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Enamel Hypoplasia Analysis in Giraffids to Compare Stress Episodes in Geological History of the Siwaliks of Pakistan

Enamel Hypoplasia Analysis in Giraffids to Compare Stress Episodes in Geological History of the Siwaliks of Pakistan

Rana Manzoor Ahmad1,2, Abdul Majid Khan1,*, Ghazala Roohi3 and Muhammad Akhtar1

1Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Quaid-i-Azam Campus, Lahore, Pakistan
2Department of Zoology, University of Sargodha, Lyallpur Campus, Faisalabad, Pakistan 
3Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Islamabad, Pakistan

*      Corresponding author: majid.zool@pu.edu.pk

 

Fig. 1.

A, hypothetical tooth demonstrating the process of enamel formation (Goodman and Rose, 1990; Franz-Odendaal et al., 2004); B, diagrammatic representation of giraffid molar. The vertical arrow indicates the direction of crown development (addition of enamel) from tip to base.

Fig. 2.

Distribution of the Siwalik deposits in different areas of Pakistan.

Fig. 3.

Comparison of percentage for occurrence of EH in giraffid species in different epochs of the Siwaliks of Pakistan.

Fig. 4.

EH in giraffid species of the Siwaliks: a, Progiraffa exigua; b, Giraffa priscilla; c, Giraffokeryx punjabiensis; d, Giraffa punjabiensis; e, Bramatherium megacephalum; f, Bramatherium grande; g, Sivatherium giganteum.

Fig. 5.

Comparison of EH in giraffid species having different chronological distributions in the Siwaliks of Pakistan, Red areas in figure indicate the geological time for occurrence of EH in these species (Data for events and ages is taken from Barry and Flynn (1990), Barry et al. (2002), Dennell et al. (2006) and Lisiecki et al. (2007)).

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 49, Iss. 6, Pages 1937-2341

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