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Identification of Influencing Factors for Optimal Adoptability of High Efficiency Irrigation System (HEIS) in Punjab, Pakistan

Identification of Influencing Factors for Optimal Adoptability of High Efficiency Irrigation System (HEIS) in Punjab, Pakistan

Hafiz Umar Farid1, Muhammad Zubair2, Zahid Mahmood Khan1, Aamir Shakoor1*, Behzad Mustafa1, Aftab Ahmad Khan3, Muhamad Naveed Anjum4, Ijaz Ahmad5 and Muhammad Mubeen

1Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan; 2National Engineering Services (Ltd.) Pakistan (NESPAK); 3Global Change Impact Studies Center, Islamabad, Pakistan; 4Division of Hydrology Water-Land Resources in Cold and Arid Regions, Cold and Arid Region Environmental and Engineering Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000, China; 5Center of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering (CEWRE), University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan; 6Department of Environmental Science, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus-Pakistan-61100.  


High efficiency irrigations systems (HEIS) are considered the most efficient technologies to apply water to the crops because these technologies use less irrigation water and produce more yield as compared to conventional irrigation methods. However, the most burning issue of these systems is their non-adoptability or low adoptability by the farming communities, despite their proven benefits. It was highly desirable to analyze and evaluate certain parameters which keep systems functional as well as ensure adoptability of these systems at farmer’s fields. A total of 30 sites were selected randomly in Punjab province of Pakistan where HEIS were installed. Twelve parameters were selected based on the survey conducted that influenced the HEIS functionality as well as adoptability. The selected parameters were also ranked based on their influencing order such as net economic return, deployment of operator, literacy status, farming mode, pumping mechanism, backup support, system type, energy source, tenancy status, farm location, groundwater quality and farming experience because these parameters have significance coefficient values of 0.471, 0.342, 0.169, 0.163, 0.142, 0.110, 0.076,0.071,0.046, -0.037, -0.116, -0.212, respectively. The analysis indicated that parameters such as farm location near the head reach, groundwater quality and long farming experience showed negative impact on adoptability of HEIS in the study area. It was also observed that high economic returns, deployment of operator, farmer’s training and presence of farmer at his farm are the gateway towards the success of these systems. The present study provides guidelines for the policy makers as well as farmers for sustainability of installed HEIS and up-scaling of these water saving techniques for the welfare of mankind. 


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Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Vol. 36, Iss. 2, Pages 374-733


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