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Evaluation of Grapefruit Juice (Citrus paradisi) as an Alternative Disinfectant for Hatching Eggs

Evaluation of Grapefruit Juice (Citrus paradisi) as an Alternative Disinfectant for Hatching Eggs

Justyna Batkowska1,*, Lukasz Wlazlo2, Kamil Drabik1, Bozena Nowakowicz-Debek2, Karrar I.A. Al-Shammari3 and Magdalena Gryzinska1

1Institute of Biological Basis of Animal Production, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland
2Department of Animal Hygiene and Environment, University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland
3Department of Animal Production Techniques, Al-Musaib Technical College, Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University, Babylon, Iraq

*      Corresponding author:



The aim of the study was to evaluate hatching results and quality of Japanese quail chicks (Coturnix coturnix japonica) after applying red grapefruit juice (Citrus paradisi) for hatching eggs disinfection. 420 eggs were randomly divided into 3 groups (150 pcs each). 1st group was not disinfected (NC – negative control), the 2nd one was disinfected with formaldehyde and KMnO4 fumigation (PC - positive control). In 3rd group fresh juice of red grapefruit was used as disinfectant (GT). Eggs were incubated under standard condition. On 14th day eggs were candled to determine infertile eggs or dead embryos, as well as samples of eggs to microbial analysis were. After 17.5 days of incubation its results were evaluated. Chicks were reared for 14 days and their livability and body weight gains were registered. The effectiveness of grapefruit juice as a disinfectant for hatching eggs was noticed in terms of reducing the development of microflora on the eggshell. Its use did not directly affect the hatching results and chick quality, however, they were similar to control groups, what may confirm possible use of GT juice as an alternative disinfection method.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 53, Iss. 3, Pages 801-1200


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