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Prevalence and Serological Detection of Spiroplasma citri, a Cause of Citrus Stubborn Disease in Southern Punjab, Pakistan

Ummad ud Din Umar1, Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi1*, Ishfaq Ahmed1, Ateeq ur Rehman1, Muhammad Asif Zulfiqar2, Sibghat Ullah3, Shah Pasand4, Zehri Khan3 and Abdur Rehman5

1Department of Plant Pathology, BZU, Multan, 60800, Pakistan; 2PARC, Research and Training Station, BZU, Multan. 3PARC, Horticulture Research Institute, Khuzdar, 4PARC, Social Sciences Research Institute, Quetta, 5Plant Protection Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

*Correspondence | Syed Atif Hasan Naqvi, Department of Plant Pathology, BZU, Multan, 60800, Pakistan; Email:


Spiroplasma citri, a fastidious pathogen, is considered as the main cause of Citrus little leaf disease (Citrus stubborn disease) which is not only responsible for the low citrus production in terms of quality and quantity but also moving the citrus industry to down fall in citrus growing areas throughout the world. Current research was organized to study the distribution of disease using the serological based detection methods by conducting a comprehensive survey in various districts of Southern Punjab. The results of the survey and serology of CSD showed that this destructive disease which causes symptoms mostly similar to citrus greening is present in all areas of South Punjab. Layyah, and Multan showed maximum incidence of CSD with “11.66” and “5.66%” respectively while least incidence was observed in District Bhakkar (03%) and District Khanewal with (02%) incidence. Sweet orange and grape fruit depicted themselves as susceptible ones showing maximum disease with “18.33” and minimum “02%” respectively. Kinnow mandarin and feutral’s early appeared as resistant cultivars against CSD infection in all the surveyed areas. Small acorn shaped, lopsided fruit and leaves with shortened internodes were appeared to be characteristic disease symptoms in Citrus stands of Southern Punjab.


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Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research


Vol. 34, Iss. 2, Pages 254-493


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