Submit or Track your Manuscript LOG-IN

Diversity and Bio-Geography of Subfamily Eumeninae (Vespidae: Hymenoptera) in Sindh, Pakistan

PJZ_54_4_1729-1735

Diversity and Bio-Geography of Subfamily Eumeninae (Vespidae: Hymenoptera) in Sindh, Pakistan

Muhammad Tariq Khan1, Muhammad Ather Rafi2, Riffat Sultana3*,

Anjum Munir1 and Sajjad Ahmad4

1Department of Plant and Environmental Protection, National Insect Museum, PARC Institute of Advanced Studies in Agriculture, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan

2National Insect Museum, Department of Plant and Environmental Protection, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Park Road, Islamabad, Pakistan

3Department of Zoology, University of Sindh, Jamshoro, Pakistan

4Department of Entomology, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan

ABSTRACT

This study provides annotated list of 10 species and subspecies of subfamily Eumeninaein in Sindh province under 5 genera i.e. Delta, Knemodynerus, Antepipona, Allorhynchium, Antodynerus. Besides this, their bio-geographical affiliations have also been discussed. Of these species and subspecies 6 are part of the Oriental fauna, one is part of the Afrotropical and Palearctic Region and three belong to Oriental, Afrotropical and Palearctic Regions. This reconfirms the transitional bio-geographical position of the Pakistani fauna. However, more species of Subfamily Eumeninae are expected to be present in Sindh if more frequent survey would be carried out.


Article Information

Received 15 March 2020

Revised 27 May 2020

Accepted 06 June 2020

Available online 04 August 2021

(early access)

Published 20 April 2022

Authors’ Contribution

MTK performed the experiments.MAR and RS designed the study. AM and SA compiled the results.

Key words

Eumeninae, Vespidae, Wasps, Bio-geographical distribution

DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/20200315080305

* Corresponding author: riffat.sultana@usindh.edu.pk

0030-9923/2022/0004-1729 $ 9.00/0

Copyright 2022 by the authors. Licensee Zoological Society of Pakistan.

This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).



INTRODUCTION

Family Vespidae is one of the few groups that exhibit transitional social evolution and solitary status (Crespi and Yanega, 1995; Hunt, 2007). All wasps are aculeate Hymenoptera, which have a fully developed sting, hence known as true wasps. Most of these are solitary and harmless. They use their sting for defense and to paralyze their arthropod prey (Akreet al., 1980). Lot of information is available on this important family from different regions of the world (Archer, 1993; Kojima, 1993; Kojima and Carpenter, 1997; Carpenter and Starr, 2000; Nguyen and Carpenter, 2002; Carpenter and Nguyen, 2003; Devorak, 2007; Guseleitner, 2008; Gusenleitner and Madl, 2009; Ebrahimi and Carpenter, 2008; Yildirim and Guseleitner, 2012; Kumar and Sharma, 2015; Kumar et al., 2016), and from Punjab and northern areas of Pakistan (Chaudhary et al., 1966; Gusenleitner, 2006, 2007, 2008; Mahmood et al., 2012; Siddiqui et al., 2015; Bodlah et al., 2015). However, vaspid fauna of Sindh is largely unexplored. The sub-family Eumeninae has been chosen for this study due to reasons that it might provide a great opportunity to comprehend all aspects of insect life exhibited by this subfamily.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Selection of localities

The basis of selection of localities for surveys was agro-ecological variations. The localities for surveys were selected out of three main agro-ecological zones of Sindh Province explicitly (A) wheat-rice zone of right-bank of Indus River in upper Sindh province, (B) wheat-cotton zone of left-bank of Indus River, and (C) sugarcane-wheat-rice zone in lower Sindh province. Detailed surveys were conducted in seven localities representing the seven sub agro-ecological zones: A-I, main area of rice-wheat in Sindh, District Larkana; A-II, piedmont soil region–Dadu Zone; B-I, non-perennial Guddu command area, Ghotki Zone; B-II, perennial Sukkur command area, Sukkur Zone; C Main area of Kotri command, Jamshoro Zone; D Thar and Nara deserts–Tharparkar Zone; and E, Kohistan/ hilly area, Karachi Zone.

Collection and preservation

The wasp specimens were collected from each locality randomly from fields, gardens and other vegetation after a 20 days interval during the study. At each locality, collection of wasps were done from 8:00 AM to 12:00 PM. Arial net of proper bag size, comprising of soft fabric to curtail the chances of harm to wings of wasps, was used for collection. Spot catching of the wasps sitting on the walls or any other objects, their nests and bait collection in markets was also opted. After collection in nets, the wasps were put into the killing-jars containing ethyl acetate or freezer for attaining their mortality. The collected wasp specimens were mounted on pins, labeled, and conserved in wooden-boxes with naphthalene as preservative. Field data of each locality such as date, location and coordinates were recorded. Besides this, description of localities in terms of flora and water resources etc. was also recorded (Table I).

Identification and repository

The wasp specimens were recognized in detail up to level of species and sub-species based on their morphological traits through using stereoscope (Labomet CZM-4-4X) and taxonomic keys provided by Archer (1989), Carpenter and Nguyen (2003) and Goulet and Hubner (1993). The wasp specimens after identification were deposited partially in Department of Zoology of Sindh University, Jamshoro and partially in NIM, NARC, Islamabad.

Species diversity

Species diversity was measured by calculating its various parameters viz. species abundance, richness and evenness. For estimation of diversity-indices, rank lists were created for every locality based on maximum abundance of species. Likewise, collective rank lists of localities containing list of taxa were also prepared.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Diagnostic features

Adults are minute to sizeable and compacted; body long having sessile to strong petiolate metasoma. These wasps are clearly recognizable due to a blend of traits like: mesoscutum contains posterolateral projection which is called parategula; bifid tarsal claws; hind-coxa having dorsal carina longitudinally or with folding, mostly transformed tooth-like lobe; forewing having three number of sub-marginal cells. Almost all identified species of Eumeninae are solitary whereas few taxa exhibit primitive social behavior. During this study five genera were reported. Bio-Geographical Affiliations of Eumeninae Species found in Sindh Province are presented in Table I.

 

Table I. Subfamily eumeninae collected in Sindh Province.

Subfamily eumeninae

Genus

Species

AI: Main Area

AII: Pied-mont Soil Region

BI: Non-Pere-nnial Guddu Com-mand area

BII: Per-ennial Sukkur Com-mand area

C: Main Kotri Com-mand area

D: Thar and Nara Deserts

E: Kohistan and Coastal area

Bio-geographi-cal affiliations

Allorhynchium

Argentatum

-

-

-

-

+

+

+

Oriental region

Metallicum

-

-

-

-

+

-

+

Oriental region

Antepipona

Sibilans

+

-

+

+

-

-

-

Oriental region

Ceylonica

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

Oriental region

Antodynerus

Flavescens

+

-

-

+

-

-

-

Oriental region

Limbatus

+

-

-

+

-

-

-

Oriental region

Delta

Dimidiatipenne

+

+

-

+

+

+

+

Afrotropical and palearctic region

Campaniforme Campaniforme

-

-

+

-

-

-

-

Oriental and afrotropical regions

Esuriens

+

-

+

+

-

-

+

Oriental, afrotropical, and palearctic region

Knemodynerus

Excellens

+

-

+

+

-

-

-

Oriental, afrotropical and palearctic region

 

KEY TO THE VARIOUS GENERA OF SUBFAMILY EUMENINAE

  1. Metasoma continuously petiolate; 1st Segment with width half or lesser than that of 2nd segment, while longer than width; T2 having apical lamella without more thickening..…........................................Delta
    • Metasoma not petiolate; 1st Segment broader than half 2nd segment, longer slightly less than double of width……..............................................................2
  2. Parategula invisible from upwards; tegulae bent inwardly from posterior…...........…Knemodynerus
    • Parategula visible from above …......................….3
  3. Metanotum having stunted tuberclesor teeth laterally; flattened in between….......…Antepipona
    • Metanotum without tuberclesor teeth….................4
  4. Tegula short or equal sized of parategula posteriorly; Metanotum flattened; propodeum having raised shelf-like dorsum…........................Allorhynchium
    • Tegula exceeding parategula posteriorly; Metanotum raised disc, having semi-circular ridge amid vertical and horizontal exteriors on dorsal view. .................................................. Antodynerus

Genus: Allorhynchium van der Vecht, 19605

Allorhynchium argentatum Fabricius, 1804

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: C: Main Kotri Command Area Halaji Lake, 10.vii.2014, Leg. M. T. Khan, 2♀; E: Kohistan and Coastal Area: Malir, 03.v.2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; D: Thar and Nara Deserts: Mirpur Khas, 15.v.2016, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♂.

Remarks

Previously this species were stated from Sindh: Halaji Lake; Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa: Bronze, Kalash, Abbottabad;Chitral, Islamabad; Punjab: Attock, Lahore (Changa Manga), Jhelum, Rawalpindi and Chakwal; Gilgit-Baltistan: Skardu and Ghizer Chaudhry et al., 1966; Gusenleitner, 2006, 2007; Siddiqui et al., 2015; Faiz et al., 2016; Rafi et al., 2017).

Distribution

Indonesia; India; Singapore; Malaysia; Laos; Nepal; Myanmar; Pakistan; Thailand; Philippines (van der Vecht, 1963; Chaudhry et al., 1966; Gusenleitner, 2006; Kumar and Sharma, 2015; Kumar et al., 2016).

Allorhynchium metallicum (de Saussure, 1852)

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: E: Kohistan and Coastal Area: University of Karachi, 25-xi-2014, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; C: Main Kotri Command Area: Hyderabad, 09.ix.2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 2♀.

Remarks

This species was previously testified from Sindh: Karachi (Kumar and Sharma, 2015a).

Distribution

Pakistan; India; Myanmar; Maldives; Indonesia; Malaysia; Sri-Lanka; Taiwan (Kumar and Sharma, 2015a; Kumar et al., 2016).

Genus: Antepipona de Saussure, 1855

Antepipona ceylonica de Saussure, 1867

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: BI: Non-Perennial Guddu Command Area: Ubauro, 14-vi-2016, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀.

Remarks

It is new evidence from Sindh. Recently Qasim (2018) in his thesis recorded this species from Punjab: Lodhran.

Distribution

Sri Lanka, India, Pakistan; and Myanmar.

Antepipona sibilans Cameron, 1903

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: AI: Main Area: Larkana, 03.vii.2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 2♀; Ratodero, 06-vi-2014, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; BI: Non-Perennial Guddu Command Area: Ghotki, 25-vi-2016, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; BII: Perennial Sukkur Command Area: Sukkur, 03.vii.2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♂.

Remarks

This species is recognized firstly from Sindh province. Earlier this species were reported from Punjab:Chakwal, Multan, Rawalpindi and Attock; Islamabad (Gusenleitner, 2006; Siddiqui et al., 2015; Rafi et al., 2017). Recently Qasim (2018) in his thesis recorded this species from several areas of Punjab: Khanewal, Lodhran and Multan.

Distribution

Pakistan; Nepal; India (Gusenleitner, 2006; Kumar et al., 2016).

Genus: Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855

Antodynerus limbatus de Saussure, 1852

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: AI: Main Area: Dokri, 26-vi-2014, Leg. M. T. Khan, 2♀; GarhiKhuda Bakhsh, 07-viii-2016, Leg. M. T. Khan, 2♀; BII: Perennial Sukkur Command Area: Mehrabpur, 18-x-2016, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; ThariMirwah, 25-vi-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀.

Remarks

This species is documented initially from Sindh. Earlier this species reported from Punjab: Taxila; Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa: Abbottabad; Azad Jummu and Kashmir: Muzafarabad (Shahadra) (Gusenleitner, 2007; Rafi et al., 2017).

Distribution

India; China; Myanmar; Laos; Nepal; Thailand and Pakistan (Gusenleitner, 2007).

Antodynerus flavescens flavescens Fabricius, 1775

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: AI: Main Area: GarhiKhuda Bakhsh, 05-vii-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 2♀; BII: Perennial Sukkur Command Area: Ghotki, 07-viii-2016, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀.

Remarks

This species was already reported form Sindh: Karachi (Giordani-Soika, 1970). During present study this species are found from Sindh: GarhiKhuda Bakhsh and Ghotki.

Distribution

Pakistan (Giordani-Soika, 1970).

Genus: Delta de Saussure, 1885

Delta campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius, 1775)

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: BI: Non-Perennial Guddu Command Area: Ghotki, 02-vii-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀.

Remarks

New record for Sindh as well as for Pakistan.

Distribution

Indonesia; Australia; China; Cambodia; Guangdong; Laos; Myanmar; Nepal; Malaysia; India; Palawan; Philippines; Singapore, Thailand, Papua New Guinea; and adventive in Vietnam, Pakistan and USA (Nguyen, 2015).

Delta dimidiatipenne de Saussure, 1852

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: AI: Main Area: Larkana, 09-vii-2016, 17-vii-2016, Leg. M. T. Khan, 3♀; AII: Piedmont Soil Region: Dadu City, 17-06-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; BII: Perennial Sukkur Command Area: Sukkur, 05-vi-2015, 13-v-2016, Leg. M. T. Khan, 2♀; C: Main Kotri Command Area: Kotri, 19-viii-2014, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; University of Sindh, 04-v-2016, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; Hyderabad, 08.v.2014, Leg. M. T. Khan, 3♀; D: Thar and Nara Deserts: Umarkot, 03-vii-2014, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; Nagarparkar, 17-vii-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; Mithi, 02-vi-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; E: Kohistan and Coastal Area: Korangi, 29.vi.2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 2♀; Keamari, 29-iv-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀.

Remarks

This taxon is documented for the first time from Sindh province. Already this species were found from different areas of Pakistan like Punjab: Faisalabad, Chakwal, Gujranwala, Murree, Jhelum, Attock, Gujrat, Jhangand Multan; Islamabad; Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa: Mingora, Battagram, Abbottabad, Dir, Balakot, Mansehra, Noshkey and Peshawar; Azad Jammu and Kashmir: Rawalakot, Bagh; Gilgit-Baltistan: Astore (Doyan), Ghizer, Sukkhur, and Hunza (Gusenleitner, 2006; Rafi et al., 2017). Freshly Qasim (2018) in his thesis recorded this species from various territories of Punjab: Lodhran, Khanewal, Multan districts.

Distribution

Afghanistan; Egypt; Chad; Djibouti; Ethiopia; Algeria; Iran; Eritrea; India; Mauritania; Jordan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Niger; Morocco; Sudan; Syria; Nepal; Pakistan; Qatar; Oman; Somalia; South Africa; Saudi Arabia; Spain; Turkey; Uganda; U.A.E; Yemen (Pickett and Carpenter, 2010; Srinivasan and Kumar, 2010).

Delta esuriens Fabricius, 1787

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: AI: Main Area: Qambar, 18-viii-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; BI: Non-Perennial Guddu Command Area: Khangarh, 09-viii-4, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; Ubauro, 19-iv-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; BII: Perennial Sukkur Command Area: Pano Aqil, 15.x.2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; Shikarpur, 08-vi-2014, Leg. M. T. Khan, ♀; D: Thar and Nara Deserts: Umarkot, 21-v-2016, Leg. M. T. Khan, ♀; Nagarparkar, 08-vii-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; E: Kohistan and Coastal Area: Gorakh Hills, 04-vi-2014, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; Malir, 17-viii-2015, Leg. M.T. Khan, 1♀.

Remarks

This taxon is documented first time from Sindh province. Previously this species were described from Balochistan: Quetta; Islamabad; Punjab: Rawalpindi, Kushaab, Chakwal, Attock, Khanpur, Head Fareed, Muzafargarh, Bakhar, Mianwali and Layyah; Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa: Dir, Swat, Mansehra, Abbottabad andBalakot; Azad Jummu and Kashmir: Kohala, Kotli (Gusenleitner, 2006; Mahmood et al., 2012; Shah, 2015; Siddiqui et al., 2015; Rafi et al., 2017).

Distribution

Iran; India; Iraq; Sri Lanka; Indonesia; Laos; Israel; U.A.E.; Myanmar; Oman; Mauritius; Pakistan; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Caledonia; Philippines; Thailand (Gusenleitner, 2006; Kumar and Srinivasan, 2010; Mahmood et al., 2012).

Genus: Knemodynerus Blüthgen, 1940

Knemodynerus excellens Pérez, 1907

Material examined

Pakistan: Sindh: AI: Main Area: Dokri, 12-vi-2014, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; BI: Non-Perennial Guddu Command Area: Jacobabad, 13-viii-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 2♀; Qadirpur, 15.x.2014, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♂; BII: Perennial Sukkur Command Area: Khipro, 05-viii-2016, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1♀; Shahdadpur, 13-viii-2015, Leg. M. T. Khan, 1 ♂.

Remarks

This taxon is documented first time from Sindh province. Earlier this species was reported from Punjab: Multan and Balochistan: Quetta (Gusenleitner, 2006; Rafi et al., 2017). Qasim (2018) in his thesis recorded this species from various localities of Punjab: Multan, Khanewal and Vehari district.

Distribution

Iran; India; Turkmenistan; U.A.E., Saudi Arabia; Pakistan; Qatar; Oman (Gusenleitner, 2006, 2013).

Statement of conflict of interest

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

REFERENCES

Akre, R.D., Greene, A., MacDonald, J.F., Landolt, P.J. and Davis, H.G., 1980. Yellow jackets of American North of Mexico. U.S. Depart. Agric, Agriculture Handbook 552.

Archer, M.E., 1989. A key to the world species of the Vespinae (Hymenoptera). Acad. B. Res. Comm. Res. Monogr., 31: 291-339.

Archer, M.E., 1993. A Phylogenetic study of the species of the genus Vespa (Hymenoptera: Vespinae). Insect. Syst. Evol., 24: 469-478. https://doi.org/10.1163/187631293X00226

Bodlah, I., Bodlah, M.A., Akhtar, T., Naeem, M. and Khan, M.R., 2011. Record of Delta dimidiatipenne (Saussure, 1852) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Barani areas of Punjab Province of Pakistan. Pakistan J. Zool., 43: 1019–1020.

Carpenter, J.M. and Starr, C.K., 2000. A new genus of hover wasps from Southeast Asia (Hymenoptera: Vespidae; Stenogastrinae). Am. Mus. Novit., 3291: 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1206/0003-0082(2000)291<0001:ANGOHW>2.0.CO;2

Carpenter, J.M. and Nguyen, L.P.T., 2003. Keys to the genera of social wasps of South-East Asia (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). J. entomol. Sci., 6: 183–192. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1343-8786.2003.00016.x

Chaudhry, G.U., Chaudhry, M.I. and Khan, S.M., 1966. Survey of insect fauna of forests of Pakistan: Final technical report. Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawer. pp. 167.

Crespi, B.J. and Yanega, D., 1995. The definition of eusociality. Behav. Ecol., 6: 109–115. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/6.1.109

Das, B.P. and Gupta, V.K., 1989. The social wasps of India and the adjacent countries (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Orient. Insects Monogr., 11: 176-189.

Dvořák, L., 2007. The social wasp fauna of Pakistan (Hymenoptera Pakistan. Linzzer Biologische Beitrage., 39: 151-155.

Ebrahimi, E. and Carpenter, J.M., 2008. Catalog of the vespid wasps of Iran (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Zootaxa. 1785: 1-42. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.1785.1.1

Giordani-Soika, A., 1970. Contributo alla conoscenza degli Eumenidi del Medio Oriente. (Missione Giordani Soika in Iran 1965). Boll. Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia, pp. 20–21, 27–183.

Goulet, H. and Huber, J.T., 1993. Hymenoptera of the world: An identification guide to the families. Agriculture Canada. Can. Comm. Group Ottawa. pp. 668

Gusenleitner, J., 2006. Uber Eumeninae, aufgesammelt in Pakistan (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Linz. Biol. Beitr., 38: 1295-1305.

Gusenleitner, J., 2007a. Uber Vespidaeaus Pakistan (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Linz. Biol. Beitr., 39: 969-972.

Gusenleitner, J., 2007b. Bemer kenswerte Faltenwespen-Funde aus der orientalischen Region Teil 3 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae, Eumeninae). Linz. Biol. Beitr., 1: 97-104.

Gusenleitner, J., 2008. Bemerkenswerte Faltenwespen-Funde aus der orientalischen Region Teil 4.Mit einem Anhang über eine Art aus Neu-Kaledonien (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Eumeninae). Linz. Biol. Beitr., 40: 1495-1503.

Gusenleitner, J. and Madl, M., 2009. Notes on Vespidae (Hymenoptera) of Mauritius. Ent. Fauna, 30: 465-471.

Gusenleitner, J., 2013. Bemerkenswerte Faltenwespen-Funde aus der orientalischen Region Teil 7 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Eumeninae, Polistinae). Linz. Biol. Beitr., 45: 121–132.

Heather M.H., James, H.H., Timothy, K.C., Joseph, J.G. and Sydney, A.C., 2007. Multigene phylogeny reveals eusociality evolved twice in vespid wasps. Proc. natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104: 3295–3299. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0610140104

Hunt, J.H., 2007. The evolution of social wasps. Oxford Univ Press, New York., 1-259. ISBN: 978-0-19-530797-9

Kojima J., 1993. Relative abundance of swarm-founding Ropalidia in the eusocial wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) in tropical Australia. New Entomol., 4: 4-7.

Kojima, J. and Carpenter, J.M., 1997. Catalog of species in the Polistine tribe Ropalidiini (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Vespidae). Am. Mus. Novit., 3199: 1-96.

Kumar, G.P. and Carpenter J.M., 2013. A taxonomic review of the genus Antodynerus de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from the Indian subcontinent. Zootaxa, 3731: 267-278. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3731.2.7

Kumar, P.G. and Sharma, G., 2015a. A review of the genus Allorhynchium van der Vecht, 1963 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from the Indian subcontinent. Prommalia, 3: 20-34.

Kumar, P. G., Carpenter, J. and Sureshan, P., 2016. Additions to the knowledge of the genus Allorhynchium van der Vecht from the Indian subcontinent with the description of a new species from Kerala (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae). Halteres, 7: 29-34.

Kumar, P.G., Carpenter, J.M. and Sureshan, P.M., 2016b. A taxonomic review of the genus Antepipona de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from India. Zootaxa, 4150: 501–536. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4150.5.1

Kumar, P.G., and Srinivasan, G., 2010. Taxonomic studies of hornet wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) Vespa Linnaeus of India. Rec. zool. Surv. India, 2: 57-80. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2468.1313-22

Mahmood, K. Ullah, M., Aziz, A. and Hasan, S.A. 2012. To the knowledge of Vespidae (Hymenoptera) of Pakistan. Zootaxa, 3318: 26–50 (www.mapress.com/zootaxa). https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3318.1.2

Nguyen, L.T.P., 2015. Taxonomic notes on the species of the genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Vietnam with description of a new species. Zootaxa, 3915: 132- 138. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3915.1.7

Nguyen, L.T.P. and Carpenter, J.M., 2002. Vespidae of Viet Nam(Insecta:Hymenoptera) 1. Vespinae. J. N. Y. entomol. Soc., 110: 199-211. https://doi.org/10.1664/0028-7199(2002)110[0199:VOVIHV]2.0.CO;2

Pickett, K. M. and Carpenter, J. M. 2010. Simultaneous analysis and the origin of eusociality in the Vespidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Arthrop. Syst. Phylog., 68: 3-33.

Qasim, M., 2018. A new species of Stenodynerus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumininae) from Pakistan. Ph.D thesis Uni. of Poonch Rawalakot AJK. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4370.3.5

Rafi, M.A., Carpenter, J.M., Qasim, M., Shahzad, A., Zia, A., Khan, M.R., Mastoi, M.I., Naz, F., Ilyas, M., Shah, M. and Bhatti, A.R., 2017. The Vespid fauna of Pakistan. Zootaxa, 4362: 001-028. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4362.1.1

Shah, M., 2015. Biosystematics of wasps species (hymenoptera: vespidae) from Hazara region, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Ph.D thesis, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan.

Siddiqui, J.A., Bodlah, I., Carpenter, J.M., Naeem, M., Ahmad, M. and Bodlah, M.A., 2015. Vespidae (Hymenoptera) of the Pothwar region of Punjab, Pakistan. Zootaxa, 3914: 501-524. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3914.5.1

Srinivasan, G. and Kumar, P., 2010. New records of potter wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India: Five genera and ten species. J. Threat. Taxa., 2: 1323-1324. https://doi.org/10.11609/JoTT.o2468.1313-22

Vecht, J. and Van Der, 1963. Studies on Indo-Australian and East Asiatic Eumenidae (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea). Zool. Verh. Leiden., 60: 1-116.

Vecht, J. and Van Der. 1966. The east -Asiatic and Indo-Australian species of Polybiodes Buysson and Parapolybia Saussure (Hym., Vespidae). Zool. Verh., 82: 1-42.

Yildirim, E. and Gusenleitner, J., 2012. Contribution to the knowledge of the Vespidae (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) of Turkey, with a checklist of the Turkish species. Turk. J. Zool., 36: 361-374.

To share on other social networks, click on any share button. What are these?

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

August

Vol. 54, Iss. 4, Pages 1501-2001

Featuring

Click here for more

Subscribe Today

Receive free updates on new articles, opportunities and benefits


Subscribe Unsubscribe