This paper summarizes the natural enemies of major sugarcane pests and their roles in natural control in sugarcane growing regions in Yunnan. In general, these natural enemies can be divided into two groups: parasites and predators. The dominant species include Apanteles flavipes (Cameron), Sturmiopsis inferens Townsend and Trichogramma sp., which parasitize the sugarcane borer; Synonycha grandis (Thunberg), Lemnia biplagiata (Swartz), Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) and Thiallela sp., which prey on Ceratovacuna lanigera Zehntner; and Euborellia pallipes Shiraki, Orius (Heterorius) minutus (Linnaeus) and Scymnus (Neopullus) hoffmanni Weise which preys on Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cocherell), Baliothrips serratus Kobusand Trochorhopalus humeralis Chevrolat. Protecting these natural enemies will encourage natural control of pest species while protecting the environment and maintaining ecological balance. Moreover, through enhanced comprehensive pest control, sustainable development of the sugar industry will be promoted.