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Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB): Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Large Ruminants in the Central Zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB): Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors in Large Ruminants in the Central Zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Asad Ullah1, Umar Sadique Khattak2, Sultan Ayaz1, Muhammad Subhan Qureshi2, Imad Khan1, Ibad Ullah Jan2, Irfan Khattak1, Raheela Taj3, Sahar Nigar4,    Naimat Ullah Khan1,Mumtaz Ali Khan5 and Muhammad Luqman Sohail6,*

1College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan
2Department of Animal Health, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KPK
3Institute of Chemical Sciences, The University of Peshawar, Peshawar
4Centre of Biotechnology and Microbiology, The University of Peshawar, Peshawar
5University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore
6University College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur

*      Corresponding author:



This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) among large ruminants of the five districts (Peshawar, Nowshera, Charsadda, Mardan and Swabi) located in the central zone of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. A total of 2400 large ruminants were sampled by convenience sampling approach and tested by comparative cervical intradermal tuberculin test (CCIT) for detection of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Data regarding socio-demographic status, risk factors and farming practices were gathered through a pre-form questionnaire. Results revealed that prevalence of bovine tuberculosis was 5.88%. Statistical analysis revealed significant association of age (OR= 3.267; CI = 1.686-6.331) and herd size (OR = 2.600; CI = 1.421-4.760) with CCIT positivity. Similarly, induction of new animals into the herd (OR= 2.661; CI = 1.758-4.028) and sheltering the animals at night (OR= 2.448; CI = 1.568-3.882) also showed association with a positive skin test. The herd owners and animal handlers had poor knowledge regarding signs, symptoms and the zoonotic nature of the infection. Three primary signs (persistent cough, weight loss and fever) were recognized by 4.7% of respondents including herd owners, herders and animal handlers. This study calls for instant measures for disease control among the animals and humans of the study area, and highlight the need for farmer education regarding bovine tuberculosis.

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology


Vol. 52, Iss. 5, Pages 1631-2026


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