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Genotypic Variability and Heterotic Effects in Rapeseed for Important Traits

Genotypic Variability and Heterotic Effects in Rapeseed for Important Traits

Wajid Khan* and Raziuddin 

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

wajidagri@gmail.com  

ABSTRACT

Pakistan is facing huge shortage of edible oils and its imports cost nearly 3 billion US dollars each year to feed 220 million people. This situation demands serious efforts to develop new lines/ hybrids with better yields. Rapeseed is the second largest contributor in domestic edible oil industry. Keeping in view the lower yield of rapeseed in Pakistan especially in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa this study was conducted to investigate genetic variability and heterosis in eight rapeseed genotypes for maturity, morphological and yield traits. The eight parental genotypes i.e., AUP-01, AUP-05, AUP-07, AUP-08, AUP-10, AUP-13, AUP-18 and AUP-21 were crossed in full diallel fashion to generate 56 F1 crosses. These parental genotypes and their F1 hybrids were evaluated during 2015/16 in the field at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan. Mean squares revealed significant genetic variability among parents and their F1 crosses for days to maturity, primary branches plant-1, pods main raceme-1, 1000-seed weight and seed yield plant-1, signifying the occurrence of considerable variability in the tested material. Mean performance identified parental genotype AUP-21 being the best for early maturity (167.0 days), pods main raceme-1 (65.3), 1000-seed weight (7.1 g) and seed yield (30.6 g). F1 cross combination AUP-10 × AUP-18 had high seed yield (36.5 g) and moderate days to maturity (177.0). Desirable significant negative best parent and commercial heterotic effects were observed in 17 and 13 hybrids for maturity, respectively. Desired significant positive best parent and commercial heterotic effects were observed in 18 and 21 hybrids for primary branches plant-1, 19 and 10 hybrids for pods main raceme-1, 11 and 05 hybrids for 1000-seed weight and 18 and 01 hybrid for seed yield plant-1, respectively. Top ranking F1 hybrids were, AUP-05 × AUP-01 for maturity and AUP-10 × AUP-18 for 1000-seed weight and seed yield plant-1. These early maturing and high yielding crosses may be exploited for developing superior hybrids through exploitation of hybrid vigor and segregation. The information generated from this study could be useful for breeders to develop hybrids with better seed yield and oil quality traits through heterosis breeding. 

 

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Sarhad Journal of Agriculture

September

Vol. 35, Iss. 3, Pages 663-1019

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