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Nesting and Breeding Success of Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) in Orchards, Parks and Agricultural Fields in Renala Khurd, District Okara, Punjab, Pakistan

Nesting and Breeding Success of Red-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) in Orchards, Parks and Agricultural Fields in Renala Khurd, District Okara, Punjab, Pakistan

Muhammad Zohaib1, Muhammad Sajjad Ansari1*, Bushra Allah Rakha2* and Ali Akhter2

1Department of Zoology, Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, College Road, Township, Lahore-54000, Pakistan 
2Department of Wildlife Management, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi-46000, Pakistan

*      Corresponding author: m.sajjad.ansari@gmail.com, bushrauaar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Nesting and breeding success of red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) were studied in orchards, parks and agriculture fields in Renala Khurd, district Okara, Punjab, Pakistan. A total of 69 nests were located in the study area; breeding activity was observed in 51 active nests. The successful nests for breeding activity were recorded in parks (46%) followed by orchards (28%) and agricultural fields (27%). Highest percentage of successful nests was found on forks (48%) while nests on middle, terminal and other positions of plants were recorded as 17%, 10% and 25%, respectively. The preferred height for nest construction was recorded 1-2m (58%) followed by 2-3m (17%), 0-1m (16%), 3-4m (7%) and 4-5m (1%). The bulbul prefers to make nests on northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis; 32%) followed by guava (Psidium guajava; 19%), mango (Mangifera indica; 9%), white mulberry (Moris alba; 9%), sweat orange (Citrus X sinensis; 9%), babul (Vachellia nilotica; 7%), banyan (Ficus bengalensis; 4%), weeping fig (Ficus benjamina; 3%) and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera; 3%). The highest number of nests were recorded with clutch size 3 (87%) followed by 2 (11%) and 4 (2%). A total of 154 eggs were observed in 51 nests, from which 10% eggs were infertile, 19% were predated and other losses counted 4%. A total of 104 eggs under observation were hatched, from which 28% chicks were predated and 6% fell out from the nest. The fledgling success was the highest in parks (65%) compared to orchards (25%) and agricultural fields (10%). It is concluded that bulbul preferred to construct nests on northern white cedar in parks. Moreover, breeding success was higher in parks compared to orchards and agricultural fields.
 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

February

Vol. 54, Iss. 1, Pages 1-501

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