Phenology, Crop Stand and Biomass of Wheat in Response to Farmyard Manure and Soil Amendments
Anjum and Ahmad Khan*
The stimulated decomposition of farmyard manure (FYM) through soil amendments is considered to improve the nitrogen (N) availability and hence the crop biomass. With this view, the four soil amendments [i.e. No-amendments, Min-N (30 kg N ha-1), humic acid (2.5 kg ha-1) and effective microbes (200 L Mg-1 of FYM)] were added to five levels of FYM (i.e. 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 Mg ha-1) and their impact were quantified in terms of wheat phenology, crop stand and biomass during two years studies (2016-17 and 2017-18). Min-N was provided from urea, humic acid from “humic plus” a commercial product having 40% humic acid, and effective microbes from “bioaab” a commercial product having beneficial microbes like bacteria, yeast and actinomycetes. Average over years, the maximum days to anthesis (126 days), physiological maturity (154 days) and enhanced emergence (9 days) were observed with 20 Mg FYM ha-1. The emergence m-2 (126), leaf area tiller-1 (107 cm2), plant height (96.5 cm) and biomass (11783 kg ha-1) were improved with 20 Mg FYM but were non-significantly different from plots having 15 Mg FYM ha-1 over two years averaged data. Among the amendments, greater days to anthesis (126 days) and physiological maturity (154 days) was noted with effective microbes over two years. Similarly, the addition of effective microbes has increased the emergence m-2 (123), leaf area tiller-1 (105.6 cm2), plant height (96.6 cm) and biomass (11386 kg ha-1). The physiological maturity delayed when FYM increased from 0 to 20 Mg ha-1 and applied with effective microbes. However, using >10 Mg FYM ha-1 has no differences in emergence m-2 across the amendments. In conclusion, the addition of effective microbes can enhance crop stand and biomass when added with 15-20 Mg FYM ha-1.