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The Efficacy and Persistence of Spodoptera littoralis Nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) Applied in UV Protectants against the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under Saudi Field Conditions

The Efficacy and Persistence of Spodoptera littoralis Nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) Applied in UV Protectants against the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) under Saudi Field Conditions

Sukirno Sukirno1,2, Muhammad Tufail1,3,*, Khawaja Ghulam Rasool1Said El Salamouny1, 4, Koko Dwi Sutanto1 and Abdulrahman Saad Aldawood1

1Economic Entomology Research Unit (EERU), Plant Protection Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11450, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2Entomology Laboratory, Faculty of Biology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
3Organization of Advanced Science and Technology, Kobe University, Japan
4Department of Economic Entomology and Pesticides, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

*      Corresponding author: mtufail@ksu.edu.sa; mtufail.ksu@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT

Baculoviruses are known biocontrol agents of several crop pests, however, their activity is deteriorated rapidly when exposed to the sunlight. Many UV protectants were used to improve the efficacy of these viruses under field conditions. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plant extracts to improve the persistence of Spodoptera littoralis multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) against beet army worm, Spodoptera exigua(Hübner) under harsh sunny field conditions in Saudi Arabia. A preliminary test of SpliMNPV was performed to determine the lethal concentrations of this virus against the first and second larval instar of S. exigua. The potency of ten plant extracts as UV absorbers were done by measuring the absorption spectra of the 0.5% extracts using UV spectrophotometer. Based on preliminary data, clove, green tea and henna extracts at 10% (v/v) concentration were added to the virus and tested under semi-field conditions on the cabbage plantations for 7 days. The preliminary experiment showed that the LC50 and LC95 for the first instar larvae were 1.59 x 103 PIB and 4.91 x 107 PIB, respectively. Whereas, these values for the second instar larvae were 4.99 x 106 PIB and 1.06 x 108 PIB, correspondingly. The field experiment data indicated that the mortality of the first instar larvae was highest at day 0 of the sunlight exposure. In virus alone treatments, after 7 days of sunlight exposure, the efficacy recorded was 88%. However, in clove-virus treatment, the mortality was higher (96%) than other treatments. These data also revealed that the second instar larvae were more resistance than the neonates. The efficacy of SpliMNPV at 0 and 7-day against the second larval instar was 88% and 5%, respectively. In clove-treated applications, the mortality was was 96% and 32%, at 0 and 7 d post treatment, respectively. Findings of this study demonstrated that the addition clove extract enhanced the effectiveness and persistence of SpliMNPV under arid conditions against the beet armyworm.
 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 50, Iss. 5, Pages 1601-1998

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