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Muscular Tissue Bioaccumulation and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Two Edible Fish Species (Gudusia chapra and Eutropiichthys vacha) in Padma River, Bangladesh

Muscular Tissue Bioaccumulation and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Two Edible Fish Species (Gudusia chapra and Eutropiichthys vacha) in Padma River, Bangladesh

Dil Afroza Khanom1, Amirun Nesa1, Muhammad Abu Sayed Jewel1, Muhammad Ayenuddin Haque1, Alok Kumar Paul1, Sonia Iqbal2, Usman Atique2,3*, Lubna Alam4

1Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh
2Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan 
3Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, South Korea
4Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI), School of Environmental & Natural Resource Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 UKM BANGI, Selangor, Malaysia

Corresponding author: Usman Atique
physioatique@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

This study investigated edible and commercially valuable fish species viz. Gudusia chapra and Eutropiichthys vacha, for the muscular tissue bioaccumulation of selected heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Mn) and their human health risks. A total of 50 fish species (25 individuals each) were examined from the Padma River, Bangladesh, and subjected to heavy metals presence and loads by detection after wet digestion of samples. The results displayed the hierarchy of average levels of the targeted metals in G. chapra in declining order of Zn (14.37) > Cu (12.63) >Mn (1.39) > Cr (0.64) >Pb (0.38) > Cd (0.03 mg/kg) whereas, Zn (11.89) > Cu (11.18) >Mn (1.69) > Cr (0.52) >Pb (0.19) > Cd (0.01 mg/kg) in E. vacha. The t-test indicated significant differences (P<0.05) between Pb and Zn, while, the inter-species relationships were not significant for the other metals investigated. The estimated average daily dose (ADD) intake remained below the reference dose as recognized by the international guidelines of WHO, FAO, and USEPA. Furthermore, the hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) outcomes labelled a non-carcinogenic threat to the consumers. In conclusion, this study provides useful insights into the identification of potential risks of these commercially valuable fishes to the continuous consumption of fish flesh originating from a contaminated water body may lead to heavy metals toxicity leading to mental retardation, kidney tissue damages, cancerous cell growth, and even death in case of chronic exposure. 
 
Novelty Statement | The different metal uptakes displayed inter-species variations. The estimated daily dose remained below the reference doses as well as hazard quotient and hazard index do not pose carcinogenic threat to consumers. However, continuous consumption of fish flesh from contaminated resources may lead to metal toxicity in case of chronic exposure.
 

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Punjab University Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 35, Iss. 1, pp. 1-165

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