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Evaluation of a Herbal Muco-adhesive Gel for Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

Evaluation of a Herbal Muco-adhesive Gel for Treatment of Oral Submucous Fibrosis in Wistar Rats

Iqra Ejaz1, Saima Chaudhry2 and Sarah Ghafoor1*

1Department of Oral Biology, University of Health Sciences, Khayaban-e-Jamia Punjab, Lahore 
2Department of Oral Pathology, University of Health Sciences, Khayaban-e-Jamia Punjab, Lahore
 
* Corresponding author: sarahghafoor@uhs.edu.pk

Fig. 1.

Experimental flowchart.

Fig. 2.
Effect of bleomycin on histological structure of buccal mucosa of rat after treatment for 4 weeks and 8 weeks. (a) Control group 1A at week 4 (scale bar=100 µm). (b) Experimental group 1B at week 4 (scale bar=100 µm). (c) Control group 1A at week 8 (scale bar=100 µm). (d) Experimental group 1B at week 8 (scale bar=100 µm). In the 4th week, the control group 1A (a) showed normal buccal mucosa features i.e., thickened stratified squamous epithelium with orthokeratosis (double black arrows) having long and narrow rete pegs (black arrows), moderate number of vessels (green arrow), absence of inflammatory infiltrate, normal amount of collagen in connective tissue (red arrows) and muscle fibers in the form of fascicles (blue arrows). In the 4th week, the experimental group 1B (b) showed early stage OSMF features i.e., slight decreased thickness of epithelium with same degree of orthokeratosis (double black arrow), shortened rete pegs (black arrow), few constricted vessels and inflammatory infiltrate, pink filaments in connective tissue just below the epithelium (red arrow) and no muscular atrophy (blue arrows). In the 8th week, the control group 1A (c) showed normal buccal mucosa features i.e., thickened stratified squamous epithelium with orthokeratosis (double black arrows) having long and narrow rete pegs (black arrows), moderate number of vessels (green arrow), absence of inflammatory infiltrate, normal amount of collagen in connective tissue (red arrows) and muscle fibers in the form of fascicles (blue arrows). In the 8th week, the experimental group 1B (d) showed advanced stage OSMF features i.e., epithelial atrophy with increased orthokeratosis (double black arrows), absent rete pegs (black arrows), constricted and absent vasculature (green arrow), reduced cellularity, hyalinized change in collagen in connective tissue (red arrows) and muscular atrophy (blue arrows) (Stain: hematoxylin and eosin, Magnification: 10X).
Fig. 3.
Effect of muco-adhesive gel on oral submucous fibrosis in buccal mucosa of rat after 12 weeks of treatment.
(a) Experimental group 2A at week 12 (scale bar=100 µm). (b) Experimental group 2B at week 12 (scale bar=100 µm). In the 12th week, the experimental group 2A (a) showed advanced stage OSMF features i.e., thin and atrophic epithelium with orthokeratosis (double black arrows), shallowed and absent rete pegs (black arrows), vascular constriction (green arrow), reduced cellularity, dense collagen in the form of sheets in connective tissue (red arrows) and muscular atrophy (blue arrows). In the 12th week, the experimental group 2B (b) showed moderate stage OSMF features i.e., varying thickness of epithelium with orthokeratosis (double black arrows), broad rete pegs (black arrows), dilated vasculature and vascular occlusion disappearance, few inflammatory infiltrate, dense collagen in connective tissue just below the epithelium (red arrows) and muscle fibers interspersed among collagen deposits (blue arrows) (Stain: hematoxylin and eosin, Magnification: 10X).
Fig. 4.
Effect of muco-adhesive gel impregnated with curcumin and licorice on oral submucous fibrosis in buccal mucosa of rat after 16 weeks of treatment. 
a and b, Experimental group 2A at week 16 (scale bar=100 µm). c and d, Experimental group 2B at week 16 (scale bar=100 µm). In the 16th week, the experimental group 2A (a) showed moderate stage OSMF features i.e., varying thickness of epithelium with orthokeratosis (double black arrows), shortened rete pegs (black arrows), dilated and constricted vasculature, inflammatory infiltrate, dense collagen in connective tissue just below the epithelium (red arrows) and muscular atrophy (blue arrows) and (b) showed advanced stage OSMF features i.e., thin and atrophic epithelium with orthokeratosis (double black arrows), shallowed and absent rete pegs (black arrows), vascular constriction (green arrow), reduced cellularity, dense collagen in the form of sheets in connective tissue (red arrows) and muscular atrophy (blue arrows). In the 16th week, the experimental group 2B (c and d) showed early stage OSMF features i.e., increased epithelial thickness with orthokeratosis (double black arrows), short, long and broad rete pegs (black arrows), increased and dilated vasculature (green arrow), increased fibroblast, disordered collagen in lamina propria (red arrows) and muscular fibers interspersed between collagen bundles (blue arrows) (Stain: hematoxylin and eosin, Magnification: 10X).

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

October

Vol. 54, Iss. 5, Pages 2003-2500

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