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Dietary Supplementation of Galangal (Alpinia galangal) Essential Oil Affects Rumen Fermentation Pattern

Dietary Supplementation of Galangal (Alpinia galangal) Essential Oil Affects Rumen Fermentation Pattern

Dewi Ratih Ayu Daning1,2, L.M. Yusiati1, C. Hanim1, B.P. Widyobroto1*

1Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada; 2Department of Animal Science, Politeknik Pembangunan Pertanian Malang, Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Indonesia

*Correspondence | B.P. Widyobroto, Faculty of Animal Science, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Bulaksumur, Caturtunggal, Kec. Depok, Kabupaten Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia; Email:


The present study aims to evaluate numerous doses of galangal EO (EO) and pure cineole for the relative abundance of rumen microbes and its fermentation parameters in vitro. It applies five treatments with six replications and uses completely randomized design to analyze the data. Only if do such differences exist, the Duncan Multiple Range Tests (DMRT) were conducted. The treatments consist of the following galangal EO doses: 0, 30, 60, 120 µL, and 5 µL pure cineole at 300 mg dry matter feed. The experiment proves that gas production, methane (CH4), dry matter digestibility, and ammonia (NH3) significantly decrease (P<0.05) at all doses of galangal EO. The addition of cineole results in the significant decrease (P<0,05) of CH4 (ml/dry matter degraded) while dry matter degradability and gas production shows a significant increase (P<0.05). Also, the addition of cineole results in a more significant increase (P<0.05) of propionate, acetate, total volatile fatty acids, and NH3 compared to the controls and galangal EO. Propionate significantly increase at the galangal EO dose of 60 and 120 µL. In contrast, protozoa significantly decrease (P<0.05) across all treatments. Furthermore, 30 and 60 µL of galangal EO and cineole does not affect (P>0.05) microbial protein but 120 µL dose of galangal EO significantly decrease the microbial protein. At the genus level, galangal EO increases the abundance of Succinivibrio when added cineole showed a higher relative abundance than the controls. Methane production is positively correlated with the relative abundance of Prevotella, dry matter degradability, and propionate. As such, the addition of galangal EO can decrease CH4 and NH3 productions by inhibiting the nutrients digestibility in the rumen and possibly increasing Succinivibrio (a significant actor for methanogenesis) and Prevotella (a major actor for ammonia production).

Keywords | Galangal essential oil, Cineole, Decreasing methane, Microbial biodiversity, Rumen fermentations, In vitro 

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Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences


Vol. 11, Iss. 4, Pages 517-694


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