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Spatial Distribution and Diversity of Bird Communities in District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Spatial Distribution and Diversity of Bird Communities in District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Asif Sadam1*, Rahmat Ullah Khan1, Sajid Mahmood1 and Juma Gul2

1Department of Zoology, Hazara University, Mansehra, 21300, Pakistan
2Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Ecology of Tropical Islands, College of Life Sciences, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, China
*      Corresponding author:


Maintaining biodiversity in urbanized landscapes is the top most conservation priority. Urban development results in an increase in local extinction rates and eliminates the majority of native species. The pattern of rainfall is changing and frequency of extreme events increasing due to urbanization and rapidly increasing average global temperature. These changes are having observable impacts on biodiversity at species level and ecosystem level, in terms of distribution, composition and function. Mardan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has different habitats; it represents a useful ecological model to identify the effect of habitat heterogeneity on bird communities. We conducted the study to explore the local avian fauna and to compare its composition and diversity in different habitats. Bird species were identified employing point counts method in urban area; agricultural area with small forest chunk and water body. Twenty four point counts were plotted in three well-defined locations such that each location was divided into eight concentric rings of 10 m radius from 0-50 m with an onward interval of 50 m. Thirty five avian species belonging to 23 families and 10 orders were recorded. However, One Way Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) indicated significant (P < 0.05) differences in distribution of avian species among habitats. Results suggest that urban area fails to maintain high bird diversity than the adjacent agricultural area. The agricultural area showed the lowest proportion of exclusive species compared to urban area and water body, even though the heterogeneous aspects of the area favor local species richness.


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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 54, Iss. 4, Pages 1501-2001


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