The impacts of temperature on oxygen and energy metabolism in the hepatopancreas of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were investigated via the effects of thermal stress on superoxide anion (O2-) production, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione (GSH) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration, as well as nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) concentration catalyzed by NOS. Based on biochemical analysis of the above, results showed that O2- production could be induced significantly after cold stress at 15°C and heat stress above 30°C. SOD activity showed a similar changing profile as the concentration of O2- after thermal stress between 15°C and 30°C, and GSH concentration increased significantly under both high and low temperature. The NOS activity and concentration of NO catalyzed by NOS increased significantly after heat stress. The ATP concentration increased significantly after both low and high temperature stress, but returned to the control level after 8 h of recovery. Thus, low and high temperature stress could lead to oxygen metabolism disorder in the hepatopancreas of P. monodon, which might induce antioxidant enzyme responses. Our findings suggest that SOD and GSH might play different roles in the response of the shrimp to low and high temperature, whereas NO might play an important role in the induction of many signaling pathways in response to thermal stress. Additional ATP was also produced after cold and heat stress, suggesting that more energy was required to cope with temperature extremes. Our findings indicate that temperature stress led to oxygen metabolism disorder, possibly due to the temperature being beyond the oxygen- and capacity-limitation of thermal tolerance of P. monodon. Oxygen metabolism disruption might also impact energy metabolism and other physiological activities in P. monodon.