Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are innate immunity proteins that are conserved from insects to mammals, recognize bacterial peptidoglycan, and function in antibacterial immunity and inflammation. Mammals have four PGRPs (PGLYRP1, PGLYRP2, PGLYRP3 and GLYRP4). They are secreted proteins expressed in different tissues. It is significant to make a study of human PGLYRP1 because neutrophils are a more dominant mechanism in human host defense. Related research results show the functions of human PGLYRP1 in the innate immunity of neutrophils is to conducive to the killing of intracellular and extracellular bacteria. Bactericidal activity of human PGLYRP-1, PGLYRP-3, PGLYRP-4, and PGLYRP-3:4 for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria require Zn2+. In addition, for killing of Gram-negative bacteria, Zn2+ cannot be replaced by other cations, but for killing of Gram-positive bacteria, Zn2+ can be partially replaced by Ca2+, which have been proved. Then, the effect of human PGLYRP1 on several human diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, ST-elevation myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, skin melanoma and renal carcinoma) have been reviewed. Taken together, these results indicate that human PGLYRP1 encodes an innate immunity protein that breaks down the structure of microbial cell wall, plays a role both in antibacterial defenses and several inflammatory diseases.