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Assessing Sustainability of Rainfed Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Production under Various Soil Tillage Systems: An Energy and Economic Analysis

Rana Shahzad Noor1,2, Fiaz Hussain2, Irfan Abbas3, Muhammad Umair2, Abu Saad2, Muhammad Umar Farooq4 and Yong Sun1*

1Department of Agriculture, Biological, Environment and Energy Engineering, College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China; 2Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan; 3School of Agricultural Equipment Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China; 4College of Hydraulic Engineering, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming Yunnan, 650204 P.R China.

 
*Correspondence | Yong Sun, Department of Agriculture, Biological, Environment and Energy Engineering, College of Engineering, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China; Email: sunyong@neau.edu.cn

Figure 1:

Temperature and precipitation data of the trial area.

Figure 2:

The (%) share of different energy input sources in ZT, PT, RT and CT systems (Human labor force energy equivalent in all soil tillage systems were measured below 1% of total input energy for wheat production).

Pakistan Journal of Zoology

December

Vol. 52, Iss. 6, Pages 2027-2426

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