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Efficacy of Different Pesticides against Mustard Aphid, Lipaphis Erysimi in Selected Mustard Cultivars

PJAR_35_2_371-379

Research Article

Efficacy of Different Pesticides against Mustard Aphid, Lipaphis Erysimi in Selected Mustard Cultivars

Misbah ud Din1, Shah Alam Khan1, Said Hussain Shah1,2* and Najeeb Ullah3

1Faculty of Crop Protection Sciences, Department of Plant Protection, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; 2Insect Pest Management Program, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection, National Agricultural Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan; 3Department of Entomology, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Abstract | Mustard Aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) (Homoptera: Aphididae) is a destructive insect pest that causes significant losses in the yield of canola crops. It is essential to find out the management strategies of this pest for higher canola production. Synthetic insecticides and bio-pesticides are used to control L. erysimi. The present study evaluated the efficacy of different pesticides against mustard aphids in selected mustard cultivars under field conditions. The experiment was carried out in Split Plot Design with four treatments and three replications. The results showed that Thiamethoxam, Fipronil and Neem oil were effective against mustard aphids. After the first spray, the minimum mean numbers of aphids were recorded (8.49) on a variety of China in a plot treated with Thiamethoxam. In contrast, the maximum mean number of aphids was observed (28.80) in the control plot. In the case of cultivar, Swabi the highest mean numbers of aphids were noted (53.86) in an untreated plot, whereas the lowest mean numbers of aphids were found (19.72) in Thiamethoxam treated plot, respectively. After 2nd spray in cultivar China the lowest aphid was (7.45) in the thiamethoxam treated plot, while the maximum mean numbers of aphids were (29.97) in the check plot, respectively. Compared with cultivar Swabi more numbers of aphids were recorded (47.94) on the control plot, while the least numbers of aphids were recorded (23.80) in a plot treated with thiamethoxam, respectively. In cultivar, China the maximum yield (1064.6) kg/ha was obtained from a thiamethoxam treated plot, while the minimum yield was recorded (562.5) kg ha-1 in control plots. Compared with cultivar, Swabi maximum yield (8.16.7) kg/ha was obtained from a thiamethoxam treated plot, and minimum yield (327.1) kg/ha was also recorded in the control plot. Thus overall results indicated that chemical, thiamethoxam along with resistant variety (China) were superior over rest of the all treatments that reduced the aphid and increased the yield productions, whereas regression of the slop of the tested insecticides based IPM strategy is to be applied for aphids control measure in canola crop.


Received | October 24, 2021; Accepted | April 20, 2022; Published | June 28, 2022

*Correspondence | Said Hussain Shah, Faculty of Crop Protection Sciences, Department of Plant Protection, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; Email: hussainshah1421@aup.edu.pk

Citation | Din, M., S.A. Khan, S.H. Shah and N. Ullah. 2022. Efficacy of different pesticides against mustard aphid, lipaphis erysimi in selected mustard cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 35(2): 371-379.

DOI | https://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjar/2022/35.2.371.379

Keywords | Mustard aphid, Insecticides, Varieties, Canola, Botanical extract

Copyright: 2022 by the authors. Licensee ResearchersLinks Ltd, England, UK.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



Introduction

The canola crop (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil crops belonging to the family Brassicaceae (Miri, 2007). This crop is sown for various purposes, such as fodder, feed, vegetables, and edible oil. The byproduct of this crop is oilseed cake used as feed for animals. However, the canola crop is more important due to its high oil quality (Chand et al., 2017). Pakistan currently produces 70% canola oil, while the remaining oil is imported (Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, 2017-2018). The mandate for edible oil has been increasing gradually in Pakistan. Therefore, to see the requirements of the ever-increasing population, there is a need to improve mustard production by reducing the losses due to biotic and abiotic stresses. Among several conditions, insect pest infestation is the main preventive factor in gaining higher production (Singh et al., 2009).

There are many insect pests attacked on canola crops such as mustard aphid (L. erysimi), cabbage caterpillar (Piers brassicae) and leaf miner (Saljoqi et al., 2006). Among these insect pests, L. erysimi is a destructive insect pest that causes severe damage to the crop (Mahmoud and Shebl, 2014). Both nymphs and adults, which are louse-like and pale greenish insects, cause damage to flower buds, shoots and pods are seen feeding in huge numbers, often covering the whole surface of flower buds, shoots and pods, (Ahmad et al., 2009). According to Talpur and Khuhro (2004) L. erysimi occurred on leaves during the 3rd week of January and shifted to the inflorescences during the 2nd week of February and remained active up to harvesting. Peak activities were noted from February 15th to March 5th. Mustard aphid uses two different ways when damaging the plant, first, it sucks the cell sap from leaves, inflorescence, pods and twigs of the plant. Secondly, it releases a juicy honeydew and provides a standard or medium for the growth of the sooty mold fungus, which affects the plant’s photosynthetic process. As a result, the plant becomes stunted and fails to maintain its strength and growth (Khan et al., 2015). It is as well as a vector for various plant viruses and its honeydew benefits the fungal growth on leaves and thereby disturbing plant photosynthesis (Sato et al., 2013, 2014). It can badly affect the canola crop and causes diseases i.e. viruses (TuMV), pathogens, and up to 45 to 60% losses in canola yield (Capinera, 2001). There are different techniques used for the management of mustard aphids (Lipaphis erysimi), such as biological control (Jagannath et al., 2002), and selection of aphid-resistance soybean strains (Lee et al., 2015) still, insecticide applications are at the forefront of management methods owing to rapid reduction of aphid populations (Ullah et al., 2019)

Bio-pesticides also play an important role in the IPM program as they are naturally available plant extracts materials, which are comparatively not much expensive, less poisonous, less dangerous, environmental, and safe to beneficial organisms (Marghub et al., 2010). Therefore, indigenously accessible plants and leaf extracts or oils with insecticidal properties can be used to control mustard aphids. They help maintain the biological diversity of beneficial organisms and reduce environmental contamination human health hazards (Buss and Park, 2002). The Pyrethroids chemicals were also most effective against mustard aphids in canola crops. It effectively controls many insect pests such as aphids, thrips, jassid, mites, wireworms, and a true bug when used as a seed treatment and soil and foliar applications (Sarwar et al., 2003). The present study evaluated the efficacy of different pesticides against mustard aphids in selected mustard cultivars under field conditions.

Materials and Methods

The present experiment was carried out at a new developmental research farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, to evaluate the efficacy of different pesticides against mustard aphid (L. erysimi) in selected mustard cultivars (China and Swabi) during crop growing season 2020-21. The research was conducted in Split Plot Design with three replications and four treatments, i.e. Thiamethoxam 25 WG @100gm/ha, Fipronil @5 SC 1000ml/ha, Neem oil @3% and control in each replication. Two varieties (Cultivar China and Swabi) were selected based on their preliminary test.

Field preparation

The total research area (field) was kept at 30x20 m2. Each plot size was kept (4 x 4 m2) considered of seven rows where (plant to plant) and (row to row) distance was kept 50x30 cm, respectively. The buffer zone was left (0.5 m and 0.3 m) between each subplot, while (1 m) buffer zone was left between two blocks on each side. The seeds were sown in rows by hand drill of the mid-October-2020. All agronomic practices were maintained uniform in all plots to raise good crops. The recommended insecticides Chemicals spray were used before the pest population reached the economic threshold level (ETL) with the help of a knapsack sprayer (Aslam et al., 2007).

Data collection

The data were recorded before (incidence of attack) or after 1st, 3rd, 7th and 10 days chemical application of insecticides by counting the numbers of aphid per plant from 10 cm top portion of the terminal shoot on ten plants randomly selected in each treated and un-treated plots, respectively. After threshing, the seed was first weighed and cleaned separately based on yield obtained in each treated and untreated subplot. After that, check the effectiveness of the tested insecticides were assessed based on the percent reduction population of aphids. Percent reduction population was calculated using the following formula.

Aphid population per plant

The aphid population/plant numbers were recorded in the field from 10 cm top portion of the terminal shoot with pencil size stick gently beaten with a white paper sheet, randomly selected ten plants from each treated and un-treated plots at days 1, 3, 7 and 10 days after application. Cut these top 10cm terminal portions from randomly selected plants were brought to the Laboratory into polythene bags to count the numbers of aphid population per plant. The aphids were removed from the plant by soft hair camel brush, placed on a white paper sheet and easily counted by the magnifying glass. The numbers of aphid plant-1 were converted into percent (%) reduction aphid population over control by given formula (Arif et al., 2012).

Biological efficacy of different pesticides against Lipahis erysimi

The biological efficacy of different pesticides tested against the mustard aphid population was calculated by the given formula.

Numbers of sub-branches per plant

The sub-branches plant-1 were counted when the plant was fully matured from top to bottom on 10 randomly selected plants from each subplot after insecticides and botanical extract (Razaq et al., 2014).

Numbers of pods per plant

The numbers of pods/plants were observed when the plant is fully matured by counting the number of pods per plant randomly selected 10 plants from each treated and un-treated subplot after application of insecticides and botanical extract (Malik et al., 2012).

Plant height

Plant height was measured in the field from top to bottom with the help of a meter rod randomly selected 10 plants from each subplot after application of insecticides and botanical extract (Ahmed et al., 2013).

Yield

The yield was recorded after threshing first the seeds were weighed and cleaned separately based on yield obtained in each treated and un-treated subplot and then converted into kg/ha. Where one hectare is equal to 10000 m2. The total yield was determined by the given formula (Sarwar, 2013).

Statistical analysis

The data were analyzed through ANOVA by using Statistix software (version 8.1). The significant variances among the treatments, mean for each treatment was separated at least significant difference LSD at (0.05) % level (Steel and Torrie, 1984).

Results and Discussion

Comparative efficacy of different pesticides against mustard aphid population under field condition after the first spray during 2020-21

The results showed a significant difference in the efficacy of various insecticides and Neem oil against the aphid population after the first spray (Table 1). The data indicated that minimum mean numbers of aphid populations in tested cultivar China were recorded (8.49) aphid/plant (10 cm apical shoot) in a plot treated with chemical Thiamethoxam followed by Fipronil and Neem oil (11.41 and 14.45) aphid/plant, respectively. While the maximum mean numbers of aphid populations were recorded (28.80) aphid/ plant in control plots. In the case of cultivar, Swabi the lowest mean numbers of aphid populations were (19.72) aphid/plant in a plot treated with Thiamethoxam followed by treatment Fipronil and Neem oil (24.43 and 27.40) aphids/plant, respectively. While the maximum mean numbers of aphid populations were observed (53.68) in the control plot. The mean data regarding time intervals efficacy of the tested pesticides against the aphid population showed a highly significant difference compared to each other (Table 1). The minimum mean numbers of mustard aphid (L. erysimi) population were observed (17.41) aphids on Day 10. Whereas the maximum mean numbers of aphid population were recorded (30.11) on Day 1st followed by Day 3rd and Day 7th (25.45 and 21.21) aphids/plant respectively. The Cultivar China maintained minimum numbers of aphid populations compared to the susceptible cultivar Swabi; therefore, insecticides control trend was recorded maximum on Control plot (53.68) aphids/plant followed by Neem oil (27.40) aphids, Fipronil (24.43) aphids and Thiamethoxam (19.72) aphids/ plant, respectively.

Comparative efficacy of different pesticides against mustard aphid population under field condition after the second spray during 2020-21

Table 2 showed a significant difference in the comparative efficacy of different pesticides against the population of mustard aphids after the second spray. The results showed that all the applied treatments were comparatively most effective in reducing the aphid population except control. The effect of different tested insecticides in the case of cultivar China, minimum mean numbers of aphid population were recorded (7.45) aphids/plant in a plot treated with Thiamethoxam followed by Fipronil and neem oil (9.34 and 12.13) aphids/plant respectively. In contrast, the maximum mean number of aphid population was observed (29.97) aphids in an untreated plot. In the case of Cultivar Swabi the lowest mean numbers of aphid population were (23.80) aphids/plant 10 cm apical shoot in a plot treated with Thiamethoxam. While the highest mean number of aphid population was recorded (47.94) aphids/plant in the control plot. The interaction between time intervals on the efficacy of different pesticides against (L. erysimi) shown in Table 2. The results showed a highly significant difference among the treatments compared with the first application. The highest aphid population was (27.52) aphids/plant on day 1st followed by day 3rd and day 7th (24.93 and 21.53) aphids/plant. While the lowest mean aphid population was recorded (19.31) aphids/plant 10cm apical shoot on day 10. The resistant cultivar China maintained the minimum numbers of aphid population as compared with susceptible cultivar Swabi, therefore chemical control tendency was calculated highest numbers of aphid population (47.94) aphid/plant followed by neem oil, (29.45) aphids, Fipronil (26.51) aphids and Thiamethoxam (23.80) aphids/plant, respectively.

Biological efficacy of various pesticides against the population density of mustard aphid (L. Erysimi) in canola crop during 2020-21

Table 3 showed the percent biological efficacy of different pesticides against mustard aphids (Lipaphis erysimi). The results revealed that the minimum mean biological efficacy in cultivar China was recorded (50.81%) in a plot treated with neem oil followed by Fipronil (64.73%). While the maximum

 

Table 1: Comparative efficacy of different pesticides against mustard aphid population under field condition after first spray during 2020-21.

Varieties

Before

spray

Treatments

Aphid population/ plant

Time intervals

Day 1st

Day 3rd

Day 7th

Day 10th

Mean

China

27.23

Thiamethoxam

15.16p

10.33r

6.17t

2.31v

8.49h

26.23

Fipronil

18.41m

13.56p

9.51rs

4.17u

11.41g

25.35

Neem oil

21.21L

17.33mn

12.17q

7.12t

14.45f

29.16

Control

27.33j

29.31hi

28.44i

30.15gh

28.80b

Swabi

45.33

Thiamethoxam

33.17f

21.45L

15.76m

8.53s

19.72e

43.21

Fipronil

36.31e

27.17j

20.91 L

13.33p

24.43d

41.32

Neem oil

38.11d

31.23g

23.15k

17.13n

27.40c

46.76

Control

51.23c

53.27b

53.63b

56.59a

53.68a

Means

30.11a

25.45b

21.21c

17.41d

Mean followed by different letters significantly different from each other (p<0.05). Lsd Values for Treatments and Varieties= 0.7856. Lsd Values for Time Intervals (T.I)= 0.3086; Lsd Values for V x T x T.I = 0.8729.

 

Table 2: Comparative efficacy of different pesticides against mustard aphid Population under field condition after second spray during 2020-21.

Varieties

Treatments

Aphid population/plant

Time intervals

Day 1st

Day 3rd

Day 7th

Day 10th

Mean

China

Thiamethoxam

13.33w

9.17y

4.97b

2.35d

7.45h

Fipronil

15.67 t

11.41x

6.81z

3.47c

9.34g

Neem oil

18.31r

14.46v

9.13y

6.62z

12.13f

Control

27.12n

29.33j

30.45i

33.00g

29.97b

Swabi

Thiamethoxam

31.12h

27.64 l

21.33q

15.12u

23.80e

Fipronil

33.32f

29.13k

24.17 o

19.43q

26.51d

Neem oil

36.17e

31.17h

27.31m

23.15p

29.45c

Control

45.12d

47.19c

48.13b

51.33a

47.94a

Means

27.52a

24.93b

21.53c

19.31d

Mean followed by different letter (s) significantly different from each other (p<0.05). Lsd Values for Treatments x Varieties= 0.1020; Lsd Values for Time Interval (T.I)= 0.0599; Lsd Values for V x T x T.I = 0.1786

 

Table 3: Biological efficacy of various pesticides against the population density of mustard aphid in canola crop during 2020-21.

Varieties

Treatments

Treatments means

Biological efficacy

China

Thiamethoxam

7.97

72.87%

Fipronil

10.37

64.73%

Neem oil

13.29

50.81%

Control

29.38

Swabi

Thiamethoxam

21.76

57.17%

Fipronil

25.47

49.87%

Neem oil

28.42

44.06 %

Control

50.81

 

mean biological efficacy was recorded (72.89%) in a Thiamethoxam treated plot, and it was found comparatively most effective among all the treatments. Compared with cultivar Swabi the mean maximum biological efficacy was observed (57.17%) against mustard aphid in a plot treated Thiamethoxam followed by Fipronil (49.87%). The minimum mean biological effectiveness was recorded (44.06%) against mustard aphid in the Neem oil plot. Thus the cultivar China proved with different treatments i.e., Thiamethoxam, Fipronil and Neem oil against mustard aphid (L. erysimi) based on the high percentage of biological efficacy, which is a strong indicator of resistance as compared with cultivar Swabi.

Effect of different pesticides on Physiological characteristics of canola crop during 2020-21

In Table 4 the results showed that physiological characteristics of plants were recorded after insecticides application on canola varieties. The data indicated that significantly affects on mean numbers of sub-branches plant-1. In cultivar, China the maximum mean numbers of sub-branches plant-1 were recorded (28.81) in a plot treated with Thiamethoxam followed by Fipronil and neem oil (28.95 and 27.86) branches per plant, respectively. While the mean minimum branches/plant were recorded (26.13) in the control plot. The numbers of sub-branches per plant in treated and untreated plots were found significantly different from each other. The highest mean numbers of pod plant-1 were observed (120.29) from the Thiamethoxam treated plot followed by Fipronil and neem oil (115.40 and 109.60), respectively. While the lowest mean number of pods were recorded (103.48) in an untreated plot. The maximum plant height (87.40 cm) was observed in Thiamethoxam treated plots followed by Fipronil and neem oil (82.40 cm and 77.42 cm) respectively. In contrast, the control plot recorded the minimum mean plant height (71.19 cm).

In the tested cultivar Swabi, the highest mean number of sub-branches/plants were recorded (15.40) in the Thiamethoxam treated plot followed by Fipronil (9.49). While the lowest mean number of sub-branches/plant were recorded (3.22) in an untreated plot followed by Neem oil (6.35). Canola plants in a plot treated with Thiamethoxam (97.45 /plant) produced maximum mean the number of pods followed by Fipronil and Neem oil (92.33 and 88.70), respectively. The minimum mean number of pods/plant (83.37) is produced in control plots. The highest plant height (80.11 cm) was observed in the Thiamethoxam treated plot followed by Fipronil and neem oil (75.23 cm and 69.12 cm), respectively. While minimum plant height was recorded in control.

 

Table 4: Effect of various chemical on Physiological characteristics of canola crop during 2020-21.

Varieties

Treatments

Sub branches (no.)

Pods/Plant (no.)

Plant height (cm)

China

Thiamethoxam

28.81ab

120.29a

88.63a

Fipronil

28.95a

115.40b

79.19c

Neem oil

27.86b

109.60c

74.74d

Control

26.13c

103.48d

68.00f

Swabi

Thiamethoxam

26.23c

97.45e

83.51b

Fipronil

25.50cd

92.33f

71.30e

Neem oil

25.11d

88.70g

63.03g

Control

24.12e

83.37h

58.29h

LSD (0.05)

0.9754

0.1795

3.0558

Mean followed by different letter significantly different from each other’s (p<0.05).

 

Table 5: Efficacy of different insecticides and neem oil on yield per treatment in canola crop during 2020-21.

Varieties

Treatments

Mean yield

(kg/ Plot)

Mean yield (kg/ ha)

China

Thiamethoxam

1.70a

1064.6a

Fipronil

1.54b

964.6b

Neem oil

1.40c

877.1c

Control

0.90f

562.5g

Swabi

Thiamethoxam

1.30c

816.7d

Fipronil

1.19d

747.9e

Neem oil

1.09e

681.3f

Control

0.52g

327.1h

LSD (0.05)

0.0877

54.83

Mean followed by different letters statistically different from each other (p<0.05).

 

Yield of canola crop

In Table 5 the results showed that maximum mean yield was obtained (1064.6) kg /ha from the treated plots in the case of tested cultivar China with Thiamethoxam followed by Fipronil and Neem oil (964.6 and 877.1) kg /ha, respectively. While the minimum mean yield was recorded (562.5) kg ha-1 in the control plot. In the case of cultivar Swabi significantly maximum yield was obtained (816.7) kg/ha from Thiamethoxam treated plots followed by Fipronil and neem oil (747.9 and 681.3) kg ha-1 respectively. Whereas the lowest yield was recorded (327.1) kg/ ha in the control plot. The results revealed that all the applied treatments were statistically different, as shown in Table 5. Whereas in tested cultivar China significantly more yield was obtained (1.70 kg) per plot in Thiamethoxam treated plot followed by Fipronil and Neem oil (1.54 and 1.40) kg/ plot compared to untreated plot in which significantly less yield was obtained (0.90) kg/plot. In the cultivar, Swabi the maximum mean yield was recorded (1.30) kg per plot in a Thiamethoxam treated plot followed by Fipronil and Neem oil (1.19 and 1.09) kg -1 plot. While the mean minimum yield was obtained (0.52) kg/ plot in an untreated plot.

The chemical insecticides were comparatively most effective than botanical extract. The result showed that minimum mean numbers of aphid population were recorded in plot treated with chemical Thiamethoxam 25 WG followed by Fipronil 5 SC and neem oil @5%, while maximum mean numbers of aphid populations were observed in control plots. The present investigation conformed to Rohilla et al. (2004), who evaluated the efficacy of different pesticides against mustard aphids. Among these Thiamethoxam 25 WG, Fipronil 5 SC and botanical extract (neem oil) @5% proved the most effective insecticides. These findings were also similar with Singh and Lal (2009) reported that neem oil @ 5% is comparatively effective in reducing the population density of mustard aphid. The results indicated that a plot treated with Thiamethoxam significantly decreased the mean aphid population (4.13) aphids/plant followed by Fipronil (5.42) aphids/10 cm apical shoot. Our findings were in line with Maurya et al. (2018) concluded that Thiamethoxam was recorded most effective chemical in suppressing the population density of mustard aphid. Similar results were supported by Patel et al. (2017) who studied the comparative efficacy of different synthetic insecticides under field conditions against (L. erysimi) population of which Thiamethoxam showed comparatively better efficacy among all the treatments except control.

In tested cultivars, the results showed that minimum mean numbers of aphid population were observed in cultivar China considered as resistant, while maximum mean numbers of aphid population were observed in cultivar Swabi which was considered as susceptible. The present investigation was similar to Ali et al. (2018), who reported that the least numbers of aphid population were recorded on resistant cultivar and maximum aphid populations were recorded on susceptible cultivar Swabi. Therefore, the tested cultivar Swabi is recommended to control substantial aphid abundance from starting the seasons. Similar results have also been reported by Singh et al. (2012) who reported the highest density of aphids were counted in cultivar Swabi and the least numbers of aphids were observed in cultivar China. The variations in aphid abundances might be causing the combined effects of antibiotics, canola plants’ tolerant capacities, and consuming similarity of aphid behavior. The highest aphid abundances beneath the current investigation were observed during the crops’ inflorescences stage. The mean number of mustard aphids (L. erysimi) showed significant variation among the applied treatments.

All the tested treatments gave significantly maximum yield (kg/ha) over control. The effect of different treatments on crop yield was recorded maximum in Thiamethoxam as compared with other tested treatments. The results showed that all the chemicals had better yield comparisons in botanical. The data indicated that a plot treated with Thiamethoxam gives maximum yield (kg/ha) followed by Fipronil and neem the oil, while mean minimum yield was recorded in the control plot. These findings were similar to Sinha and Sharma (2008) and Rohilla et al. (2004), who reported that Thiamethoxam and Fipronil were found lethal to canola aphid under higher field conditions yields of canola crop. Our result is also in a line with Ullah et al. (2020) who reported that the low lethal (LC15) and sublethal (LC5) concentrations of thiamethoxam significantly reduced the longevity and fecundity of the directly exposed aphids. Our crop yield results were in line with Maurya et al. (2018) who evaluated the efficacy of synthetic insecticides against mustard aphids. Maximum yield was obtained from a plot treated with Thiamethoxam, and the aphid population’s mortality was less mortality in a Fipronil treated plot. The maximum yields were recorded in the thiamethoxam treated plot compared with the control plot. The present investigation was also following the findings of Sharma et al. (2012), who reported and evaluated that the highest yield kg/ha was recorded in thiamethoxam 25 WG treated plot followed by fipronil 5SC and neem oil @5% treated plots, respectively.

Conclusions and Recommendations

It is concluded that cultivar China showed comparatively better performance than susceptible Swabi varieties based on the numbers of aphid populations per plant. In tested insecticides, the chemical Thiamethoxam showed better effectiveness against mustard aphid (Lipahis erysimi) by suppressing the pest populations and obtaining higher canola crop yields. It is recommended for farmers to use resistant cultivar China and chemical Thiamethoxam 25 WG @ 100 g/ha to control (L. erysimi) and achieve higher yield in canola crop.

Acknowledgments

Authors are highly thankful to The University of Agriculture, Peshawar for providing space and facilitating during an experiment.

Novelty Statement

The Novelty of this research is to study the effects of different pesticides, in which Thiamethoxam gives a good result on the new mustard china cultivar. Which was very effective, and the china cultivars showed resistance to Mustard aphids.

Author’s Contribution

Misbah Ud Din: Conducted the experiment.

Shah Alam Khan: Design the experiment.

Said Hussain Shah: wrote the Manuscript

Najeeb Ullah: Technical help

Conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

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Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research

June

Vol. 35, Iss. 2, Pages 259-476

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