Assessment of Genotoxicity in Lymphocytes of Active and Passive Cigarette Smokers Attenuated with Green Tea
Saleha Gul1,2, Muhammad Khisroon2, Ajmal Khan2, Attaullah1, Saira Gul3 and Gul Nabi Khan1,4,*
Analysis of lymphocytes-derived DNA comets in different groups. A, lymphocytes nuclei of control (non-smokers), active- and passive smokers were analyzed for DNA damage by comet assay. Control group has intact nuclei with no tail. In case of active smokers group, the comets of significant length were observed compared to control. Also, the nuclear damage was found in passive smoker group. However, it was less than active smoker group. B, quantitative analysis of TCS values among different groups of active and passive smokers compared to control group. A, B and C are the Duncan’s variables representing statistical significance among groups. Quantitative analysis showed a significant increase in DNA damage in active and passive smokers compared to control group (*p˂0.05).
Measurement of DNA damage in Snuff and Charas-addicted active smokers. A, comparison of DNA damage by showing comets among different groups of active smokers. In addition to smoking, DNA damage was significantly increased with consumption of charas and snuff. Compared to active smokers, the length of the comet was found longer in charas and snuff-addicted active smokers. B, quantitative analysis among charas and snuff-addicted smokers. A, B and C are the Duncan’s variables representing statistical significance among groups. Quantitative analysis showed that charas-addicted active smokers have highest TCS value among all three groups. However, the TCS values of snuff-addicted people were also higher than those who did smoking only (*p˂0.05).
Measurement of DNA damage in different groups of passive smokers. A, DNA damage was evaluated in passive smokers who were addicted to snuff. Compared to passive smokers, the level of DNA damage was found higher in those who were addicted to snuff too. B, quantitative analysis of TCS values between passive smokers and those who were addicted to snuff. A significant increase in TCS values was found in snuff-addicted passive smoker compared to those who were not using snuff (**p˂0.005).
Evaluation of DNA damage in different classes of active smokers addicted to Charas and snuff. Quantification analysis of the levels of DNA damage in five different classes of active smokers addicted to charas and snuff. The numbers of cell’s nuclei which satisfied the criteria for class 0 were very few in all three groups of active smokers. The total TCS values were gradually increased in different classes of active smokers. The highest number of distorted nuclei with maximum DNA damage was found in charas-addicted smokers. However, this number was low in active smokers who were not addicted to charas or snuff.
Attenuation of DNA damage with green tea consumption in active smokers. A, comparison between active smokers not taking- and those who were using one or two cups of green tea every day. The length of DNA comet was greatly decreased in active smokers who were using green tea. B, quantitative analysis of DNA damage in different levels of active smokers and those who were using green tea. The analysis showed that green tea significantly reduced the TCS values or DNA damage in class 4 compared to active smokers with no usage of green tea on daily basis.