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Distribution of Ixodid Tick Species and Associated Risk Factors in Temporal Zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan

Distribution of Ixodid Tick Species and Associated Risk Factors in Temporal Zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan

Shahid Hussain Farooqi1,*, Muhammad Ijaz1, Muhammad Hassan Saleem1, Muhammad Imran Rashid2, Muhammad Oneeb2, Amjad Khan3, Amjad Islam Aqib1 and Shakeel Mahmood4

1Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000
2Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000
3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000
4Department of Geography, Government College University, Lahore 54000

*      Corresponding author: shahid.farooqivet@gmail.com

ABSTRACT

Distribution of various Ixodid tick species and risk factors associated with tick infestation and burden levels were studied in bovine from three distinct temporal zones of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Twelve hundreds ticks were collected from four hundreds animals comprising of two hundred and fifty cattle and one hundred and fifty buffaloes. Descriptive statistics with Pearson’s Chi-square test and regression model were applied to analyze the data. The results of study found Rhepicephalus the most prevalent genus followed by Heamaphysalis, Hyalomma, Dermacenter and Amblyomma with the prevalence of 78.50%, 10.33%, 10.08%, 0.67% and 0.42%, respectively. On species basis, R. (Boophilus) annulatus, R. (Boophilus) microplus, Heamaphysalis aciculifer, R. appendiculatus, and R. decoloratus were noted 41.67, 18.42, 9.83, 8.25, and 6.83% respectively, whereas least prevalence was noted as 0.42% in case of A. pomposum and D. circumguttatus; 0.25% each was shown by D. rhinocerinus, Heam. Excavatum, and H. impeltatum; 0.17%exhibited by Heam. Houyi and R. distinctus; and 0.08% each displayed by Heam. Parmata, and H. egyptium, H. rufipes, R. longus and R. parvas. Risk factors analysis namely housing type, tick control, age and sex of animal presented significant (P <0.05) association with tick infestation and burden while type of breed showed significant association with tick infestation but was non-significant with tick burden. Topography presented inverse behavior to that of breed with tick burden and tick infestation. On the other hand, geo-location was only factor exhibiting non-significant ly associated (P>0.05) association with both dependent variables. The study concluded that Rhepicephalus was the most prevalent among the Ixodid genera whereas presumed risk factors were strongly associated with tick infestation and tick burden.
 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology (Associated Journals)

October

Vol. 49, Iss. 5, Pages 1547-1936

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