Asma Noshad1, Mudassar Iqbal1*, Zafar Iqbal1, Hamida Bibi2, Saifullah3, Salma Bibi4, Hamid Ullah Shah1

...fruit bodies, mycelia and fermentation filtrate obtained from Pleurotus ostreatus also known as the oyster mushroom. The percent mortality of Macrosiphum rosae (rose aphids) and the LC50 values were calculated and used as an indicative of insecticidal potential. The maximum mortality of aphids was achieved at 80 µg mL-1 and the LC50 for the fruit body extract after 24 HRS was calculated as 12.83μg mL-1, foll...

Ali Muhammad*, Muhammad Ayub

...ing brine treatment, fermentation take place which significantly convert the oleourepean into simple sugar and decreased during treatment process. Lye solution penetrates inside the msesocarp and than endocarp during four weeks of treatment process. The lye treated olive fruits were treated afterwards into brine solution for the next week and so on which gradually remove the bitter taste of lye solution and got salted taste during four...

Nighat Sultana1,2,*, Shazia Iftikhar1, Nafeesa Qudsia Hanif2 and Iffat Tahira2

...aize fodder using a model fermentation system and raw materials from different areas of Punjab, Pakistan. A. niger, A. flavus and A. fumigatus were the most dominant followed by A. terrus and A. ochraceous in fresh and ensiled maize fodder. Total fungal counts ranged from 1×103 to 4×103cfu/ml for all species in both fresh and ensiled maize fodder. Total aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) analysis showed that AFB1was prese...

B. Ramanujam, R. D. Prasad, S. Sriram and R. Rangeswaran

Mass production, formulation, quality control and delivery of Trichoderma for plant disease management
...ma spp. viz., solid state fermentation and liquid state fermentation. In solid fermentation, the fungus is grown on various cereal grains, agricultural wastes and byproducts. The solid state production is highly labour intensive and fit for cottage industry. These products are used mainly for direct soil application in nurseries/main fields to suppress the soil-borne inoculum. In liquid st...
Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1*,Ibrahim Alhidary1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Rifat U. Khan3, Abdel Raouf S. Bello4, Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2 and Ramzi A. Amran1
...gnificant change in rumen fermentation patterns as a result of increasing the intake level of NDF from the alfalfa hay. This shift in the fermentation pattern may positively affect the rumen environment and consequently growing lambs’ health and productivity.
...
Rahat Naseer1*, Abu Saeed Hashmi1, Zulfiqar-ul-Hassan2, H. Rehman1, Saima Naveed1, F. Masood1 and M. Tayyab1
...kali, water treatment and fermentation to prepare processed moiety on pilot scale. All these processed materials were included in experimental ration at a fixed level (20 %). All iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous rations were offered to experimental animals (n=36, 22 male 14 female Lohi sheep almost evenly distributed in experimental groups) having almost uniform body weight (BW). During 60 days of the trial, no significant difference (p =0.067) in the daily fee...
Ibrahim A. Alhidary1,*, Mutassim M. Abdelrahman1, Riyadh S. Aljumaah1, Abdullah H. Alyemni2, Moez A. Ayadi1,3 and Mohamed Y. Al-Saiady2
...haracteristics, microbial fermentation and growth performance.
...

Jawad Anwar* and Zafar Iqbal 

..., media of pH 5 and light fermentation.The EtOAc extract exhibited the minimal value of MIC (10.41±4.50 µg/mL) against gram negative E. coli, while its acetonitrile fraction yielded (6.50±2.25 µg/mL) of MIC against S. aureus. Hence, it is revealed from the results that T. harzianumis a potential source of antibiotic drugs as it showed a wide range of bioactivity against both phyto and human pathogenic bacteria.  

...
Sidra Iqbal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Fouzia Tabbsum1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...noculum size in submerged fermentation for 24h. Results showed that among these two treatments, only chemical treated substrates gave better enzyme yield as compared to chemical followed by steam. The highest FPase (2.526 IU/ml/min) activity was found at pretreatment conditions of 0.6% NaOH conc., 10% biomass loading and 4h reaction time while CMCase (2.803 IU/ml/min) at 1% NaOH conc., 15% biomass loading and 6h of reaction time. The proposed model was found h...

Fatima Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3, Fouzia Tabbsum3, Javed Iqbal Qazi3
 

...ubtilis K-18 in submerged fermentation at 50 °C for 24 h. Results revealed that acid pretreatment was found more effective for cellulase production as compared to thermochemical pretreatment. The maximum CMCase activity was 1.757 1U/ml/min under conditions of 0.6% acid concentration, 10% substrate concentration, and resident time of 4h. The maximum FPase activity was 2.015 1U/ml/min under conditions of 0.8% acid concentration, 10% substrate concentration, ...

 Bushra Mazhar1, Nusrat Jahan1, Nazish Mazhar Ali1, Saiqa andleeb2, Shaukat Ali2*

...h conditions and suitable fermentation medium, E. hormaechei can be used at an industrial level as producer of vanillin. Bioconversion of waste residues of rice bran oil to vanillin by bacterial strains is of greater interest nowadays. Bioproduction of vanillin is not only considered natural but also safe for human health.

...
Muhammad Naeem1, Bushra Sadia1,2,*, Faisal Saeed Awan1and Muhammad Anjum Zia3
...included CSL 6%, 24 h. of fermentation, pH 7.5, 37oC, KH2PO4 0.04%, K2HPO4, NaHCO3 0.15% and 0.015% CH3COONa. The results indicated that UV is the most effective mutagen for hyper-production of SK. Mutant strain UV6 has the potential for enhanced SK production with commercial applications.
...
Xiaopeng Tang1,3, Rong Xiang1, Sijia Chen1,3, Shufen Yang1,3, Hu Liu1,3, Rejun Fang1,3,* and Aike Li2,
...s to study the effects of fermentation and enzymatic hydrolysis treatment of cottonseed meal on crude protein (CP), water-soluble protein (WSP), amino acid (AA) and peptide fractions, and the AA digestibility and metabolic energy of fermented cottonseed meal (FCSM) and enzymatic hydrolyzed cotton seed meal (EHCSM) in white leghorn roosters. Firstly, CSM were fermented with Aspergillus niger, or hydrolyzed with alcalase and flavourzyme. Secondly, a total...
Shahzad Mahmood1, Memuna Ghafoor Shahid1, Muhammad Irfan2, Muhammad Nadeem3*, Quratulain Syed3
...n this study, solid state fermentation of potato peels were done by Aspergillus niger for the production of α–amylase. The crude enzyme produced was further characterized. The results showed that enzyme had an optimum pH of 6.0 and stable in range of 4.0-6.0. Optimum temperature of enzyme was 40oC and attained 96% activity at 40oC for 70min. Metal profile showed that α-amylase activity was enhanced in the pre...
Noor Fatima1, Muhammad Irfan2,*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1, Javed Iqbal Qazi1
...s carried out for 24 h of fermentation period at temperature of 50oC. Results showed that cellulase production was greatly affected by the thermochemical pretreatment as compared to the chemical pretreatment. At the pretreatment condition of 1% H2SO4 conc, 6h residence time, 15% substrate concentration maximum CMCase production (0.858 IU/ml/min) was obtained while at pretreatment conditions of 1% H2SO4 con...
Jun Chen1, Shuai Shang2, Xiaoyang Wu1, Jiakuo Yan1, Huaming Zhong1, Huanxin Zhang2, Weilai Sha1, Wanchao Zhu1 and Honghai Zhang1,*
...aterial through microbial fermentation in the hindgut. So far, there has been no study of the gut microbiota of the cape oryx. Here, we provided the first description of the fecal bacterial populations of the cape oryx by using high-throughput Illumina sequencing technology. We analyzed 100,180 high-quality sequences of the 16S rRNA gene obtained from fecal samples from three cape oryx animals, one female and two males. At the 3% level in our research, we foun...
Changqing Zhao*, Zhuochi Chen and Yubin Li
...roteases) produced during fermentation, and increased the amount of free amino acids and flavored compounds. In these ways, the meat texture and taste were improved, and digestion and absorption were enhanced.
...
Ammara Afzal1, Tazmeen Fatima1, Maham Tabassum1, Muhammad Nadeem2*, Muhammad Irfan3, Quratulain Syed2
...n separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. Fungal strains of Saccharomyces cervisae, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma koninji and Trichoderma harzianum was used for subsequent process using saw dust as substrate. Three major processes convert lignocelluloses to bioethanol i.e. pretreatment of biomass, enzymatic hydrolysis of raw material ...
Tahira Jamil*1, Mohammad Asghar1, Fatma Husain1, Haq Nawaz Bhatti2
...e, pH, inoculums size and fermentation time (each at five levels) were optimized using central composite design (CCD) design in 30 triplicate experimental runs. The maximum statin formation (19 mg/g) was achieved at 25oC, pH 5.5, inoculums size 3.5 mL and fermentation time 144 h on wheat straw as a growth substrate. The growth medium has an important effect on lovastatin production. Effect of carbon and nitrogen s...

 *Irum Javed1, Muhammad Asgher2, Sadia Noreen1, Humara Naz Majeed1 and Tanzila Sahar1

SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FOR CITRIC ACID PRODUCTION USING AGRICULTURE RESIDUE AS SUBSTRATE
...illed by biotechnological fermentation using agro-industrial wastes. It is a bidirectional beneficial process for cost effective manufacturing of citric acid and management of agro-industrial waste products. This project was carried out in order to evaluate the enhanced production of citric acid by Aspergillus niger using agro-industrial wastes. In the first step of study the liquid state fermentation (LSF) and solid state

 Haniya Mazhar1, Naaz Abbas2, Zahid Hussain3, Amir Sohail4, Syed Shahid Ali4*

Extracellular lipase production from Bacillus subtilis using agro-industrial waste and fruit peels
...of lipases by solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial wastes as substrate. A total of 14 bacterial strains were isolated, screened and compared for lipase production. Among the evaluated strains, Bacillus subtilis strain NL-39 was selected on the basis of best lipase production. The maximum enzyme activity (34.93 U/ml) was shown by B. subtilis using SSF with soya bean meal. The lipase production by other low cost agro-industrial waste, including s...

 Mohsin Arshad1, Muhammad Irfan*2, Asad-Ur-Rehman1, Muhammad Nadeem3, Zile Huma3, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir4, Quratulain Syed3

Optimization of medium and substrate for CMCase production by Bacillus subtilis-BS06 in submerged fermentation and its applications in saccharification
...mn; 0.32 IU) after 48h of fermentation period at 37oC with
agitation speed of 140 rpm by using medium components III (M-III) and also
medium M-IV. The highest enzyme production was observed in the following order;
sugarcane bagasse > wheat straw > rice husk, wheat bran > soybean meal >
corncobs. The crude CMCase enzyme was applied for saccharification of
agricultural wastes and maximum saccharification (11.45%) wa...

 Raazia Kiran1, Alya Riaz1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir2

An overview of pre-treatment methods used for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomasses into valuable products
...reatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation.
The pre-treatment method involves the use of different physical processes i.e., size
reduction, steaming or boiling, ultrasonication, and bursting, chemical methods i.e.,
solvents, acids, salts, bases, the physicochemical processes include liquid hot
water and AFEX (ammonium fibre explosion), biological methods involving whiterot/
brown-rot fungi and bacteria, and quite a few combinatio...
Umar Farooq Gohar1, Hamid Mukhtar1,*, Ali Nawaz1, Ikram-ul-Haq1 and Asad Mehmmood2
Yang Liu1, Jing-xin Mao2, Xiao-dong Wei2, Man Yi2, Xiao-long Zhang2, Ke Zheng3, Xian-xin Chen4, Guo-Ze Wang5 and Bing-bo Chen1,*
...n were increased in mixed fermentation BFA group significantly than the control group (P<0.05). For feed conversion rates in each group, the mixed fermentation BFA group had the highest feed efficiency, increased by 10.04% than the control group, followed by the yeast BFA group, with an increase by 4.14%. The mixed fermentation BFA group and lactobacillus fermen...

 Sohaib Afzaal1, Usman Hameed2, Nasir Ahmad3,*, Naeem Rashid3 and Muhammad Saleem Haider1

... was carried out by sugar fermentation tests. These strains were further analyzed for their ability to produce lactic acid. Overall, Leuconostoc mesenteroides was found as pre-dominant group (41.1% prevalence) among LAB strains in the isolated food samples. Some opportunistic pathogens were also isolated from these media. Among the tested strains maximum amount of lactic acid (26.457 mg/mL) was produced by the lactobacilliafter 48 h growth in skim milk ...
Ghalia Nawal1, Muhammad Irfan2*, Saira Ashfaq3, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir1    
...nvolves Sub-merged liquid fermentation in fed batch manner using agricultural wastes. Bacterial lipases are preferred due to their extra cellularity, easy step down approach and practicability of increased productions via technological modifications. They have wide- ranging applications in diverse sectors of the food, medical, cosmetic, detergent sectors and in paper industry which establishes their irrefutable noteworthiness. 
...

Azeem Haider1, Muhammad Mohsin Alam2*, Azhar Ali Khan3 and Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar3

...ndicated that the optimum fermentation medium in shake flask studies contained a carbon (glucose 4%), nitrogen (0.5% ammonium chloride), inoculation level (three disks, 0.5 cm in diameter), temperature (30 °C), incubation period (at 7 days) and initial pH 5.0. Under these culture conditions, the maximum level of xylanase activity (9.29 Uml-1), CMCase (7.37 Uml-1), laccase (13.57 Uml-1) and effluent decolorization (69.68 %) were observed on 7th day during s...
Qiuxia Lei1, 2, Haixia Han1, 2, Jinbo Gao1, 2, Yan Zhou1, 2, Wei Liu1, 2, Chunlei Wang3, Jie Liu1, 2, Dingguo Cao1, 2, Huimin Li1 , Baohua Huang1,* and Fuwei Li1, 2, *  
...s (P), potassium(K)in the fermentation process. Poultry litter, sawdust and rice husk were mixed in equal quantities by volume. One was treated with a single strain of Bacillus; another was treated with a consortium of bacteria comprising several species; and the third kept as the control without adding any bacteria. The results showed that decomposition started earlier in the treated batches than in the control group. During the
Muhammad Suleman1,*, Abu ul Hassan Faiz2, Muhammad Shahbaz2 and Ayesha Riaz3
...on of xylanase. Submerged fermentation was carried out in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks using vogel’s medium at 35°C for five days. UV irradiated A. niger has significantly increased the xylanase production as compared to parent strains. Twenty minutes exposure of A. niger was considered suitable for the production of xylanase. Wheat bran concentration (3.5%) was considered best substrate for xylanase production than corn cobs and sugarcane ...

Sohaib Afzaal1,4*, Usman Hameed2, Nasir Ahmad3, Klas Udekwu4, Paulina Pastuszek4 and Muhammad Saleem Haider1 

... of these strains in food fermentations is future prospect of the study. 

...
Fizza Anwar1, Muddassar Zafar1*, Zahid Anwar1, Raja Tahir Mehmood2
...d Tautomycetin. Different fermentation parameters were optimized to produce antimicrobial agents using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and best results were obtained at 45°C temperature, 5.5 pH, 5 mL inoculum concentration, 1.5 mL banana peel as substrate and 20 days incubation time. The antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites was tested against Streptococcus aglactaie, Streptococcus pyogene, Escherichia coli and Prot...
Sobia Nazir1, Muhammad Irfan1*, Muhammad Nadeem2, Hafiz Abdullah Shakir3*, Muhammad Khan3, Shaukat Ali4, Quratulain Syed2
...production in solid state fermentation (SSF) using seed pods of Bombyx ceiba as substrate. Three parameters were used such as inoculum size (1, 5.5 and 10%), medium volume (1, 3 and 5ml) and incubation period (3, 4, 5 days) to observed the maximum activity of cellulase using Box-Bhenken design of response surface methodology. Maximum activity of CMCase (0.700 IU/gds/min) and FPase (0.260 IU/gds/min) was observed on 4th day with inoculum size ...
Awais Bin Shahid1, Moolchand Malhi1,*, Saeed Ahmed Soomro1, Muhammad Giasuddin Shah2, Nazeer Hussain Kalhoro3, Asmatullah Kaka4, Rajoo Mal1, Muhammad Awais Soomro1Saba Parveen Samo1 and Muhammad Nawaz Sanjrani5
Elmas Ulutaş1,*, Abdullah Eryavuz2, Aziz Bülbül2, Abdur Rahman3,*, İsmail Küçükkurt4 and Cangir Uyarlar5
...aining high zinc on rumen fermentation, blood parameters, live weight and oxidative status in goats. In this study, twenty four male Angora goats each of 12 months of age, and weighing approximately 35 kg were divided into four groups as: control group (C) fed with basal diet containing 31.76 ppm Zn, experimental group 1 fed with basal diet supplemented with 500 ppm Zn, experimental group 2 fed with basal diet supplemented with 750 ppm Zn and experimental grou...
Xuhui Zhang1, Zhiyuan Sun2, Jinfeng Cai1, Guibin Wang1, Zunling Zhu1, Linguo Zhao3 and Fuliang Cao1,*
...(FR) products produced by fermentation using Aspergillus niger on growth, antioxidant capacity and meat quality of broilers. Three hundred day-old commercial Arbor Acres (AA) broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 5 dietary treatments including five variations: control group, fed with the basal diets; NF group, the addition of 3 g/kg NF products; FR1, FR2 and FR3 groups, addition of FR products 1 g/kg, 3 g/kg and 6 g/kg, respectively. There was no ...
Renlong Lv1*, Ken-Ichi Horiguchi2, Shin-Ichi Tagawa3, Shoichi Ichihara4 and Norio Yoshida
...ver function, and ruminal fermentation in sheep fed heat-treated jatropha meal. The experiment was performed twice (experiment I and II). The subjects were 6 wethers. They were divided into two treatments (rapeseed diet and jatropha diet) randomly and were tested by using a cross over method. Rapeseed meal and jatropha meal were relaced to the feed as a concentrate with proportion of 5% in experiment I and 10% in experiment II. The ingestion rate of sheep fed ...
Sikander Ali* and S. Wajiha Khalid
...ity at pH 6 after 72 h of fermentation (158±0.39 U/ml). The partial purification of the enzyme was done with ammonium sulphate (20-80 %) followed by dialysis which resulted in 21 % purification from the crude enzyme extract. The molecular weight of enzyme was found to be 86 kDa, as determined by SDS poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis. 
...

S. Ahmed† , L. Yue, Q. Liu and H. Jian

Evaluation of media for mass production and fermentation of Pseudomonas spp. for integrated management of cereal cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae)
... was made to optimize the fermentation and mass production of Pseuodomonas spp. Among all the media compositions, the suitable media containing carbon and nitrogen sources were found as media No.9 (Corn flour 50g/L, Glucose 8g/L, Soybean Cake Powder 20g/L, Wheat bran 20g/L, NaCl 4g/L) followed by No.10 (Corn flour 40g/L, Soybean Cake Powder 30g/L, Yeast Extract 5g/L, Wheat bran 20g/L, NaCl 4g/L, KH2PO4 5/L, MgSO4 1.5g/L), No.08 (Corn flour 17g/L, Glucose 10g/L...

 Muhammad Irfan*, Saeed Gul*, Mohammad Younas*, Babar Nawaz*, M. Ishfaq*, M. Amir Durrani*, Abid khan*

FERMENTATION OF SUGARCANE MOLASSES BY SACCHARAMYCES CEREVESIA: EFFECTS OF OPERATING PARAMETERS ON ETHANOL PRODUCTION
...verted to ethanol through fermentation process. A pilot plant has been designed and fabricated to investigate the effect ofprocess parameters for the sustainable production of ethanol from sugar cane molasses. The effect of various experimental paramet...
Tehmina Aslam, Shagufta Saeed*, Muhammed Tayyab, Huma Mujahid, Ali Raza Awan, Sehrish Firyal and AbuSaeed Hashmi
...ld of PHB was obtained by fermentation of 4% (w/v) wheat bran after 48 h of incubation with 4% (v/v) inoculum volume at pH 7.0 and 37oC. Among different nitrogen sources tested, 0.2% peptone gave the better yield (285 mg/100 mL), while yeast extract decreased the amount of PHB. The outcomes of the present data indicate that agricultural wastes can be used for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate that will help in the solid waste management.<...
Tehreem Zahra1, Muhammad Irfan1, Muhammad Nadeem2, Misbah Ghazanfar1, Qurratulain Ahmad3, Shaukat Ali4, Farzana Siddique5, Zarina Yasmeen6, Marcelo Franco7
...as substrate in submerged fermentation by response surface methodology has been investigated. Three variables like substrate concentration, peptone and KH2PO4 were optimized at three levels. The optimum carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) activity and filter paper cellulase (FPase) activity was obtained after 96 hours of incubation with optimum conditions of media containing 5% substrate concentration, 0.05% peptone and KH2PO4...
Ye Ge1, Chunmiao Zhao1, Weitian Xie2, Ying Liu2,* and Chunhou Xu1,*
...t. After 7 generations of fermentation, the average pH value was 4.47. The average number of colonies in the culture medium was 18.4. The production of protoplasts lays a foundation for research in microecological preparation.
...

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 53, Iss. 3, Pages 801-1200

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