad1, Mumtaz Hussain2, Ghulam Abbas1, Muhammad Jawad Asghar1 and Muhammad Rizwan3* 

...xt-align: justify;">Plant growth and development are adversely affected by different abiotic stress especially lead and water stress. Therefore, present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the response of two mungbean varieties to three different Pb2+ concentrations under two water stress conditions. Different morpho-physiological and yield traits were studied. Both varieties showed gradual reduction in morphological traits at increasing concentrat...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1,*, Ibrahim A. Alhidary1, Gamaleldin M. Suliman1,2, Abdullah H. Alyemni3, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady3, Faisal A. Alshamiry1,Mohsen M. Alobre1 and Riyadh S. Aljumaah1
...e traditional feeding, on growth rate, carcass and meat quality measurements of growing lambs. Twenty growing lambs, 3 month old, were selected and randomly distributed to four different treatments as a complete randomized design as follow: Barley grain and alfalfa hay (BA); TMR1 (25.67% NDF; low level); TMR2 (30.88% NDF; medium level-recommended); TMR3 (55.93% NDF; high level). A significantly higher (P<0.05) average daily gain and lower value for the feed...
Azmat Hayat Khan Khattak1, Abdul Wasay2, Tariq Ali1,*, Muhammad Iqbal1, Khisrao Kalim1, Mohammad Farooque Hassan3, Muhammad Mobashar2, Nazir Ahmad2, Abid Iqbal2 and Muhammad Nauman ul Islam1
...erent weaning ages on the growth performance of cattle calves to reduce ECM. Nine calves (Achai crossed Jersey) were randomly distributed into three weaning age groups viz., A = 90, B = 70, and C = 110 days. In group A, calves were fed with whole milk at 10% of live body weight (LBW) for 4-7 days after initial colostrum feeding at 10% of LBW. From 8-30 days they received milk at 10% LBW + calf starter ration (CSR). During 31 to 63 days, milk at 10% LBW ...
Safia Rehman1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1,*, Gerald B. Pier2, Iram Liaqat1 and Bushra Mazhar1
...as also observed that the growth of these resistant P. aeruginosa strains was significantly inhibited in the presence of Lactobacilli spp. and nanoparticles of silver, zinc and ferric oxide at a concentration of 12, 200 and 1µg/ml, respectively. This study may help in the development of chemotherapeutic methods against multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in chronic and acute lung infections. It provides a practical approach towards the ...
Muhammad Mobashar1, Muhammad Tahir1, Shahbaz Javaid2,*, Muhammad I. Anjum2, Insha Gul3, Nazir Ahmad1 andAbdul Sami1
...d with advancement in oat growth. Milk yield (Kg/day) from rations II was significantly higher (P<0.05) than rations I and III, while milk composition was not significantly affected. The DM yield of oat hay was significantly higher (P<0.05) at dough stage. It was concluded that good quality of oat hay and higher milk production could be attributed to the flowering stage of harvest maturity.
...

Muhammad Zahid1, Naeem Iqbal1, Sohaib Muhammad2*, Summiya Faisal3, Wajid Mahboob3, Makhdoom Hussain4 and Zaheer ud din Khan2 

...ify;">Restriction in crop growth and yield occurs when it encounters extreme water shortage. In order to reduce the adversities of drought, glucose was exogenously applied at various phenological stages on wheat variety “AARI-11” and desiccation tolerance potentials were assessed through growth, yield and physiological attributes. Glucose was supplied in various concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25 and 50 mM) as seed pri...
Nevran Eylem Akman Gündüz1,* and Özgür Özcan2
...he influence of the plant growth regulator gibberellic acid (GA3) on the hemolymph contents of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) was examined. G. mellonella larvae were fed with a synthetic diet. The effects of GA3 on the hemolymph content of these larvae were tested through a diet incorporation assay. Different concentrations (2, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1000 mg/L) of GA3 were added to the syntheti...
Xiaqing Chen, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...acts caused high mycelial growth inhibition and germination inhibition of S. shiraiana, with the inhibition value up to 80% and 90%, respectively. An apparent increase in mycelial growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner was observed when ethyl acetate extract and carbendazim were applied individually. The EC50 of T. hamatum ethylacetate extract or carbendazim in mycelial...
Dan Yü, Chuchu Li, Yü Huang and Zhen Huang*
...it S. sclerotiorum growth by production of toxic metabolites and mycoparasitism. In vitro bioassays were used to evaluate the efficacy of T. hamatum and difenoconazole alone or its combinations against S. sclerotiorum. The results showed that T. hamatum could infect and destroy the mycelia and sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum by mycoparasitism. The cell-free culture supernatant and ethylacetate extracts from T. hamatum<...

Malik Muhammad Yousaf1*, Muhammad Zeshan1,2, Mumtaz Hussain1, Muhammad Mohsin Raza1, Muhammad Jahangir Shah1, Bashir Ahmed1 and Sabir Hussain Shah3 

... its placement timings on growth and yield of raya. The experiment was laid out in the factorial arrangement within randomized complete block design (RCBD). Two sources of nitrogen i.e. urea and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) and three nitrogen placement timings i.e. ½ at rauni + ½ at flowering (T1), ½ at sowing + ½ at flowering (T2) and ½ at 1st irrigation + ½ at flowering (T3) were included in the experiment. Treatme...
Ali Karabayir1,*, Nazan ArifoÄźlu2 and Mustafa ÖÄźütcü3
...nto drinking water on the growth performance of three different chicken strains, Plymouth Rock, Australorp and Village (local mix-breed village chickens) was evaluated in the present study. Supplementation of disinfectant clearly improved the microbiological quality of chicken drinking water, by reducing the total bacteria, coliform and E.coli counts. On the other hand, disinfectant addition decreased feed and water intake of all chicken strains. Furthe...

Ali Sher1*, Khalid Naveed1, Gulzar Ahmad2, Ayub Khan1, Muhammad Saeed1 and Shah Masaud1 

...nt micronutrients for the growth and development of plant. Improving N availability to plants improve biomass production and also increase the shoot Fe content and accumulation of Zn in wheat plants. Experiments were conducted at the Cereal Crop Research Institute (CCRI) Pirsabak, Noweshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during 2014-15 and 2015-16 to study the response of wheat to N, Zn and Fe application. Treatments included three levels of N (90, 120 and 150 ...
Naeem Ahmad1,* and Zulqurnain2*
... study was to compare the growth performance of two GIFT strains (GIFT-Th, imported from Thailand; GIFT-Tw, obtained from a local hatchery) in two earthen ponds, fed with commercially available feed. Similar feeding regime and physical conditions were maintained for both treatments. It was found that there was no significant difference in final total length (TL) and standard length (SL) of the fish in both treatments (P>0.05). However, average monthly weigh...
Majid Hussain1, Syed Makhdoom Hussain1,*, Razia Iqbal2, Arshad Javid3, Muhammad Mudassar Shahzad1,4 and Muhammad Zubair-ul-Hassan Arsalan1
...utrient digestibility and growth performance of Catla catla fingerlings. MOLM based diet was sub-divided into one control diet (0% CA) and five test diets, each supplemented with 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% CA, respectively. Chromic oxide as an inert marker was added in the diets to determine nutrient digestibility. The fingerlings were fed twice daily at the rate of 5 % of live wet body weight on their respective diets. Supplementation of CA in MOLM based di...
Shoukat Ara1, Sheikh Adil2,*and Manzoor Ahmad Khan3
...Azolla cristata on growth, serum biochemistry and laying performance layer chicken, a study was conducted on 240 key stone golden layer chicks which were randomly assigned into five groups having three replicates of 16 each. Birds in control (T1) group were fed the basal diet, where as other groups the groundnut cake was replaced with 5 (T2), 10 (T3), 15 (T4) and 20% (T5) Azolla. The results ...

Muhammad Faheem Jan1*, Asad Ali Khan1, Waqas Liaqat1, Haseeb Ahmad1, Muhammad Dawood Ahmadzai1 and Wazir Rehan

...owed that crop phenology, growth, and yield of maize were significantly affected by both hybrids and potassium ratios. Maize hybrids and potassium ratios did differ in crop phenology (days to emergence, tasseling, silking, and maturity) and crop growth (single leaf area, leaf area index, and plant height) which resulted in different grain yield. Among hybrids DK-Garanon gave highest value for all the studied parameters as co...

Madiha Naz1, Qudrat Ullah Khan1*, M. Jamil Khan1, Obaid Ullah Sayal2, Asim Afridi3 and Aziz Ullah Sayal3 

... perishable fruit and its growth, yield and quality depends on the management practices. Tomato attributes were studied under controlled condition using manures and pressmud incombination with foliar spray of macro-nutrients and naphthalien acetic acid (NAA) and compared with inorganic soil applied fertilizers. The results of the study showed significantly higher number of branches, chlorophyll content in the treatment recieving inorganic fertilizers, the manu...

Muhammad Javed Iqbal and Muhammad Naeem* 

...howed positive allometric growth pattern while negative allometric pattern was observed in T4 and T0. The coefficient of determination (r2) was ranged from 0.888 to 0.989 in LWRs, expressing highly significant correlation (p<0.01). The variance inflation factor (VIF) was observed as: 17.86 (T1), 12.50 (T2), 01.79 (T3), 10.75 (T4) and 10.20 (T0); expressing multi-collinearity among morphometric variants and LWRs with change in diet compositions. Diets with d...

Safina Naz1, Khushbo Hussain1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2* and Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi3
 

...to define the efficacy of growth promoting substances which showed that foliar application of Naphthalene Acetic Acid, Salicylic acid (SA), combination of Naphthalene Acetic Acid & salicylic acid and orange oil extract on physical and chemical parameters gave significant response. NAA promotes vine length upto 12.66 feet while chlorophyll content was 72.50 SPAD Value, while fresh weight of leaves is 5.1g, dry weight is 0.41g, while fresh weight of fruit is...
S. Jalbani1, P. Khan2 and N.T.Narejo2,*and Y.M. Jalbnai3
...density and its effect on growth parameters of R. rita reared in cemented cisterns during June to August 2016. Three stocking densities with 10, 20 and 30 fish/1.25m2 cemented cisterns were maintained and growth of fish was observed. Significantly highest growth in terms of weight gain was recorded with density of 20 fish /cistern (26.4 g) as compared with cistern contain...
Shafaq Fatima*, Sumrin Sahar and Khalid Lone
...th Asia due to its higher growth, flesh quality and increased market demand. Present study investigated the seasonal variations in gonadosomatic index (GSI) and profiles of sex steroids such as testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), estradiol-17β (E2), cortisol (C), progesterone (P) and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17α-HP) during annual reproductive cycle under semi-arid climate conditions. GSI increased during March concomitant...

Abdur Rehman1* and Shad Khan Khalil2 

...of chemicals at different growth stages on canola growth and phenology during 2015-16 and 2016-17. The experiment comprised of four moisture levels (optimum water, 10%, 20% and 30% reduced irrigation water), three chemicals (salicylic acid 0.5mM, potassium nitrate KNO3 1% and methanol 20% v/v basis) applied at three different stages (bud formation, 20% flowering and 20% pod formation). The experiment was laid out in RCB desi...

Raza Ullah Khan*, Ahmad Khan, Mohammad Zameer Khan, Fayyaz Hussain and Sonia Saba 

... container. Data on plant growth parameters (plant height, biomass and grain yield) was collected at the end of the experiment taking as an average of the three replications. Nutrients such as K, P and selected micronutrients concentration in shoot and root were determined once after harvest of crop and shown as mean of three replications. Results showed that different combination of P yielded significant response in plant growth

Zulqarnain and Zafar Iqbal* 

...ium aphanidermatum showed growth inhibition (%) against the pathogen. Penicillium sp. showed maximum growth inhibition (63.85 ± 3.26 %) and its extract showed 9.20 ± 0.14 mm zone of inhibition at 1000 mg·L-1 against the Fusarium wilt. Based on its higher in vitro antifungal activity, in vivo screen house experiments were conducted. Plants given the treatment as Penicillium + Fusarium showed slight yellow...

Bushra Qadir1, Muhammad Asim2 and Mohammad Akmal1* 

... Nonetheless, its initial growth for stand establishment is a major issue. Treatments of the experiments were four alfalfa varieties (i.e. UCD, Dura, Vernal and Cuf 101) whose seed were treated with overnight in bio-extracts solution made of perennial tree leaves. The study compares early growth performance of alfalfa varieties for forage biomass production. The seed was soaked overnight (14 h) in extracts made from dry powd...

Ambrin Rajput* 

...ficant effect on chickpea growth and yield parameters. The maximum plant height (85.00 cm), pods plant-1 (43.8), seed index (455 g per 1000 grains), seed yield (1896.0 kg ha-1), total biomass (5205 kg ha-1), straw yield (31050 kg ha-1), protein (15.77%), shoot N, P and K (2.1, 0.3 and 1.3 %) concencentration and N, P and K uptake (95.3, 16.4 and 49.9 kg ha-1) were recorded by combined application of N, P and K fertilizer application. However, the minimum value...
Naila Chand1, Shamsullah1, Rafiullah1, Rifat Ullah Khan2, Muhammad Mobashar3, Shabana Naz4,*, Ebrahim Rowghani5 and Murad Ali Khan2
...gosaccharide (MOS) on the growth performance, weight of lymphoid organs and intestinal histomorphology of broilers during starter phase. A total of 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed into 3 treatments, designated as MOS-0, MOS-50 and MOS-100 having MOS at the rate of 0, 50 and 100 g/kg respectively. Each treatment was further replicated 3 times having 10 chicks per replicate. Treatment MOS-0 was kept as control and the birds in this treatment were fed...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
...144 h on wheat straw as a growth substrate. The growth medium has an important effect on lovastatin production. Effect of carbon and nitrogen supplementation was investigated due to their restrictive ingredients role. Best yield (49.3±15 mg/g) was achieved by P. spodoecus using lactose (Carbon source) and NaNO3 (Nitrogen source) under pre-optimize circumstances. Different C/N ratios were used ...
Farah Mansha, Abdul Rehman*
...tests, and showed optimum growth at 37°C and pH of 7. All the bacterial isolates showed highest enzyme activity at pH 7. Isolates H4 and M4 showed maximum enzyme activity at 55°C while H1 showed highest activity at 70°C. Chitinase activities exhibited by H1 and M4 are stimulated by the presence of Zn2+ ions, while the presence of Ni2+,Cd2+ and Cu2+ did not show any positive effect. However in H4, presence...

Umair Riaz1*, Muhammad Ali Kharal2, Ghulam Murtaza3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Sana Javaid4, Hina Ahmed Malik3, Humera Aziz3 and Zafar Abbas1 

...ses adversely upset plant growth and development via nutrient deficiencies, hormonal imbalances, ion toxicity as well as osmotic and oxidative anxiety. The most effective mechanism is the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites at cellular level which included organic compounds that help plants to cope with stress conditions by reducing the intensity of stress through enhancing antioxidants activities, detoxifying toxic ions, regulating the uptake of nutrients a...

Jafar Aqeel Naqi1, Abdul Mateen1, Dilawar Hussain2,*, Hafiz Muhammad Tahir2, Sajjad Hussain1 and Abuzar Tabasum1 

...atural feed ingredient on growth performance and immune response in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A total of 150 juvenile’s tilapia were taken randomly and divided into five experimental units (10 fishes per unit) with three replicates. Fish was hand feeded containing five different levels of garlic (T1, control) 2.5 (T2), 5.0 (T3), 7.5 (T4), and 10g/500g (T5) in powdered form. Fish we...
Tevfik Ceyhan1,*, Osman Samsun2 and Okan Akyol1
...estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters with standard errors were L= 55.74 ±26.75 cm, K= 0.28 ±0.42, and t0=-1.68 ±2.02. Natural, fishing and total mortality of the garfish were 0.47, 0.69 and 1.16, respectively. The current study revealed that about 68% of the fish caught were of size smaller than the first maturity length. In addition, exploitation rate was found to be higher than optimum. On the other wo...
Sajid Ali Khan1, Mazhar Hussain Ranjha1, Azhar Abbas Khan2,*, Muhammad Sagheer1, Amjad Abbas1 and Zeshan Hassan2
...data regarding mortality, growth regulation and repellency of T. granarium was observed. Repellency of plant extracts was tested using area preference method while for the growth regulatory potential of plant extracts, the adults insects were released in wheat grains treated with different concentrations of plant extracts. All the experiments were carried out in an incubator at 30±2áµ’C and 65±5% R.H usi...

Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar*1, Shahid Riaz Malik1, Waqas Ahmad2, Muhammad Sajid Mahmood3, Muhammad Jawad1, Muhammad Asadullah1, Ijaz Ahmad4 and Muhammad Imran1

...lications. Data regarding growth, yield attributes and yield were collected and analyzed. Considering the individual effect, results depicted that among genotypes G2 (NCM-13) exhibited significantly better performance as compared to G1 (NM-11) for most of the studied traits including yield. In case of planting times delayed sowing enhanced the maturity but July 05 reported best results especially for yield attributes like no. of clusters per plant, pods plant-...

Muhammad Kashif Asghar1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar1,2*, Shahid Riaz Malik2, Waqas Ahmad3, Sumaira Zareen4, Safdar Ali5 and Abid Ali6 

...trient required for plant growth and development. So a field study was conducted to explore the potential of boron seed priming on yield and quality of sunflower hybrids at Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The achenes of two different sunflower hybrids i.e. Hysun-33 and FH-331 were subjected to different priming treatments including hydropriming, osmopriming (with 1, 0.1 and 0.01 mM B) using boric acid as a source of B. The exper...

 *Muhammad Waseem1, Dost Mohammad Baloch1, Ghulam Khaliq1,
M. Rashid1, Qurban Ali2 and Mustajab A. Khan3

INTENSIFICATION IN BAMBOO (Bambusa bambos L.) TRAITS IN RESPONSE TO ORGANIC AND CHEMICAL NITROGEN ALONG THE COAST OF ARABIAN SEA
...t which effects the plant growth and development. To check the influence of nitrogen sources on bamboo traits a field experiment was conducted during 2014-15. Experiment were carried out using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with square system of transplanting which was consist of 3 repetitions contained a net field size of 4.5m to 4.5m. Experimental sites were 20 km away from the Arabian Sea with an altitude of 2m. The bamboo (Bambusa bambos L.) plant...

 Muhammad Akram and Faheem Aftab

THIDIAZURON INDUCES IN VITRO BUD BREAK AND SHOOT DEVELOPMENT FROM NODAL EXPLANTS OF ORTHOTROPIC SHOOTS OF MAIDENHAIR TREE (GINKGO BILOBA L.)
... shoot bud induction, the growth of shoot and callus formation was observed. Shoots were cut to prepare nodal explants (5-10 mm long), surface sterilized and inoculated on MS (Murashig and Skoog, 1962) medium supplemented with different concentration (0.001, 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1,2,3,4 or 5uM) of TDZ for 24 days. Highest bud break (100%) was obtained at 0.005 uM TDZ after 14 days of initial culture. The same cultures were further maintained and subseq...

 Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa Andleeb2, Bushra Mazhar1, Anum Imtiaz1, Shaukat Ali2*

Assessment of antibiogram and resistogram of pathogenic bacteria isolated from irrigated wheat field water
... as temperature and pH on growth of pathogens were also studied. Antibiogram and resistogram analysis were carried out through agar disc and agar well diffusion methods. Optimum temperature for growth of all bacterial strains was 37oC and pH 7 except Salmonella which had pH 6. Among all the antibiotics Oxacillin was less potent as three bacterial strains showed resistance against it while others antibiotics were more potent....

 Sumera Siddique1,†, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1*, Amtul Bari Tabinda2, Muhammad Irfan1

Screening of some agri-wastes for economical cultivation of Candida tropicalis SS1
...0%, 2.69% and 2.58%. Best growth of C. tropicalis SS1 was obtained in aqueous extracts of 2% WM peels and the yeast cells attained up to 33% protein content on dry weight basis. In 2% aqueous extract of WM, the yeast strain yielded maximum biomass up to 6g/L with corresponding absorbance(600 nm) of 3.49±0.05 after 48 h of incubation at 37 ºC, pH 7.0 and under non aerating conditions. These results indicate important biochemical attributes of the ab...

Durr-e- Samin Tahir*, Waqar Nasir, Sarah Bushra, Fatima Batool

Height trends in the population of Rabwah, district Chiniot, Pakistan and comparison with WHO standards
...ars which is the phase of growth and height
increase. Heights of the parents and siblings up to 25 are also recorded for further analysis. The R- Programming and
smoothing spline technique were applied to analyze the height trends of the collected data. The average height of
male adults is found to be 172cm (67.71" ± 3.98) and for females it is159 cm (62.55" ± 3.06).Comparison of male and
female height trend ...

 Haji Muhammad1, Zafar Iqbal1, Tanveer Akhlaq2

Length-weight, length-length relationships and condition factor of fishes of family cyprindae from the Indus River, Pakistan
...mine both
negative growth tendency in some fish species and positive growth tendency in other fish species. This study aimed
to incorporate some more information in the aquaculture sector of the country to depict the population conditions of
fish species in the Indus River.

...

 Mirfa Murtaza1, Sajid Abdullah1, Wardah Hassan1*, Khalid Abbas1, Huma Naz1, Muhammad Anjum Zia2

Studies on amylase and lipase activity in fishes fed with diet containing different feed ingredients
...owed significantly better growth performance than fish fed with rice
polish. The activity of amylase and lipase was higher in all fish species fed with corn gluten. Liver showed higher
amylase activity than the intestine, while the activity of lipase was higher in intestine. It was concluded that different
fish species respond differently to various feed ingredients. Therefore it is important to follow the acceptability and
digestib...

 Abir Ishtiaq, Muhammad Naeem*

Length-weight relationships and condition factor for farmed Catla catla (Hamilton, 1822) from southern Punjab, Pakistan
...owth (b= 2.87), isometric growth (b= 2.95) and positive allometric growth (b= 3.22) for fish fed 15 %, 20 % and 25
% crude protein respectively, and 3.04 for overall data. The results of the present study will contribute to the proper
management of this species in the farming system and can be used to fill a gap in the current knowledge in this area.

...

 Maleeha Manzoor1,2*, Ruijuan Ma2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabssum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1

Microalgal-bacterial consortium: a cost-effective approach of wastewater treatment in Pakistan
..., suitable for microalgal growth to deal with pollution control and production of animal/fish feed
and other valuable metabolites.

...

 Ihsan Ali1#, Asim Aslam1*, Habib-ur-Rehman2, Beenish Zahid3, Ishtiaq Ahmed1

Effect of fish oil on growth performance and immune response in experimentally infected broiler chicken with avian influenza virus H9N2
...gh
histopathology, growth performance and antibody response in H9N2 challenged
broilers. A total of 80 chicks were divided in to 4 groups A, B, C & D. Group A and
B were challenged with AI virus (H9N2) on 21 day of age, group B and C were
treated with 3% FO while group A and D were treated with cooking oil. For isolation
of virus, 21 samples were collected, out of which 8 (40%) were positive for H9. The
virus titer...

 Abdul Majid Khan*

Review report on mammalian dental defect (enamel hypoplasia) in different groups of mammals
...imal has faced during its growth and
development. It also points out the health status of a mammal during different
phases of its life span. The article outlines the dental enamel hypoplasia studies in
low and high crowned mammals. It also depicts the diversity in feeding habitat of
mammals having positive results for occurrence of this tooth malady. The present
review correlates the research studies that have been conducted ...
Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Tehseen Zamir3, Zahid Hussain1, Syed Shahid Ali4*
...n this study, the optimum growth conditions and lipolytic enzyme activity shown by the bacterial isolate (PCSIR NL-37) from the soil of Lahore (Punjab, Pakistan) are being reported. Lipolytic bacterial strains (100) isolated from soil and water samples from oil industry, mobile oil filling areas and kitchen wastages were screened on tributyrin agar and rhodamine agar plates. The strain PCSIR NL-37 was identified as Bacillus cereus following morphologica...

Ali Zohaib1*, Saima Yousaf1,2, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Tahira Tabassum1, Tasawer Abbas3, Wardah Muzaffar1 and Wasiq Ikram2 

...fficiency. However, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are cheap and excellent alternate and can be applied as seed inoculation to enhance nutrient use efficiency along with reduced nutrient losses. A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed inoculation viz. control (no treatment), Rhizobium japonicum (nitrogen fixing bacteria) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (phosphorus solubilizing bacteria) on growth...

Neelum Andaleeb1*, Munir Khan1, Syed Attaullah Shah1 and Rahmat Ullah2 

...f women participation for growth in livestock industry should be recognized in government plans and policies. Non-government organization, working for rural development, should be involved in provision of credit and livestock training facilities to rural women and encourage them to participate in livestock production and management. Access to credit will empower women in making pertinent livestock management decisions. Success of livestock venture will support...
Jun Yan Bai1,*, Yong Gang Zhao2 and Yu Qin Wang1
...e genes that control goat growth and explore SNP loci of GHRL genes, thus laying foundations for genetic marker of growth traits of goats. In this study, GHRL genes of black goat and Yaoshan goat were collected for PCR amplification. Polymorphism of goat species was tested by sequencing technology. Results demonstrated that there are two mutation sites (SNP loci) of the primer GHRL-2 in black goat and Yaoshan goat, which are...

Fouzia Tabssum1, Qamar uz Zaman2*, Yinglong Chen3,4, Umair Riaz5*, Waqas Ashraf6, Ambreen Aslam2, Nusrat Ehsan2, Rab Nawaz2, Humera Aziz7 and Shamim ul Sibtain Shah8 

...EC = 5.05 d Sm-1) for two growth seasons with or without 50 mM proline applied at seedling stage (15 days after transplanting, DAT), vegetative state (50 DAT) or at both stages. Results from pot experiment revealed that foliar applied 50 mM proline significantly improved the seedling growth under saline stress by reducing electrolyte leakage and improving the water related (relative water contents and water potential), and b...
Fatih Korkmaz1, Veysel Parlak2, Özgür Kaynar3, Arzu Ucar2, Gonca Alak1,* and Muhammed Atamanalp2
...The decrease in bacterial growth activity, physicochemical values (TVB-N, TBARS and pH) and prolonged shelf life in a natural preservative dependence were observed in the fillets. Generally all the test parameters, such as microbiological, physicochemical as well as the lowest mean values were identified in the coatings of the fillets with turmeric and cardamom (p<0.05). Control and quinoa groups resulted in increased number of bacteria and chemical values ...
Yan-Guo Han1, Xiao-Li Peng1, Kai Li1, Yu-He-Tian Zhao1, Xun-Ping Jiang2, Guang-Xin E1, Yong-Ju Zhao1, Jun-Hua Ye3, Li Xu3, Qin-Tao Zhao3 and Yong-Fu Huang1,*
...e vaccine and promote the growth of animals. This study investigated the enhancing effect of the fusion type of CpG motifs on SS DNA vaccine and growth of ram lambs. In this study, we constructed the ptS/2SS-asd plasmid, pCpG plasmid and the CpG-SS fusion type recombinant plasmid named ptCS/2SS-asd. Twelve ram lambs were randomly divided into three groups, namely, the treatment (Group T1, ptCS/2SS-asd; Group T2, pCpG ...
Farhat Iqbal1, Mohammad Masood Tariq2,*, Ecevit Eyduran3, Zil-e-Huma4, Abdul Waheed5, Farhat Abbas2, Muhammad Ali2, Nadeem Rashid2, Majed Rafeeq2, Asadullah2 and Zahid Mustafa2
...h for estimating the body growth of Mengali sheep breed of Balochistan, Pakistan. The parameters mature weight, integration constant, maturity rate and their credible intervals of four widely-used nonlinear sigmoidal growth models were estimated through Bayesian inference. Gompertz, Logistic, Brody and Von Bertalanffy models were fitted to average monthly body weight data of (n = 412) Mengali sheep from birth to 24 months of...

Nighat Seema1*, Muhammad Hamayun1, Husan Ara1 and Raham Sheer Khan

...e smooth medium for plant growth. Interestingly, the inoculation did enhance the extent of usage of organic compounds by the plants available in the soil and hence lowered the contents. During drought stress, ammonium ion concentration was increased in all endophytic treated soil except that of A. niger. Similarly, inoculation of endophytic fungi did also increased the value of soil nitrate ions in the range of 26.86±1.34~39.39±1.97 mg kg-1 with ...

Syed Said Badshah Bukhari1*, Ghulam Ali Bajwa2 and S. Shafiqur Rehman

...plusmn;1.95%. The highest growth in ring-width and intra-ring early wood formation was recorded during 1962-71, while that of intra-ring late wood formation was recorded during 2002-11. The impact of maximum temperature and minimum temperature on ring width was negative and highly significant (p<0.01) and of precipitation positive and non-significant (p>0.05). The study showed a negative growth response of annual
Asim Faraz1,*, Muhammad Younas2, Abdul Waheed1, Muhammad Yaqoob2 and Kashif Ishaq3

 

...akh Mahni, to examine the growth performance and hair mineral status of Marecha calves (Camelus dromedarius) reared under intensive (IMS) and semi-intensive management systems (SIMS). Twelve Marecha calves were randomly allotted to two comparable groups of 6, (3 ♂ and 3 ♀). First group animals were reared under IMS, fed concentrate @ 1 kg/h/d plus crop residues of gram (Cicer arientinum) ad lib while in second group, calves were reared...

Saima Yousaf1,2, Ali Zohaib2*, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum2, Tahira Tabassum2, Tasawer Abbas3, Sohail Irshad4, Usman Javed5 and Naila Farooq6 

...ent use efficiency. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can be applied to improve the growth and yield by improving nutrient availability to crop plants. A field experiment was carried out to determine the effect of seed inoculation with PGPRs on yield and quality of different genotypes of soybean. Seed inoculation treatments [control (no treatment), nitrogen fixing bacteria (Rhizobium japonicum) and phosphorus solub...

Salman Ali*, Inamullah, Muhammad Arif, Mehran Ali, Muhammad Owais Iqbal, Fazal Munsif and Arsalan Khan 

...ss adversely affects crop growth and yield. Water availability at critical crop growth stages reduces water losses and improves water use efficiency and yield of a crop. Potassium is a major plant nutrient required in large quantity by crops and has a significant role in increasing crop growth and yield by reducing the adverse effects of drought stress. Although a large quantity of potassi...
Muhammad Shabir Shaheen1, Shahid Mehmood1, Athar Mahmud1, Jibran Hussain1, Ahmed Sultan Jatoi2, Muhammad Yaqoob3, Sohail Ahmad1 and Arshad Javid4,*
Muhammad Tufail1, Naila Chand1, Rafiullah1, Shakoor Ahmad2, Rifat Ullah Khan2, Muhammad Mobashar3 and Shabana Naz4,*
...sults that improvement in growth performance, intestinal histomorphology and relative weight of lymphoid organs in broiler chicks during finisher phase was attributed to MOS at the level of 100 mg/kg.
...

Shamsher Ali1*, Muhammad Jamal Khan2, Zahir Shah2, Naveedullah3 and Abdul Jalal1 

Pingping Cang1, Mingming Zhang1, Guo Qiao1,Qirui Sun1, Dehai Xu3, Qiang Li1, Xinghua Yuan4 and Wenbin Liu2,
...ofloc technology (BFT) on growth, nutrition and economic profitability in mudflat fish aquaculture. A 60-d experiment was conducted in zero-water exchange BFT system. The results demonstrated that weight gain (WG), specific growth (SG) and survival in BFT group were 133.94%, 1.20% day-1 and 90.0%, respectively. In control group with a 1/4-1/3 daily water exchange, WG, SG and survival were significantly lower than ...

Aisha Siddiqua1*, Munir Ahmad1 and Nusrat Habib2 

...uirement to sustain wheat growth in Pakistan in future. Farmers are expected to receive significant positive benefits from the adaptation of the combination of strategies. Farmer’s adaptive capacity, farm size, access to credit and sources of information on climate change are significant drivers of adaptation to climate change. 

...

Najeeb Ullah1, Niamat Ullah Khan2*, Abdul Aziz Khakwani1, Muhammad Safdar Baloch1, Ejaz Ahmad Khan1, Farkhanda Khan3 and Zaki Ullah

... and fibre due to shorter growth phase and unsuitable environment, respectively. Thus it is concluded that the genotype, CIM-602 sown on April 15 suits well to the study area and had the potential to optimize cotton yield and quality in irrigated condition of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. 

...
Kalimullah Khan1,*, Hafsa Zaneb2, Zia Ur Rehman3, Hamza Maris4 and Habib ur Rehman1
...of phytase to enhance the growth performance in broilers and it will lay foundation for future research on poultry feed in Pakistan.
...
Ali Raza Jahejo1,2, Nasir Rajput2, Wen-xia Tian1,*, Muhammad Naeem2, Dildar Hussain Kalhoro2, Asmatullah Kaka2, Sheng Niu1 and Fa-jie Jia1
... the immunomodulatory and growth promoting effects of basil (Ocimum basilicum) and ascorbic acid in heat stressed broiler chicken. A total of 360 (Hubbard) one-day old broilers were reared under heat stress (38 ± 1°C) and randomly divided into three groups i.e. A, B and C as control, basil seed at 5g/kg and ascorbic acid at 200 mg/kg supplementation, respectively. Improvement of intestinal villus seen in basil supplementary group (P>...
Wen Chao Liu1,2, Kwan Sik Yun3 and In Ho Kim2,*
...acylglycerol (1,3-DAG) on growth performance, blood lipids profiles, relative organ weight and meat quality of broilers. A total of 512 male, one-d-old Ross 308 broilers with an average initial BW of 45.28 ± 0.81 g were randomly allotted to 4 treatments. Each dietary treatment consisted of 8 replicate cages, with 16 birds per replicate. The 4 dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based diets and supplemented with 0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15% 1,3-DAG, res...
Muhammad Usman Ahmadand Ikram-ul-Haq*
...f oxyrase also suited the growth of Bilophila wadsworthia because it reached maximum cell density OD600nm of 2.0±0.05 after 73 h of incubation. Whereas, in the presence of Cys-HCl Bilophila wadsworthia cells only achieved maximum OD600nm of 1.54±0.07 after 28 h of incubation. Cultivation studies of Roseburia intestinalis in the presence of oxyrase also exhibited noteworthy improvement in the yield of cel...
Hafiz Abdullah Akbar, Zafar Iqbal, Waqas Raza*, MuhammadUsman Ghazanfar and Salman Ahmad
...and salicylic acid on the growth of Penicillium digitatum causes citrus green mould by using 7 plant extracts alone and in combination with wax and 3 concentrations of salicylic acid alone and in combination with wax. The study revealed that in case of plant extracts maximum growth inhibition (35.90 %) was shown by Anar followed by Chabir (33.60%) and Garlic (29.16%), while minimum growth
Sakhra Mahmood1, M. Younus1, A. Aslam1, A.A. Anjum2, S. Umar3, Aamerzish Mushtaq3 and M.L. Sohail4,*
Song Jiang, Fa-Lin Zhou, Jian-Hua Huang, Qi-Bin Yang* and Li-Shi Yang
...gical preparations on the growth and stress resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae, different amounts of Bacillus and Lactobacillus bacteria were added to the L. vannamei aquaculture water during seeding. Seven groups were established and the microecological preparations were added every 5 d. Bacillus concentrations in the Y1, Y2 and Y3 groups were 10 ppm, 15 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively, and the Lactobacillus conce...
Yang Liu1, Jing-xin Mao2, Xiao-dong Wei2, Man Yi2, Xiao-long Zhang2, Ke Zheng3, Xian-xin Chen4, Guo-Ze Wang5 and Bing-bo Chen1,*
...n effectively promote the growth of animals and raise feed reward. It results in improving gut microbiota, promoting the digestion and absorption of nutrients, which significantly improved weight gain rate and the quality of external fur. It was suggested that BFA has a positive and effective effect on improving the nutrition of rats and promoting their healthy growth.
...

Mohammad Wasiullah Khan1*, Abdur Rab1, Roshan Ali2, Muhammad Sajid1, Faiza Aman1, Imran Khan3, Iqbal Hussain3 and Akhtar Ali3 

Tanweer Ahmed*, Kashif Saeed Khan and Mohammad Naeem 

... spending on agricultural growth in Pakistan. The relationship among agriculture value added per worker and public spending on education, health, road length, the number of tube wells in the agriculture sector, improved seed distribution has been estimated through various econometric approaches in the study. Pakistan’s agriculture growth has registered mixed trends from 1972 to 2014. Empirical evidence from developing ...
Madeeha Khalid and Amtul Jamil Sami*
...st 90% of the sequence of growth hormone gene family members is similar and prone to single nucleotide variations. The sequence variation occurring in the non-coding region of the GH-1 gene leads to altered transcriptional regulation causing various developmental defects in humans. In this report, we have analyzed a short sequence of ~200-240 bp spanning the proximal promoter and exon 1 (proximal portion) of the GH-1 gene to analyze the SNPs and allele frequen...
Naveed Ahmad1,*, P.J.A. Siddiqui1, Amjad Ali1, Khan Mir Khan2, Rafaqat Masroor3, Noor ul Akbar4, Muhammad Amin5 and Mohammad Attaullah6
...vel of dietary protein on growth performance, feed utilization, survival and carcass composition of yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus arabicus. Five semi-purified experimental diets were formulated containing 350 (P30), 400 (P35), 450 (P40), 500 (P45) and 550 (P50) grams of protein kg-1 of dry matter. Thirty healthy fish (20.94±0.81g initial weight) were stocked in each floating net cage (1.5m x 1.5m x 1.5m), with three replicates of e...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2

...ive partner of industrial growth. The purpose of the study was to analyze technical efficiency of Bt and Non-Bt cotton farmers in two core cotton districts Muzaffargarh and Rahim Yar Khan of Punjab, Pakistan. In this study, the stochastic frontier approach was employed for empirical analysis and multiple stages random sampling technique used for data collection of 400 Bt and Non-Bt cotton farmers for the year of 2012-13. The results of the study have indicated...
Alexus McLeod
...crifice as a principle of growth as well as metaphysical and ethical renewal, as demonstration of the interrelatedness of phenomena, and as an aspect of personal survival. 
...

Dilshad Ahmad1* and Muhammad Afzal2 

...asing overall agriculture growth and particularly the cotton production of cotton areas. The lower mean technical efficiency in both study areas is 0.78 and 0.72 indicates cotton is not produced at potential level due to technical inefficiency of cotton farmers. Policy measures of the study will supportive to extenuating the problems concerning to small farming community in securing farming institutional credit. 

...

 Amna Younus1,3, Mariam Faiz2 and Abida Yasmeen1,*

... negative human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (-ve Her2: 53%) hormonal status. Results also depicted that FokI and TaqI genotypic frequencies were significantly (P<0.001) distributed among women with different tumor grades and ER/PR status. FokI genotypic distribution was significantly associated (P<0.001) with different Her2 status whereas TaqI SNP was not associated with Her2 status. The study concluded that FokI...

 Xu Lijie, Obaid Ullah, Liu Haixing, Ihsan Ali, Zhongshu Li* and Nan-Zhu Fang*

... the reasons for the slow growth of mammalian preimplantation embryos. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) functions in the nuclear regulatory factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant pathways by binding to the promoters of antioxidant genes and regulates the expression of genes that associate with NADPH oxidase. To understand the role of PPARγ in the development of early embryos and define the mechanism responsible for the arrest in devel...

Saeed Ullah1, Muhammad Israr1*, Shakeel Ahmad2, Nafees Ahmad3 and Asif Yaseen

...rgrazing, over population growth, soil salinization, tillage erosion, poor land management practices and water degradation. The effects of LD were difficulty in farming, drought, desertification, increased the necessity for fertilizers, loss in livestock production, migration, poverty and economic backwardness. High land degradation was perceived by the farmers and having positive association with the socio-economic influences. There is a need for awareness ab...

Saqib Bashir* and Bashir Ahmad 

...ificantly increased wheat growth, yield and yield components. In case of green manuring, plots in which pigeon pea crop was incorporated at the age of 90 days showed maximum plant height (103.3 cm), thousand grains weight (45.2 g), biological yield (10199 kg ha-1) and grain yield (3641 kg ha-1) of wheat. The application of nitrogen at the rate of 120 kg N ha-1 significantly increased plant height (102.5 cm), thousand grains weight (43.8 g), biological yield (1...

 Sohaib Afzaal1, Usman Hameed2, Nasir Ahmad3,*, Naeem Rashid3 and Muhammad Saleem Haider1

...he lactobacilliafter 48 h growth in skim milk broth, while the least (12.131 mg/mL) was produced by pediococci. These LAB strains are being studied for their probiotic properties and good quality indigenous starter cultures from them are anticipated to be employed in food industry.

...
Iram Maqsood1,2,3 and Ke Rong *1,2
...lled sex ratio, promoting growth characteristics, population genetics, and organ preservation. In addition to this, the habitat restoration program committed to improving the quality and habitat area. The reintroduction project illustrated that A. Sinensis bred in captivity well adapted to wild habitat and successfully reproducing their offspring’s. Only healthy crocodiles were selected for release into the wild to renew natural populations. Chine...
Bibi Nazia Murtaza1,2, Azhar Qayum3, Shamaila Inayat Nadeem1, Naif Awdh Al-Maliki4, Abdulaziz Alamri4 and Abdul Rauf Shakoori2,5,*
..., downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway. Wild type KRAS is associated with EGFR-signalling activation. In normal physiological conditions, it is activated by upstream signals when the GTP is exchanged with GDP. Playing an important role in regulation of differentiation and cell growth, RasGTPases behave as genetic switches. This transient process of GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis beco...
Faiza Jabeen1,*, Bushra Muneer2 and Javed Iqbal Qazi3
...). The isolates exhibited growth with variety of nitrogen sources. Both thermophilic strains were grown on agro-dairy wastes to attain their cheap production by utilizing the wastes nutrients. Protein production was determined using 1% (w/v) of various agro-dairy wastes in production medium both with and without nutrients at pH 7.0 for 48 h at their respective suitable temperatures. They yielded enough thermostable protein suggesting their potential in product...
Sumreen Hayat1,6, Muhammad Hussnain Siddique2, Bilal Aslam1, Habibullah Nadeem2, Asma Ashraf3, Muhammad Saqalein1, Mohsin Khurshid4, Naveed Shahzad5 and Saima Muzammil1,*
...nd positive for microbial growth. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of K. pneumoniae isolates illustrated high resistance to ceftazidime (95.6%). Phenotypically,52.17% of K. pneumoniae isolates were found to be ESBL producers as observed by double disc synergy test while the tested ESBL genes were detected in 56.52% of isolates. The studyrevealed multidrug resistance phenotypes among K. pneumoniae isolates with higher prevalence of ESBL pr...

 Ping Zhang1,2, Yabin Pu1, Yu Zhang2, Jia Chen2, Kunfu Wang3, Qian Li3, Yujiao Sun3, Yuehui Ma1, Shuqing Jiao2,* and Weijun Guan1,*

...n were determined through growth curve analyses. MDSCs were identified by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR, and the immunofluorescence antibody invoved Sca-1, CD34, CD144, Desmin and CD45 which are the makers of MDSCs. Finally, MDSCs were induced into Adipocytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes and neuron-like cells by the optimized inducing medium. After the two-step digestion and differential attachment technique, high purity MDSCs were successfully cultured. MDSCs w...
Muhammad Nasir1,*, Ata-ul-Mohsan2, Munir Ahmad2, Shafqat Saeed3, Muhammad Asif Aziz2, Muhammad Imran4 and Umer Ayyaz Aslam Sheikh4
...e initial stage of colony growth like pre-oviposition period and emergence timing of the first worker were observed best at 28 and 30 ºC. Number of workers produced in the first brood and in the total lifespan of the colony was also observed higher at 28 ºC. Higher number of progeny queens was produced at temperature treatment of 30 ºC. Therefore, 28-30 ºC temperature exposure to the post-hibernated queens was found the best for artificial ...

Javed Asghar Tariq1*, Bashir Ahmed2, Manzoor Ali Abro2, Muhammad Ismail1, Muhammad Usman Asif1 and Raza Muhammad1 

... ability to enhance plant growth as well as to have antagonistic effect against another pathogenic microflora. Current studies were designed with the aim to search out such type of antagonistic bacteria from rice crop. For this purpose, soil was collected from rice growing areas of Tando Jam. The isolation from rhizospheric soil was done by dilution plate technique. Among isolated isolates, 6 representative colonies were purified, multiplied and characterized ...

Hamid Ali, Muhammad Arshad, Ibad Ullah Jan, Muhammad Zamin*, Junaid Khan, Ikram Ullah and Mushtaq Ali 

...ecommended for increasing growth and flowers in tuberose. 

...
Farhat Iqbal1, Abdul Waheed2,*, Zil-e-Huma3 and Asim Faraz2
...e parameters of nonlinear growth functions used for modelling the body weight of farm animals. Gompertz, Brody, Von Bertalanffy and Logistic growth models were employed on the basis of nonlinear least squares and Bayesian methods. Using the monthly body weight data of 2070 weight records of Thalli sheep from birth to 24 months of age for both sexes (male and female) and type of births(single and twin), the estimates of param...

Fraza Ijaz1*, Umair Riaz2, Shazia Iqbal3, Qamar uz Zaman4, Muhammad Furqan Ijaz5, Hina Javed1, Muhammad Amjad Qureshi1, Zuhra Mazhar3, Ahmad Hassan Khan6, Hassan Mehmood7 and Ijaz Ahmad8 

...d helps in improving crop growth. Physiological precursors are also used in association with rhizobium because of their higher solubility in water, continuous providence of hormones as well as low cost. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of Rhizobium, with and without Tryptamine on growth and yield parameters of Berseem. Total of eight treatments was planned to conduct an experiment. Results revealed that the nodu...
Muhammad Ahmad, Zohaib Noor*, Karim Johar Khan, Waqar Younas and Ajmal Hussain
...lting in the reduction of growth in other fish species in the polyculture system.
...
Nursinatrio and Rudy Agung Nugroho*
...M) supplementation on the growth, feed efficiency, survival rate and carcass composition of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp). A group of red tilapias (initial weight 24.09 ± 0.05 g) were fed 3, 6, 9 and 12% HCFM as a supplement and compared to a control group without supplementation. After 84 days, growth parameters such as body weight gain (BWG), average weekly gain (AWG), daily weight gain (DWG), specific
Yuyu Wang, Gangchun Xu*, Zhijuan Nie, Quanjie Li, Nailin Shao and Pao Xu*
... of stocking densities on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, digestive enzymes activity and antioxidant status of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) reared in an in-pond raceway system (IPRS). Fish (initial average body weight: 35.68±2.12g) were randomly allotted to in-pond raceways (26.2m×5m×2.5m) stocked at two stocking densities (68 and 114 fish/m3, respectively). Fish were fed twice daily (08:00 and ...

Aliya Ayaz, Gohar Ayub, Maqsood Khan* and Syed Aizaz Ali Shah 

...significant effect on the growth and yield of bitter gourd. Gibberellic acid concentration at @ 60 mgL-1 significantly reduced days to emergence and days to first flower, while increased germination percentage, number of fruits plant-1, fruit length, fruit weight, plant height, yield plot-1, total yield and survival percentage. In case of dipping durations, seeds dipped for 18 hours significantly reduced days to emergence and days to first flower, while increa...
Wang Zaigui1,*, Guo Panpan1, Ye Miao1, Sun Linghong1, Zhang Hongfu2 and Liu Chaoliang1,*
...ch replication. Different growth parameters and cocoon parameters were measured at each stage of silkworm. With the aim to investigate the supplemental effects of B.subtilis on growth performances, cocoon quality and amylase activity of silkworm, Bombyx L, we got the following results: (1) In the larval duration of 3rd instar silkworm, average weight gain (AWG) and feed conversion ratio (RFC) were not signifi...
Shamsudin Bojang1, Idris Abd Ghani2, Jugah Kadir1, Adamu Saidu Paiko1, Yasir Iftikhar3 and Muhammad Kamran3,4,*
...ted based on the sparsely growth and chlorotic appearance of the greens. A total of 36 soils and roots sample were collected. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to identify the parasitic nematode. Both the field symptoms and SEM micrographs confirmed that the nematode isolate was M. graminis. Since this nematode has been known to damage the greens and other plants in other part of the world then the probability for the specie to adapt to other ...
Muhammad Shoaib Saleem* and Muhammad Faheem Akbar
...neonicotinoids and insect growth regulators (IGRs) may be exploited as eco-friendly approach in crop pest management. We therefore, evaluated the effectiveness of nitenpyram, Clothianidin, Momentum (Mixture of Nitenpyram and Chlorfenapyr) and Buprofezin against brinjal whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Genn.). The crop was grown in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replicates each having five treatments with control. Pre-treatment data were co...
Lichao Feng1,2, Shaoqing Zhang4, Dianyuan Chen2, Sina Adl3 and Donghui Wu1,4*
...d between flower and corn growth stages in the field because food resources and foraging behaviors stimulated and restrained the acquisition of supplemental nutrients as a strategy for reproduction. To evaluate their food choices, wireworm were exposed to different types of plants associated with their farmland habitat, as follows: mixed pollen and nectar of flowers (Erigeron annuus, Trifolium repens, Heteropappus hispidus, Potenti...

Shakeel Ahmad Anjum1, Sami Ullah1*, Muhammad Mohsin Raza2, Mohsin Raza1, Muhammad Abbas3, Ijaz Ahmad4, Malik Muhammad Yousaf2, Muhammad Zeshan5, Adeel Abbas1, Mehmood Ali Noor1 and Mohsin Nawaz1 

...">Boron (B) affects plant growth and development by influencing vital processes like cell division, cell wall formation, water relations, meristematic tissue growth, carbohydrate metabolism, and pollen tube growth which suggests plausible effects on all these activities due to its deficiency. Therefore, a field trial was set up to assess the efficacy of different levels (control, 0.01 M an...
Muhammad Afzal1, Nighat Sultana1, Ali Hassan1, Syed Zakir Hussain Shah2,*, Mahroze Fatima3, Syed Makhdoom Hussain4, Muhammad Bilal5 and Majid Hussain2
...earch project studies the growth performance, muscle proximate composition and nutrient digestibility performance by rohu (Labeo rohita) juveniles fed citric acid (CA) acidified phytase (PHY) pretreated soybean meal (SBM) based diet.Basal SBM based diet was supplemented with two levels of CA (0 and 2%) and two levels of microbial PHY (0 and1000 FTUkg-1) in factorial arrangement resulting in the formulation of four experimental diets. Chromic ...

Imdad Ali Mahmood1, Muhammad Imran2, Muhammad Sarwar1, Matiullah Khan1, Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar2, Shoaib Ahmed1 and Shahid Riaz Malik

...ication alongwith PGPR on growth and yield under rain-fed conditions at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad during 2016-17. Split plot design (main plots with and without inoculation and Zn application in sub-plots) with three replications was followed. Agronomic data i.e., plant height, pods per peduncle, seeds per pod, 100-seed weight, total biomass and grain yield were recorded. Plant samples were collected at maturity to determine Zn co...
Syeda Shazia Bokhari*, Ghashia Qayyum, Uzma Rafi and Aisha Waheed Qurashi
...ese strains showed ptimum growth at pH 7.0 and temperature 37â—‹C. In the finally formed vermicompost water holding capacity, soil pH and aggregation changed positively by EG4. The results of the present finding showed positive impact of inoculation on vermicomposting in the presence of L. terrestris. This is beneficial for improving soil fertility and aggregation.
...

Abdul A. Mirani1,2*, Chee H. Teo2, Adel A. Abul-Soad3, Ghulam S. Markhand1, Tahira Jatt1, Ameer A. Mirbahar1,4, Najamuddin Solangi

..., 2) excessive vegetative growth, 3) production of deformed offshoots and twisted inflorescence, 4) abnormal frond growth, 5) low levels of fruit setting and 6) inflorescence absent. Among the six different variant phenotypes, complete reversion of phenotypic abnormalities for the phenotypes of inflorescence absent, low level of fruit setting, production of deformed offshoots, and abnormal frond grow...
Rana Waqas Arshad1, Asim Aslam1, Muhammad Saeed Imran1, Kamran Ashraf2 and Raheela Akhtar1,*
...ete protection and better growth performance of broiler industry.
...

Asad Ullah Khan1, Wiqar Ahmad1*, Amir Raza2, Farmanullah Khan3 and Muhammad Sharif3 

...ponsible for variation in growth, yield and nutrients uptake performance. This research investigated the survival and growth efficiency of the 10 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under sand culture including Batoor-2007, Barsat (NRL 0320), Fakhr-e-Sharhad-99 (FS-99), Tatara-96 (WS 395), Paktunkhwa-15 (PR-103), NIFA Lalma (NRL 0517), Pirsabak 2013, NIFA Insaf (NRL 0707), Shahkar-2015 and Pirsabak 2015 (PR-105). Pots wer...

Muhammad Affan Khan* and Abdur Rab 

...e of plant spacing on the growth and seed production of okra varieties was studied at the Horticulture Farm of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during spring seasons of the years 2012-13. The research experiment was conducted using RCB Design with 2 factors and 3 replications. Five okra varieties viz. Sabz Pari, Arka Anamika, Pusa Sawani, Punjab Selection and Green Star were grown at three plants spacing i.e. 20, 30 and 40 cm and were evaluated for

Umar Hayat1, Khalid Khan2, Saima Liaqat3* and Balach Rasheed

...n in rainfall on economic growth in different provinces of Pakistan. Results show that low rains over the period of time have adversely affected the production, employment, and supply chain of crops. Furthermore, to avoid the adverse effects of climate change in the future, it is suggested to plant more trees and arrange different types of awareness campaign through print media and electronic media. It is also recommended to conserve water through the construc...
Tariq Mukhtar1,* and Muhammad Arshad Hussain2 
...significant reductions in growth variables and increases in nematode infestations of both the cultivars over their controls. With an increase in inoculum level, the magnitudes of reductions in shoot weight, root and shoot lengths and increase in root weight also increased and were found to be positively correlated with the inoculum levels. Likewise, the numbers of galls and egg masses also showed positive correlations with the inoculum levels. Contrarily, a gr...

Zafar Abbas1*, Muhammad Mubashir1, Umair Riaz1, Zeenat Javid1, Muhammad Ashraf1, Saeed ur Rehman1, Muhammad Javid Qamar1, Syed Ali Zulqadar1 and Shahzada Munawar Mehdi2 

...ton ha-1 compost). Plants growth and yield parameters were determined like the total number of leaves per plant, plant height, fruit length, root and shoot dry weight, fresh fruit weight, the total number of fruits per plant, fruit yield and total yield increase. No significant increase was observed in the yield and growth of okra under control and full NPK fertilizer treatment. Application of organic fertilizers like poultr...

Sadaf Rahim and Mudassar Iqbal* 

...or decreased depending on growth conditions. For these reasons a Trichoderma harzianum was selected for its growth optimization conditions and extraction of insecticidal compounds effective against two major insects pests including Diuraphis noxia and Tribolium castaneum. The pure fungal strain of Trichoderma was grown using two different nutrient media including Glucose Peptone Yeast Broth (GPYB) and Potato Dextrose Broth (...

Muhammad Shafique, Nosheen Noor Elahi*, Muhammad Rashid, Amjad Farooq and Kausar Hussain Shah

...il problem limiting plant growth and development. Application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is effective against this stress. Mung bean is an important crop that is used as food. Present experiment was conducted under natural environment to evaluate the effect of PGPR on biomass production, nitrogen and proteins percentage of four mung bean varieties under different NaCI levels in sand culture after 5,7 and ...

Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

June

Vol. 35, Iss. 2, Pages 320-662

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits


Subscribe Unsubscribe