Goat (Capra hircus) stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) plays a crucial role in fatty acid metabolism including milk and muscular fatty acid. This study investigated the expression of SCD1 gene in goat and examined its inheritability and expression in transgenic SCD1 mice and goats. Our results suggested the possibility of generating transgenic goats by sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT). The expression of SCD1 gene and fatty acid metabolism genes in goat mammary gland tissues and muscular tissues was aligned with GEO database, and tested by qRT-PCR. F1 transgenic mice were mated and then the target genes and protein expression level in F2 transgenic mice, as well as fat content in F1 and F2 transgenic mice muscle were examined. Successful transgenic goats generation was identified by testicular injection. The results showed a developmental time specific SCD1 expression in the goat mammary gland tissue and muscular tissue. The rate of positive expression of exogenic gene and exogenic protein in F2 transgenic mice was 30% and 6.67%, respectively, Moreover, muscular fat content in the positive group was significantly higher than the control group both in F1 and F2 (P > 0.05). The rate of positive expression of exogenic gene and exogenic protein was 10.29% and 8.82% in the transgenic goat by testicular injection. Results of the present study showed that SCD1 gene plays a crucial function in goat fatty acid metabolism, and that SCD1 can regulate fat synthesis in SCD1-transferred mice and be inherited stably. Also, SCD1-transferred goat could be generated through testicular injection, suggesting a practical approach for transgenic livestock breeding.
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