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Effect of Farm Labor Transformation on Households Income in Central Districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Sajid Khan* and Shahnaz Akhtar

Institute of Development Studies (IDS), The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

*Correspondence | Sajid Khan, Institute of Development Studies (IDS), The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; Email: 


This study was conducted to assess the effect of farm labor transformation on households’ income in central three districts of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. Data on different aspects of farm labor transformation were collected through a well-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. Nine village councils from three districts were selected through random sampling techniques. The data were collected from 393 sample households and were analyzed by using paired sample t-test through Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) and descriptive statistics, percentages, and rank orders. Farm labor transformation was found significantly affecting the earnings of households’ in the study area. Data revealed that monthly income from farm production and livestock increased significantly. Moreover, households’ income from non-farm sources massively increased after the farm labor transformation. The study recommends that government and/or non-governmental organizations may provide off-farm employment opportunities by launching cottage industries in rural areas and by providing technical training to farmers for the dissemination of the latest technology and skill enhancement for growing various crops and vegetables to enhance agriculture and rural development.


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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 53, Iss. 1, Pages 1-400


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