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Effect of Conflict on Farmersí Income from Tomato Crop in Kurram Agency, Pakistan

Effect of Conflict on Farmersí Income from Tomato Crop in Kurram Agency, Pakistan

Zeeshan Haider, Inayatullah Jan and Waqar Akram 

Institute of Development Studies (IDS), The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan; 2Sukkur Institute of Business Administration, Pakistan.


Conflicts have adverse effects on income and living conditions of populations worldwide. Keeping that in mind, this study was conducted in northwest Pakistan with the aim to identify the effect of armed conflict on income from tomato crop. The study is based on the primary data collected from two villages namely Shilozan and Pewar in Kuram Agency in the northwest of Pakistan. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired t-test. The results of the paired t-test reveal that farmers observed a significant difference in the overall income and income from tomato crop after the conflict as shown by larger t-values of 6.17 with (p<0.01) and 10.91 with (p<0.01) respectively. It was mainly due to restrained mobility during the conflict, farmers had limited or no access to cultivable land, irrigation facilities, and input and output markets which resulted in increased cost of production and decreased farm productivity of tomato. This further resulted in decreased net income of farmers from tomato crop. The study concludes that poverty in these areas can be alleviated if the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play their role in promoting social cohesion and management of any conflict in future.

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Sarhad Journal of Agriculture


Vol. 38, Iss. 4, Pages 1160-1546


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