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Analysis of the Phylogeny and Evolutionary Selection Pressure of the Mx Gene in 10 Wild Birds

Analysis of the Phylogeny and Evolutionary Selection Pressure of the Mx Gene in 10 Wild Birds

SiRui Wang1,2, Fekede Regasa Joka1,2, XiaoLong Wang1,2,* and SuYing Bai2,*

1Center of Conservation Medicine and Ecological Safety, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, Heilongjiang Province, P.R. China
2College of Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, Heilongjiang Province, P.R. China

*      Corresponding authors: yttuhh@yeah.net; syb01@163.com

 

ABSTRACT

The Myxovirus-resistance (Mx) gene has broad-spectrum antiviral effects. This gene is particularly important for the prevention and treatment of avian influenza. Currently, this gene is more studied in poultry, and studies in wild birds are rare. To understand the antiviral site of the Myxovirus-resistance (Mx) protein in the evolution of different wild birds, 10 wild bird species, including Anas formosa, Anas crecca, Anas strepera, Mergus squamatus, Accipiter nisus, Buteo hemilasius, Buteo lagopus, Passer montanus, Psittacula roseata and Emberiza elegans, were selected.The sequences of the GTPase effector domain (GED) of the Mx gene were determined by PCR sequencing. The haplotypes were analysed by DNA SP software. The Datamonkey Adaptive Evolution Server was used to detect the selection pressure. Phylogenetic analyses of the reported sequences of jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) and the 10 tested birds were performed. A total of 10 nucleotide sequences of the GED region of the Mx gene in wild birds were obtained, with a length of 231 bp, encoding 77 amino acids. The third locus in all tested amino acid sequences contains a Ser residue that corresponds to amino acid position 631, the virus resistance site, in the chicken Mx gene. The third locus in all tested amino acid sequences are Ser and corresponds to the chicken 631 amino acid position, the virus resistance site. Ten haplotypes were found with 60 nucleotide mutations. Phylogenetic analysis by MEGA 7.0 revealed that the evolution of the tested genes is consistent with the evolution of the tested birds. The results of the selection stress test show that only a few sites in the GED region of the Mx gene are positively selected during evolution, and the majority of the amino acid sites are constrained by the strong structure and function of the protein, indicating a high risk of avian influenza infection in the tested wild birds.
 

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Pakistan Journal of Zoology

June

Vol. 51, Iss. 3, Pages 801-1202

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