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Alterations in Blood Cell Indices and Serological Parameters due to Toxicity of Industrial Leachate in Wistar Rats

Alterations in Blood Cell Indices and Serological Parameters due to Toxicity of Industrial Leachate in Wistar Rats

Muhammad Babar Khawar1, Muddasir Hassan Abbasi2*, Zillay Mariam1, Nadeem Sheikh1,2*

1Cell & Molecular Biology Lab, Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
2Centre for Applied Molecular Biology (CAMB), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

*Corresponding author:  Nadeem Sheikh (; Muddasir Hassan Abbasi (



Industrial leachate is a brownish color liquid containing various toxic heavy metals and other chemicals of organic and inorganic nature which can house a variety of pathogens. As it drains it pollutes the groundwater table and if used for irrigation purpose represents a major health risk not only to humans but also to local flora and fauna. The purpose of current research work was to analyze the toxicity of leachate in Wistar rats. Wistar rats of about 250g were selected and divided into three groups namely Control, Group 1 and Group 2. Group 1 was given 4ml/kg leachate while Group 2 received 4ml/kg of 1:10 diluted leachate intra-peritoneally. After 24 hours of the injection, animals were euthanized and blood was drawn for further studies. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA. Serological analysis of both Group 1 and Group 2 showed a significant decrease of various components including Cl- (P=0.0023), K+ (P=0.0002), Na+ (P=0.0001), total proteins (P<0.0001) and albumin (P<0.0001) when compared against control. Similarly, hematological analysis revealed a significant decrease in WBCs (P<0.0001), RBCs (P=0.0001), Hemoglobin (P<0.0001), Platelets (P<0.0001) and MCHC (P<0.0001) while MCV (P<0.0001) showed a remarkable positive change when compared with control. Hematocrit (P<0.0001) was found to be enhanced significantly in Group 1 but decreased in Group 2 while MCH showed exactly opposite trend to Hematocrit. Findings of current research confirmed that leachate is a highly toxic industrial effluent which leads to hematological and serological changes in biological systems so there is a need of proper waste treatment prior to its disposal.

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Punjab University Journal of Zoology


Vol. 34, Iss. 1, pp. 1-104


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