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Envisaging the Response of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under Different Phosphorus Doses and Methods of Application

PJAR_33_2_395-405

 

 

 

Research Article

Envisaging the Response of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under Different Phosphorus Doses and Methods of Application

Wajiha Anum1*, Liaquat Ali1, Umair Riaz2*, Abid Ali1, Nadia Manzoor3, Laal Hussain Akhter4, Asad Ur Rahman5, Naeem Maan6 and Ijaz Ahmad7

1Department of Agronomy, Regional Agricultural Research Institute Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan; 2Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research, Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan; 3Department of Soil Science, Regional Agricultural Research institute-63100, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 4Guar Research Centre, Regional Agricultural Research institute-63100, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 5Department of Pathology, Regional Agricultural Research institute-63100, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 6Department of Entomology, Regional Agricultural Research institute Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 7EcotoxicologyResearch Program, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Abstract | Nutrient deficit soils pose serious threats to healthy wheat crop growth. Among the major nutrients, Phosphorus (P) stands at a significant position for providing aid in seed and fruit formation, energy provision, photosynthesis, and continuation of metabolic function in plants. However, it is not readily available to the crop because of its immobile nature. In order to ensure its efficient uptake by crop, an experiment was conducted to appraise the effect of various P placement methods and fertilizer rates on wheat. The fertilizer treatments were F1=150-00-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F2=150-30-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F3=150-60-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F4=150-90-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F5=150-120-60 NPK kilogram/hectare. While the placement methods were M1=Line sowing + Band application of phosphorus, M2=Line sowing +Broadcast application of Phosphorus at sowing, M3=Line sowing + Broadcast application of P at first irrigation. Yield and yield determining parameters were measured along with phosphorus stress factor, agronomic P use efficiency, and economic analysis. The results revealed that the band placement method gave the highest yield in comparison to the broadcast at sowing and broadcast at first irrigation. The best P fertilizer rate was identified as 150-120-60 NPK kg/ha. It has been recommended that wheat, when sown under band placement @ 120 kg/ha, gave maximum grain yield.


Received | January 14, 2020; Accepted | March 21, 2020; Published | June 23, 2020

*Correspondence | Wajiha Anum and Umair Riaz, Department of Agronomy, Regional Agricultural Research Institute Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan and Soil and Water Testing Laboratory for Research, Bahawalpur-63100, Pakistan; Email: Wajiha_anum@live.com, umairbwp3@gmail.com

Citation | Anum, W., L. Ali, U. Riaz, A. Ali, N. Manzoor, L.H. Akhter, A.U Rahman, N. Maan and I. Ahmad. 2020. Envisaging the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) under different phosphorus doses and methods of application. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 33(2): 395-405.

DOI | http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjar/2020/33.2.395.405

Keywords | PUE, Phosphorus, Triticum aestivum, Band placement, Agronomic use efficiency, Economic analysis



Introduction

Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) belongs to the family Gramineae /Poaceae. It is one of the first domesticated food crops, specifically in Asia (Barton and An, 2014), Europe and South Africa (Buxo, 2016), and Currently, wheat covers more arable land area than any other commercial crop and is ranked as the most critical food grain source for humans (Atchison et al., 2010). Its production surpasses all significant crops- including rice, maize, and potatoes. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics listed that in Pakistan, wheat is the most consumed grain than all other gains, and its production is 25979.4 million tones in area of 9199.3 million hectares. For a healthy crop, fertilizers must be provided in adequate quantity so that the deficient soils can produce optimum yields (Roberts, 2019).

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth and plays a leading role in the metabolism of plants (Fabianska et al., 2019). It is involved in cellular energy transmission, respiration, and photosynthesis (Gupta et al., 2014). It is stated that P is also a structural component of the nucleic acids of genes and chromosomes (Adams, 2012). It is the building block of many coenzymes, phosphoproteins, and phospholipids (Hunter, 2012). At the earliest stages of plant growth, P supply in an adequate amount is the mandatory step for a good yield (Grant et al., 2001; Bindraban et al., 2020). If the deficiency of P is followed at the start of the growing season, then the plant cannot recover from its nutrient deficiency, and eventually, the overall yield is affected.

In acutely P-stressed plants, leaf senescence, phasic improvement, and anthesis are hindered. The deficiency of P restricts tiller development (Fioreze et al., 2012) the rate of appearance and the number of leaves per plant and yield of the plant. The persistent deficiency of P depressed the grain yield predominantly by reducing the number of fertile tillers. P can be applied in the field through different ways, i.e. at the time of seed planting, stabbed into the soil by using equipment such as field cultivators, or, broad sweeps with ammonia (dual applied band) or without ammonia through broadcasted preceding to planting. Numerous Researches demonstrate that phosphorus if applied through seed application or knifed bands, gives higher profitability than the broadcast application (Abdur et al., 2012). The adeptness of band applications (seed or knifed bands) upturns as accessible soil phosphorus declines. If wheat is grown on low phosphorus soils, the broadcasting of phosphorus is an effective method of application than others which will usually result in increased wheat yields and useful applications, But the overall seed or knifed band applications are much superior to broadcast in terms of profitability.

The objective of this experiment is to evaluate the effects of P fertilizer on the wheat yield and to evaluate the proper placement methods as well as fertilizer dose. This study could be significant for the farmers of arid regions and phosphorus deficient soils.

Materials and Methods

A two-year experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, during 2015- 2016 to 2016-2017. The research area is situated at 29o 20’ latitude, 73o 51’ longitude, and has an elevation of 161 meters. It has a scorching and dry climate in summer and a dry and cold climate in winter. The maximum temperature rises to a (41̊C while the minimum temperature falls to 12 ºC. The average annual rainfall in the district is (143 mm). The weather data was recorded during the experimental period as depicted in Table 1. The soil analysis was performed before sowing (Table 2) The experiment was conducted during the wheat-growing seasons (Rabbi) from November 2015 to April 2017. The wheat variety, used for this experiment was Johar-16 (Locally developed variety at Regional agricultural research institute, Bahawalpur). The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (Split Plot) with 3 replications, and a plot size of (7Lx1.8W). The main plots comprised P placement methods while sub-plots consisted of the various phosphorus amounts. The treatments for methods of application were M1=Line sowing + Band application of phosphorus, M2=Line sowing + Broadcast application of Phosphorus at sowing, M3=Line sowing + Broadcast application of phosphorus at 1st irrigation. And the treatments for rate of phosphorus were F1=150-00-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F2=150-30-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F3=150-60-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F4=150-90-60 NPK kilogram/hectare, F5=150-120-60 NPK kilogram/hectare. During the first year of study, the trial was sown on 29-11-2015 while in the second year it was 26-11-2016. Diammonium phosphate was used as the P source while potassium was applied in SOP sulfate of potash. Sop was added @ 9.3 kg/experiment. Urea was the nitrogen source applied @ 4kg at first irrigation and 4 kg at second irrigation. The irrigation was applied as of 1st 2nd and 3rd on 23-12-2015, 24-1-2016 and 26-2-2016 respectively.

During the second year (2016-2017), all the practices were kept the same. The 1st, 2nd and 3rd irrigation was applied on 17-12-16, 8-1-17 and 22-2-17, respectively. Data regarding yield parameters like Plant height (cm), Number of productive tillers, Spike length (cm), Number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, and Grain yield were collected.

Table 1: Meteorological data collected during the experimental years.

October 2014 2015
  Average Range Average Range

Temp. (Max. 0C)

33 29-36 30 25-36

Temp. (Min. 0C)

22 19-25 20 16-25
Humidity (%) 76 68-80 70 60-78
Rainfall (mm) 04 02
Cloudy Days 02 02
November 2014 2015

Temp. (Max. 0C)

27 24-30 26 23-30

(Min. 0C)

13 10-19 15 12-20
Humidity (%) 74 65-82 70 60-78
Rainfall (mm) - -
Cloudy Days - -
December 2014 2015

Temp. (Max. 0C)

22 11-28 20 16-25

Temp. (Min. 0C)

09 04-14 09 07-13
Humidity (%) 70 68-85 68 64-82
Rainfall (mm) - -
Cloudy Days - -
January 2015 2016

Temp. (Max. 0C)

20 16-25 18 15-24

Temp. (Min. 0C)

09 07-13 07 05-12
Humidity (%) 68 64-82 69 64-83
Rainfall (mm) - Light shower
Cloudy Days - 03
February 2015 2016

Temp. (Max. 0C)

21 20-25 25 21-30

Temp. (Min. 0C)

10 07-15 10 09-13
Humidity (%) 68 68-81 68 60-79
Rainfall (mm) 06 02
Cloudy Days 04 03
March 2015 2016

Temp. (Max. 0C)

25 16-32 28 20-37

Temp. (Min. 0C)

17 10-23 14 12-18
Humidity (%) 75 68-81 76 68-84
Rainfall (mm) 22 32
Cloudy Days 03 04
April 2015 2016

Temp. (Max. 0C)

34 31-41 35 31-43

Temp. (Min. 0C)

23 19-29 21 17-22
Humidity (%) 70 62-80 65 61-82
Rainfall (mm) 10 04
Cloudy Days 07 09
October 2015 2016

Temp. (Max. 0C)

31 25-36 37 34-40

Temp. (Min. 0C)

19 14-24 23 19-28
Humidity (%) 70 60-78 63 57-74
Rainfall (mm) 02 0
Cloudy Days 02 01
November 2015 2016

Temp. (Max. 0C)

26 23-30 33 29-37

Temp. (Min. 0C)

15 12-20 17 13-22
Humidity (%) 70 60-78 63 49-73
Rainfall (mm) -  
Cloudy Days -  
December 2015 2016

Temp. (Max. 0C)

20 16-25 27 25-33

Temp. (Min. 0C)

09 07-13 11 08-15
Humidity (%) 68 64-82 73 64-88
Rainfall (mm) - -
Cloudy Days - 03
January 2016 2017

Temp. (Max. 0C)

19 15-24 18 15-21

Temp. (Min. 0C)

08 05-12 07 04-09
Humidity (%) 73 64-83 89 83-95
Rainfall (mm) Light shower 08
Cloudy Days 03 02
February 2016 2017

Temp. (Max. 0C)

25 21-30 28 23-32

Temp. (Min. 0C)

10 09-13 11 08-15
Humidity (%) 68 60-79 73 59-86
Rainfall (mm) 02 05
Cloudy Days 03 03
March 2016 2017

Temp. (Max. 0C)

28 20-37 34 26-42

Temp. (Min. 0C)

14 12-18 18 12-24
Humidity (%) 76 68-84 74 56-90
Rainfall (mm) 32 Nil
Cloudy Days 04 02
April 2016 2017

Temp. (Max. 0C)

35 31-42 37 34-43

Temp. (Min. 0C)

21 17-24 25 18-33
Humidity (%) 70 61-82 71 63-82
Rainfall (mm) 04 Traces
Cloudy Days 09 03
May 2016 2017

Temp. (Max. 0C)

42 36-47 45 42-48

Temp. (Min. 0C)

27 22-31 27 22-32
Humidity (%) 60 51-70 76 60-91
Rainfall (mm) 02 15
Cloudy Days 02 03

Table 2: Soil analysis before experiment.

Year Depth (cm) EC

(d Sm-1)

pH OM

(%)

Available K (ppm) Available P (ppm) Texture

First

 

0-6 2.6 8.1 0.64 116 8.0

Loam

 

6-12 2.4 8.0 0.54 110 7.6
Second 0-6 2.2 8.1 0.74 110 8.2
6-12 2.0 7.9 0.64 108 8.0

 

To record the plant height and spike length, ten tillers from each plot were measured separately by using the metering rod. The number of productive tillers, spike bearing tillers were counted by using quadrate method. To record the number of grains per spike, ten spikes were taken randomly from each plot were threshed manually, their grains were counted, and the average was worked out. The 1000- Grain weight was obtained by counting 1000 seeds and weighted.

Phosphorus stress factor was calculated as: (Siddiqi and Glass, 1981).

Eq1.PNG 

Where; yield adequate and yield controls are the grain yield kg/ha in fertilized and control (without P application) per plots, respectively.

Agronomic phosphorus efficiency was calculated by using the formula outlined by Alam et al. (2003).

Eq2.PNG 

Economic analysis

Economic analysis was done by implementing the following equations:

 Eq3.PNG 

Image490759.PNG 

Statistical analysis

The observed parameters were statistically evaluated by using the package Statisticx version 8.1. Fisher analysis of variance was implemented and Two-way ANOVAs were produced in order to know the significance of the results (Steel, 1997). The comparison of means was made, and significant results were separated @ 0.05 LSD.

Results and Discussion

The average height of tiller (cm)

The data analysis showed that plant height was not significantly affected under the different placement methods; however, a variation was observed in obtained Values. During the first year, the band placement method gave the highest plant height. However, during the second year, it was obtained in line sowing with the broadcast method. Overall it was clear that plant height was not affected significantly under the applied treatments. The overall results are depicted in Table 3.

No. of spikelet per spike

The statistical analysis of number of spikelets per spike explained that the number of spikelets was affected by different levels and placement methods of phosphorus. During first year the highest spikelets were observed in-band placement methods (17 spikelets) as in the case of fertilizer levels, 120 kg/ha of P gave maximum spikelets (17). The same trend in the results were present during the second year. However, the values were different. The detailed results are depicted in Table 4.

Average tiller per m2

The statistical data analysis of number of tillers per m2 shows different behavior at different levels and placement methods. The tillers were affected at the different fertilizer doses. Maximum tillers were noted under 120 kg/ha of P applied (268) in the first year while during the second year the trend was similar the maximum number of noted tillers were (256) Moreover, the control shows a minimum number of tillers per m2, i.e., 242 and 233 in a first and second year respectively. And in context of placement method of P, the maximum number of tillers per m2 251 was observed by broadcasting (at sowing time) placement followed by band application, i.e., 238 and the least no of tillers per m2 (230) was shown in broadcasting (at 1st irrigation) during the second year, the detail results are represented in Table 5.

If we talk about the interaction between the P levels and placement method, the maximum no of tillers per m2 are seen by the broadcasting (at sowing time) at the level of 120 kg/ha and the minimum no of tillers per m2was observed under broadcasting at the control level.

Table 3: Effect of phosphorus placement methods and quantities on plant height (cm) of wheat crop.

First Year

Second Year

  M1 M2 M3 Mean   M1 M2 M3 Mean
F1 92 90 85 89A F1 95.6 91.6 90.0 92.6A
F2 94 98 87 93A F2 92.3 91.6 92.6 92.2A
F3 92 95 90 92.3A F3 94.0 90.6 92.6 92.5A
F4 89 92 92 91A F4 95.6 90.6 96.3 94.2A
F5 94 91 93 92.6A F5 95.6 88.6 93.6 92.6A
Mean 92.4A 93.2A 89.4A   Mean 94.66A 90.66A 93.26A  

Means with the same letter are not significantly different from each other @ P>0.05 probability level. LSD for methods: 7.39; LSD for methods: 5.6; LSD for fertilizer: 4.36; LSD for fertilizer: 3.2; F1: 150-00-60 NPK kg ha-1; F2: 150-30-60 NPK kg ha-1; F3: 150-60-60 NPK kg ha-1; F4: 150-90-60 NPK kg ha-1; F5: 150-120-60 NPK kg ha-1; M1: Line sowing band application of phosphorus; M2: Line sowing broadcast application of Phosphorus at sowing; M3: Line sowing broadcast application of phosphorus at first irrigation.

Table 4: Effect of phosphorus placement methods and quantities on number of spikelet’s per spike of wheat.

  First Year Second Year
  M1 M2 M3 Mean   M1 M2 M3 Mean
F1 14 13 13 13.3C F1 19.9 19.9 18.1 19.2B
F2 19 15 14 16B F2 19.9 20.1 19.3 19.7AB
F3 18 16 14 16B F3 19.7 19.6 20.1 19.8A
F4 17 16 16 16.3B F4 20.0 20.2 19.6 19.9A
F5 19 17 16 17.3A F5 19.6 20.2 19.9 19.9A
Mean 17A 15B 14.6B   Mean 19.8AB 19.9A 19.4B  

Means with the same letter are not significantly different from each other @ P>0.05 probability level. LSD for methods: 1.3; LSD for methods: 0.53; LSD for fertilizer: 0.69; LSD for fertilizer: 0.59; F1: 150-00-60 NPK kg ha-1; F2: 150-30-60 NPK kg ha-1; F3: 150-60-60 NPK kg ha-1; F4: 150-90-60 NPK kg ha-1; F5: 150-120-60 NPK kg ha-1; M1: Line sowing+band application of phosphorus; M2: Line sowing+broadcast application of Phosphorus at sowing; M3: Line sowing+broadcast application of phosphorus at first irrigation.

Table 5: Effect of phosphorus placement methods and quantities No of tillers per square meter.

First Year Second Year
  M1 M2 M3 Mean Treatments M1 M2 M3 Mean
F1 229 249 249 242.3B F1 220 251.6 199 233.5C
F2 270 263 247 260A F2 261.7 276.6 220 252.7A
F3 266 271 256 264.3A F3 240 250.0 222 237.3B
F4 265 286 251 267.3A F4 240.3 221.6 235 232.3BC
F5 270 283 252 268.3A F5 230 259.3 278.7 256A
Means 260AB 270.4A 251B   Means 238.4AB 251.8A 230.9B  

Means with the same letter are not significantly different from each other @ P>0.05 probability level. LSD for methods: 11.86; LSD for methods: 15.9; LSD for fertilizer: 13.28; LSD for fertilizer: 12.86; F1: 150-00-60 NPK kg ha-1; F2: 150-30-60 NPK kg ha-1; F3: 150-60-60 NPK kg ha-1; F4: 150-90-60 NPK kg ha-1; F5: 150-120-60 NPK kg ha-1; M1: Line sowing+band application of phosphorus; M2: Line sowing+broadcast application of Phosphorus at sowing; M3: Line sowing+broadcast application of phosphorus at first irrigation.

Table 6: Effect of phosphorus placement methods and quantities on 1000 grain weight (g).

  First Year Second Year
  M1 M2 M3 Mean   M1 M2 M3 Mean
F1 32 30.9 29.2 30.7C F1 32.3 30.9 29.2 30.8C
F2 39.0 36.9 33.4 36.4B F2 39.0 38.9 33.4 37.1B
F3 40.7 38.8 35.9 38.4B F3 39.7 39.1 36.1 38.3AB
F4 41.8 39.4 35.2 38.4AB F4 39.2 39.7 36.2 38.3AB
F5 45 40 38.9 41.3A F5 41.8 41.6 38.2 40.5A
Mean 39.7A 37.2AB 34.5B   Mean 38.4A 38.04A 34.6A  

Means with the same letter are not significantly different from each other @ P>0.05 probability level. LSD for methods: 2.94; LSD for methods: 4.07; LSD for fertilizer: 2.73; LSD for fertilizer: 3.30; F1: 150-00-60 NPK kg ha-1; F2: 150-30-60 NPK kg ha-1; F3: 150-60-60 NPK kg ha-1; F4: 150-90-60 NPK kg ha-1; F5: 150-120-60 NPK kg ha-1; M1: Line sowing+band application of phosphorus; M2: Line sowing+broadcast application of Phosphorus at sowing; M3: Line sowing+broadcast application of phosphorus at first irrigation.

1000 grain weight (gm)

The 1000-grain weight showed that P level at 120 kg/ha shows more excellent higher value of thousand-grain weight, i.e. 40.9 (average of two years) followed by the level 90 kg/ha while under control, the value is 30.7. In case of application method, while the band placement shows the most significant value 39 followed by the Broadcast (at sowing time). The overall results of both years are depicted in Table 6.

Yield per hectare (Kg)

The data analysis of yield per hectare reveals that the values of yield per hectare are significantly different at fertilizer levels as well as placement methods. The maximum yield per hectare 4959 kg/ha was shown at a level of 120 kg/ha, followed by 4681 kg/ha at a level of 90 kg/ha. While in case of P placement method, the highest yield per hectare was observed in 1st (Band placement i.e. 4784 kg/ha and the least one is seen under 3rd method (Broadcasting at 1st irrigation), i.e., 3879 kg/ha during the first year of study while the same significance trend was seen in the second year however the values differ in both years Table 7.

Table 7: Effect of phosphorus placement methods and quantities on Wheat yield kg/ha.

First Year Second Year
  M1 M2 M3 Means   M1 M2 M3 Means
F1 3927 3499 3331 3586 d F1 3213 2937 2911 3021d
F2 4403 4046 3451 3967 c F2 3809 3741 3482 3678c
F3 4998 4522 4046 4522 b F3 4461 4238 3762 4174b
F4 5236 4641 4165 4681 b F4 4736 4391 3995 4374ab
F5 5355 5117 4403 4959 a F5 4798 4472 4014 4428a
Means 4784a 4365b 3879c     4204a 3956b 3633c  

Means with the same letter are not significantly different from each other @ P>0.05 probability level. F1: 150-00-60 NPK kg ha-1; F2: 150-30-60 NPK kg ha-1; F3:150-60-60 NPK kg ha-1; F4: 150-90-60 NPK kg ha-1; F5: 150-120-60 NPK kg ha-1; M1: Line sowing+band application of phosphorus; M2: Line sowing+broadcast application of Phosphorus at sowing; M3: Line sowing+broadcast application of phosphorus at first irrigation.

Effect of treatments on the phosphorus stress factor

The experiment showed that application of the varying doses of P fertilizer, the yield was affected significantly. A general trend was observed that with increasing the quantity, the stress factor value was increased which indicated that without the concerned treatment, the wheat can come across severe grain yield deficiency. During the first-year band, placement gave a 34% of yield reduction under stressed conditions while during the second year under the application of 120 kg/ha a value of 33 and 34 were observed in-band placement and broadcast at sowing respectively under stress conditions the yield was reduced up to 33 and 34 %. (Table 8).

Table 8: Effect of phosphorus placement methods and quantities on phosphorus stress factor.

Treatment Year Yield adequate Yield control ya-yc PSF (%)
M1F1

First Year

3927 3927 0 0
M2F1 3499 3499 0 0
M3F1 3331 3331 0 0
M1F2 4403 3927 476 10.81081
M2F2 4046 3499 547 13.51953
M3F2 3451 3331 120 3.477253
M1F3 4998 3927 1071 21.42857
M2F3 4522 3499 1023 22.62273
M3F3 4046 3331 715 17.67177
M1F4 5236 3927 1309 25
M2F4 4641 3499 1142 24.60677
M3F4 4165 3331 834 20.02401
M1F5 5355 3927 1428 34.28571
M2F5 5117 3499 1618 31.62009
M3F5 4403 3331 1072 24.34704
M1F1

Second Year

3213 3213 0 0
M2F1 2937 2937 0 0
M3F1 2911 2911 0 0
M1F2 3809 3213 596 15.64715
M2F2 3741 2937 804 21.49158
M3F2 3482 2911 571 16.39862
M1F3 4461 3213 1248 27.97579
M2F3 4238 2937 1301 30.69844
M3F3 3762 2911 851 22.62095
M1F4 4736 3213 1523 32.15794
M2F4 4391 2937 1454 33.11319
M3F4 3995 2911 1084 27.13392
M1F5 4798 3213 1585 33.0346
M2F5 4472 2937 1535 34.32469
M3F5 4014 2911 1103 27.47882

F1: 150-00-60 NPK kg ha-1; F2: 150-30-60 NPK kg ha-1; F3: 150-60-60 NPK kg ha-1; F4: 150-90-60 NPK kg ha-1; F5: 150-120-60 NPK kg ha-1; M1: Line sowing+band application of phosphorus; M2: Line sowing+broadcast application of Phosphorus at sowing; M3: Line sowing+broadcast application of phosphorus at first irrigation.

Effect of treatments on agronomic phosphorus use efficiency

Agronomic P use efficiency plays an important role in determining how efficiently the plant has utilized P, and the output is seen in terms of grain weight. During the first and second year, the maximum value was obtained as 18.2 and 26.8 under broadcast at sowing at 30kg/ha of P applied respectively. The overall values for the treatments are depicted in Table 9.

Table 9: Effect of phosphorus placement methods and quantities on PUE.

Treatment Year Yield

(fertilized plot)

Yield (control) P applied

(kg)

Apu
M1F1

First year

3927 3927 0 0
M2F1 3499 3499 0 0
M3F1 3331 3331 0 0
M1F2 4403 3927 30 15.86667
M2F2 4046 3499 30 18.23333
M3F2 3451 3331 30 4
M1F3 4998 3927 60 17.85
M2F3 4522 3499 60 17.05
M3F3 4046 3331 60 11.91667
M1F4 5236 3927 90 14.54444
M2F4 4641 3499 90 12.68889
M3F4 4165 3331 90 9.266667
M1F5 5355 3927 120 11.9
M2F5 5117 3499 120 13.48333
M3F5 4403 3331 120 8.933333
M1F1

Second Year

3213 3213 0 0
M2F1 2937 2937 0 0
M3F1 2911 2911 0 0
M1F2 3809 3213 30 19.86667
M2F2 3741 2937 30 26.8
M3F2 3482 2911 30 19.03333
M1F3 4461 3213 60 20.8
M2F3 4238 2937 60 21.68333
M3F3 3762 2911 60 14.18333
M1F4 4736 3213 90 16.92222
M2F4 4391 2937 90 16.15556
M3F4 3995 2911 90 12.04444
M1F5 4798 3213 120 13.20833
M2F5 4472 2937 120 12.79167
M3F5 4014 2911 120 9.191667

F1: 150-00-60 NPK kg ha-1; F2: 150-30-60 NPK kg ha-1; F3: 150-60-60 NPK kg ha-1; F4: 150-90-60 NPK kg ha-1; F5: 150-120-60 NPK kg ha-1; M1: Line sowing+band application of phosphorus; M2: Line sowing+broadcast application of Phosphorus at sowing; M3: Line sowing+broadcast application of phosphorus at first irrigation.

Effect of treatments on Cost-benefit ratio

A detail economic analysis revealed that without P, there was no profit in the crop. With the increasing doses, the net income increased during the first year, a net return of Rs. 27692 was seen under band placement at 90 kg of p applied. This value decreases by 1000 Rs. when 120 kg/ha of p is applied under the same sowing method. These results differed with the grain yield obtained in our experiment. The crop performed best less than 120 kg/ha applied P, but a net profit was less than 90 kg of p applied. The trend was similar during the second year of the experiment. The overall values are depicted in Table 10.

From our results, it is clear that P fertilizer plays a vital role in the establishment of a healthy crop. Fertilizer placement is important consideration that can affect the yield drastically. The reason behind this phenomenon is well understood through many studies. Kaleem et al. (2009) and Khan et al. (2010) stated that wheat grain yield is affected by the P application and without the adequate amounts the plant cannot retain its proper development. Similarly, the amount of application is significant in determining the yield (Rasul, 2016). The agronomic parameters are affected by both, P application method and fertilizer rates. A study indicated that 100 kg of P applied through double band placement enhanced all the yield determining parameters like plant height, productive tillers, grains/spike, 100-grain weight, biological yield, grain yield, and harvest index. Phosphatic fertilizer application methods are also critical (Hopkins and Hansen, 2019). It is revealed that fertilizer that right amount of fertilizer along with application at right place improves fertilizer use efficiency. These strategies also reduce the negative environmental concerns related to synthetic fertilizer use (Panhwar et al., 2019).

Moreover, in addition to PUE in Triticum aestivum, it reduced the non-productive tillers compared to other treatments (Bashir et al., 2015).

Plant height is also influenced by p application methods. Rahim et al., 2010 revealed that under the band application method, plant height was significantly increased in comparison to the broadcast method. A similar trend is observed in our study. Similarly, Alam et al. (2003) stated that plant height was proportional to the P amounts in soils. The same trend was followed in this experiment up to 90 kg/ha p application. However, the plant height decreased with further increased in P quantity i.e. 120 kg/ha.

Table 10: Effect of phosphorus placement methods and treatments on Cost benefit ratio.

Treatment Year Yield Increase over control Value of increased yield Fertilizer cost Net income Benefit cost ratio
M1F1

First Year

3927 0 0 0 0 0
M2F1 3499 0 0 0 0 0
M3F1 3331 0 0 0 0 0
M1F2 4403 476 15470 4950 10520 2.125253
M2F2 4046 547 17777.5 4950 12827.5 2.591414
M3F2 3451 120 3900 4950 -1050 -0.21212
M1F3 4998 1071 34807.5 9900 24907.5 2.515909
M2F3 4522 1023 33247.5 9900 23347.5 2.358333
M3F3 4046 715 23237.5 9900 13337.5 1.347222
M1F4 5236 1309 42542.5 14850 27692.5 1.864815
M2F4 4641 1142 37115 14850 22265 1.499327
M3F4 4165 834 27105 14850 12255 0.825253
M1F5 5355 1428 46410 19800 26610 1.343939
M2F5 5117 1618 52585 19800 32785 1.655808
M3F5 4403 1072 34840 19800 15040 0.759596
M1F1

Second Year

3213 0 0 0 0 0
M2F1 2937 0 0 0 0 0
M3F1 2911 0 0 0 0 0
M1F2 3809 596 19370 4950 14420 2.913131
M2F2 3741 804 26130 4950 21180 4.278788
M3F2 3482 571 18557.5 4950 13607.5 2.74899
M1F3 4461 1248 40560 9900 30660 3.09697
M2F3 4238 1301 42282.5 9900 32382.5 3.27096
M3F3 3762 851 27657.5 9900 17757.5 1.793687
M1F4 4736 1523 49497.5 14850 34647.5 2.333165
M2F4 4391 1454 47255 14850 32405 2.182155
M3F4 3995 1084 35230 14850 20380 1.372391
M1F5 4798 1585 51512.5 19800 31712.5 1.601641
M2F5 4472 1535 49887.5 19800 30087.5 1.519571
M3F5 4014 1103 35847.5 19800 16047.5 0.81048

F1:150-00-60 NPK kg ha-1; F2:150-30-60 NPK kg ha-1; F3:150-60-60 NPK kg ha-1; F4:150-90-60 NPK kg ha-1; F5: 150-120-60 NPK kg ha-1; M1: Line sowing+band application of phosphorus; M2: Line sowing+broadcast application of Phosphorus at sowing; M3: Line sowing+broadcast application of phosphorus at first irrigation.

In our study significantly different (P<0.05) results were found in the final grain yield (kg/ha).

Band placement was superior to the other treatments. These results are in lines with, Rehim et al. (2010) who reported better performance of wheat crop and enhanced PUE due to band placement of P over broadcast. Turk and Tawaha (2001) also quantified that band application was superior for grain yield as compared to the broadcast method. P fertilizer was banded with wheat seeds and gave superior results in relation to the broadcast method. Banding is beneficial because it is available to the emerging radicle and helps in seminal roots and results in the good seedling establishment (Cook and Veseth, 1991).

According to Camargo et al. (2000), Phosphatic fertilizers can only move to 3-5 cm in the soil which makes only 15 to 20% of the applied fertilizer available to the plants. It was more beneficial at the early stages of crop growth (Matar and Brown, 1989). Banding is effective in many crops including pastures (McLachlan, 2019). The primary factor contributing to the more P uptake lies in the fact that the soil which is more enriched with p allows plant roots to make superior contact with it and increase its availability to the plant. Hence root to fertilizer contact ratio is the basis of fertilizer use efficiency (Barber, 1974; Yao and Barber, 1986). Similarly, the application rates are also critical in determining the wheat yield. As in our experiment, the five rates affect yield e significantly (P<0.05). The maximum yield was obtained under 90 kg/ha p applied plots; however, 120 kg/h dose. Hence our results are similar to Ali et al. (2004), who revealed that 114 kg/ha of P is capable of improving wheat yield up to maximum level. When applied through the intra row drilling method.
The data further revealed that the maximum P uptake by wheat grain (11.70) kg/ha was recorded from T4 while the minimum (3.30 kg/ ha) in control. However, the lower P use efficiency (PUE) was seen at higher P application rates (Rasul, 2016).

Conclusions and Recommendations

Phosphorus fertilization is crucial for enhancing plant performance. Under nutrient (P) deficit soils, it is impossible to obtain healthy and bumper crops with the addition of P fertilizer. However, in certain conditions, the farmers lack the knowledge of exact quantities of fertilizers that need to be added in their soils. By applying 120 kg/ha, a farmer can obtain high yields. In the same way, by merely altering the P application method, a significant difference can occur in grain yield. A slight difference was observed between the net income under 90 and 120 kg of P; however, the addition of P in 120 kg quantity will ensure the soil fertility with time. As with the passing time, the soils of Pakistan are becoming exhausted with undue exploitation, hence this research is important as it will pave ways for the scientists to further derive methods influencing the P uptake. Other factors affecting the fertilizer uptake and efficiency use need to be further tested under the different soil series of Pakistan. So that an effective management practice can be formed for judicious use of fertilizers in wheat crops.

Author’s Contribution

Wajiha Anum, Liaquat Ali and Abid Ali designed and conducted the research study, Laal Hussain Akhter dealt with data analysis, interpretation and supervision, Umair Riaz gave technical input regarding soil analysis and application doses, Nadia Manzoor, Asad ur Rahman gave technical input at all stages. Naeem Maan and Ijaz Mhmed keenly revised and upgraded the overall manuscript.

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

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Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

June

Vol. 33, Iss. 2, Pages 192-421

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